跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.222.189.51) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/05/24 17:56
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:胡雅婷
研究生(外文):Hu Ya-Ting
論文名稱:麩醯胺對於急性肺損傷離體肺模式中大鼠缺血再灌流損傷的影響
論文名稱(外文):The protective effect of glutamine on ischemia-reperfusion induced lung injury in rat
指導教授:黃坤崙黃坤崙引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國防醫學院
系所名稱:海底醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:麩醯胺缺血再灌流
外文關鍵詞:ischemia reperfusionglutamineacute lung injurybeforeafter
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:417
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:71
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
  研究背景:在臨床上缺血/再灌流 [Ischaemia/reperfusion(IR)] 損傷常見於器官移植的病人,缺血與再灌流機轉仍未完全清楚。目前所知缺血再灌流的過程產生大量的氧或氮的自由基,進而產生急性肺損傷。近年來研究指出麩醯胺 (Glutamine;Gln)具有良好的抗發炎及抗氧化效果。也有許多在敗血症(Sepsis)與感染的狀況下,動物實驗證實 Gln可以明顯改善由 LPS 或CLP (cecal ligation and puncture) 所引發的肺損傷,抑制細胞激素及嗜中性白血趨化作用,進而對於疾病的罹病率與致死率會有明顯的改善。故 Gln對於缺血再灌流所引發的急性肺損傷之影響,值得我們進一步的探討。研究動機:利用大鼠離體肺動物模式來探討在缺血再灌流損傷之下,以三種不同時間點補充 Gln,分別探討對缺血再灌流損傷有何保護作用,並探討在缺血再灌流的急性肺損傷模式中,大鼠體內 TNF-α、IL-1β、CINC-1 細胞激素及透過何種相關路徑達到保護作用。實驗方法:SD大鼠,利用原位離體肺的動物模式,以缺血 60 分鐘,再灌流60分鐘誘發形成急性肺損傷,以三種不同時間點補充 Gln,分別在 IR前24小時、Gln+IR 及 IR+Gln,代表預防 (Prevention)、早期保護 (Early Protection) 及晚期保護 (Late Protection)。本實驗用來評估肺損傷的檢測項目有:肺微血管通係數 (Kfc)、肺動脈壓變化 (△PAP)、肺重變化(LWG)、肺乾濕重比 (W/D ratio)、肺濕重與體重比 (LW/BW)、LDH 活性測定、肺泡灌洗液蛋白質濃度以及病理組織切片等。而發炎指標的檢測項目有:灌注液中 TNF-α、IL-1β、CINC-1、嗜中性白血球數目、肺組織 MDA 濃度、MPO 活性。在 Gln保護性的機轉檢測包括細胞質內熱休克蛋白70含量和 IκB。實驗結果:結果顯示,經由 IR 引發急性肺損傷,造成了肺高壓,而肺微血管通透係數 (Kfc)、LWG、W/D ratio、LW/BW、LDH 活性及肺泡灌洗液蛋白質濃度均有明顯增加(P <0.05);在病理組織切片同樣看到肺泡中隔變厚及發炎細胞浸潤等廢損傷之情形,ELISA 檢測細胞質內的 IκB 在 IR 時的表現量減少。在 Gln+IR 及 IR+Gln組看到肺高壓降低,可以改善肺微血管通性,降低肺泡灌洗液內蛋白質含量及 LDH 活性,並改善了肺水腫。此外,在在 Gln+IR 及 IR+Gln組的組織 MDA 濃度、MPO 活性、灌注液中TNF-α、IL-1β、CINC-1 濃度表現量減少皆明顯減少了。IL-10 濃度表現量相對的在Gln+IR 及 IR+Gln組增加。然而在細胞質內熱休克蛋白70含量並無明顯差異。結論:綜合上述實驗結果,缺血再灌流組會誘發肺高壓及肺水腫,並使大鼠灌注液中促發炎物質 TNF-α、IL-1β、CINC-1濃度增加。給予 IR 24小時前置給予 Gln後,發現肺損傷程度並未改善,不具保護效果;於 Gln+IR 及 IR+Gln的組別中,均可改善因缺血再灌流所引發之肺水腫,並抑制了促發炎物質 TNF-α、IL-1β 及 CINC-1 的濃度,並透過NF-κB路徑進而達到保護的效果。
 Backgroud:Lung ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is one of the lethal complications associated with following clinical status, such as pulmonary embolism, cardiopulmonary bypass and heart-lung transplantation. Some studies indicate that the molecular mechanism of reperfusion injury involves neutrophil activation which may release numerous of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, reactive oxygen species and its activity also play important roles in lung ischemia injury and pneumocyte necrosis or apoptosis. Furthermore, IL-8 (CINC-1 in rat)、TNF-α and IL-1 β, which is known to stimulate pulmonary neutrophil migration , activation , and degranulation , have been shown to be increased in the lung tissue after injury. Recently, glutamine, the most abundant free amino acid of the human body, is found to possess anti-inflammatory and scavenger activities. Glutamine is shown to have the abilities to reduce the LPS-induced lung injury as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines, and therefore increase survival rates. The formation of HSP70 was shown to be increased by glutamine in these processes. Thus, we conducted this study to evaluate the role of cytokines in ischemia reperfusion induced by acute lung injury and whether glutamine had the protective and therapeutic effect on ischemia-reperfusion injury. Method:Adult male Spraque-Dawley rats (350-450g) were obtained and bred in accordance with institutional guidelines. The rat lungs were isolated and perfused in situ in the chest. Typically, acute lung injury was successfully induced by 60 min of ischemia and followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Glutamine (250mg/kg) was treated via intraperitoneum injection or perfusate before IR or in the IR or after IR. Lung injury was evaluated by capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight gain (LWG), lung weight-to-body weight ratio (LW/BW), lung tissue wet -to- dry ratio (W/D ratio), pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), LDH activity and protein concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Inflammation index was obtained by TNF-α、IL-1 β and CINC-1 in the perfusates, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondiadehyde (MDA) concentration in the lung tissue. In addition HSP70 and IκB protein concentration were measured. Result:IR induced lung injury significantly increased Kfc, LWG, LW/BW, W/D ratio, PAP, LDH activity and protein concentration of BAL fluid (P <0.05). In addition, MPO activity, MDA concentration and IκB protein concentration in lung tissue as well as TNF-α, CINC-1 and IL-1 β in perfusates were all significantly elevated (P<0.05). We also found that both of increased neutrophil infiltration was markedly increased in lung tissue sections. Pre-treatment 24h of glutamine before IR did not improve these parameters . However, treatment with glutamine before IR and after IR attenuated the Kfc, LWG, LW/BW, W/D ratio, PAP, LDH and protein concentration of BAL fluid, neutrophil infiltration and MPO activite . Additionally , IR degraded IκB protein in lung tissue was upregulated by glutamine . Compared with IR grpup , the level of TNF-α, CINC-1, IL-1 β and IL-10 in perfusates were all restored after treatment of glutamine . (P < 0.05). Conclusion:Our findings suggest that glutamine could prevent the acute lung injury induced by IR .The mechanism maybe due to decreased proinflammatory cytokines thought NF-κB pathway instead of induced HSP70 expression.
(碩士論文目次) 頁次
正文目錄
表目錄 Ⅱ
圖目錄 Ⅲ
中文摘要 Ⅴ
英文摘要 Ⅷ
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 材料與方法 31
第三章 實驗結果 62
第四章 討論 92
第五章 結論 107
第六章 參考文獻 110
表1 各項實驗生理參數改變情形對照表 68
表2 肺組織及血液發炎指標之評估結果對照表 82
圖1-1麩醯胺 (Glutamine)結構式 29
圖1-2 Xanthine Oxidase reaction (XOR) pathsway 30
圖2-1灌流系統及缺血再灌流誘發所需要之管路大小及放置位置圖 42
圖2-2實驗裝置圖 43
圖2-3肺微血管通透係數(Kfc)之測定示意圖 48
圖2-4實驗流程圖 49
圖3-1肺動脈壓變化(PAP) 69
圖3-2肺重變化(LWG) 70
圖3-3肺濕重與體重比(LW/BW) 71
圖3-4乾濕肺重比(W/D ratio) 72
圖3-5實驗前後肺微管通透係數的變化(Kfc) 73
圖3-6肺泡灌洗液蛋白質濃度 74
圖3-7乳酸脫氫酶 (LDH) 濃度 75
圖3-8肺組織病理切片表徵 76
圖3-9嗜中性白血球數目計數 83
圖3-10肺組織MPO活性測試 84
圖3-11肺組織MDA活性測試 85
圖3-12 血漿 protein carbonyl 濃度 86
圖3-13 TNF-α濃度 87
圖3-14 IL-1β濃度 88
圖3-15 CINC-1濃度 89
圖3-16 IL-10濃度 90
圖3-17 肺組織熱休克蛋白70濃度 91
圖3-18肺組織細胞質IκB蛋白質表現 92
圖3-18肺組織細胞核NFκB蛋白質表現 93

圖4-1 NF-κB的活化路徑 106
圖5-1麩醯胺 (Glutamine)對於缺血再灌流引發肺損傷的保 109
護作用之可能機轉
1.Aberle, D.R., J.P. Wiener-Kronish, W.R. Webb, and M.A. Matthay. 1988. Hydrostatic versus increased permeability pulmonary edema: diagnosis based on radiographic criteria in critically ill patients. Radiology 168:73-9.
2.Abraham, E. 2003. Neutrophils and acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 31:S195-9.
3.Aosasa, S., D. Wells-Byrum, J.W. Alexander, and C.K. Ogle. 2003. Influence of glutamine-supplemented Caco-2 cells on cytokine production of mononuclear cells. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 27:333-9.
4.Ardawi, M.S. 1988. Glutamine and ketone-body metabolism in the gut of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Biochem J 249:565-72.
5.Arndt, H., F. Kullmann, F. Reuss, J. Scholmerich, and K.D. Palitzsch. 1999. Glutamine attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in indomethacin-induced intestinal inflammation in the rat. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 23:12-8.
6.Azuma, H., K. Nadeau, M. Takada, and N.L. Tilney. 1997. Initial ischemia/reperfusion injury influences late functional and structural changes in the kidney. Transplant Proc 29:1528-9.
7.Bachofen, M., and E.R. Weibel. 1982. Structural alterations of lung parenchyma in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Clin Chest Med 3:35-56.
8.Barazzone, C., and C.W. White. 2000. Mechanisms of cell injury and death in hyperoxia: role of cytokines and Bcl-2 family proteins. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 22:517-9.
9.Bernard, G.R., A. Artigas, K.L. Brigham, J. Carlet, K. Falke, L. Hudson, M. Lamy, J.R. Legall, A. Morris, and R. Spragg. 1994. The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS. Definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:818-24.
11.Biberthaler, P., B. Luchting, S. Massberg, D. Teupser, S. Langer, R. Leiderer, K. Messmer, and F. Krombach. 2001. The influence of organ temperature on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury: a systematic analysis. Transplantation 72:1486-90.
12.Bitterman, P.B. 1992. Pathogenesis of fibrosis in acute lung injury. Am J Med 92:39S-43S.
13.Boueiz, A., M. Damarla, and P.M. Hassoun. 2008. Xanthine oxidoreductase in respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 294:L830-40.
14.Carden, D.L., and D.N. Granger. 2000. Pathophysiology of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. J Pathol 190:255-66.
15.Carter, Y.M., A.E. Gelman, and D. Kreisel. 2008. Pathogenesis, management, and consequences of primary graft dysfunction. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 20:165-72.
16.Chang, H., K.L. Huang, M.H. Li, C.W. Hsu, S.H. Tsai, and S.J. Chu. 2008. Manipulations of core temperatures in ischemia-reperfusion lung injury in rabbits. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 21:285-91.
17.Crapo, J.D. 1986. Morphologic changes in pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Annu Rev Physiol 48:721-31.
18.Daemen, J.H., B. de Vries, and G. Kootstra. 1997. The effect of machine perfusion preservation on early function of non-heart-beating donor kidneys. Transplant Proc 29:3489.
19.de Perrot, M., S. Fischer, M. Liu, R. Jin, X.H. Bai, T.K. Waddell, and S. Keshavjee. 2001. Prostaglandin E1 protects lung transplants from ischemia-reperfusion injury: a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines. Transplantation 72:1505-12.
20.DeWitt, R.C., Y. Wu, K.B. Renegar, and K.A. Kudsk. 1999. Glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition preserves respiratory immunity and improves survival to a Pseudomonas Pneumonia. J Surg Res 84:13-8.
21.Di Paola, R., and S. Cuzzocrea. 2007. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 375:157-75.
22.Dinarello, C.A. 1984. Interleukin 1 as mediator of the acute-phase response. Surv Immunol Res 3:29-33.
23.Downey, G.P., G.S. Worthen, P.M. Henson, and D.M. Hyde. 1993. Neutrophil sequestration and migration in localized pulmonary inflammation. Capillary localization and migration across the interalveolar septum. Am Rev Respir Dis 147:168-76.
24.Driscoll, K.E., L.C. Deyo, J.M. Carter, B.W. Howard, D.G. Hassenbein, and T.A. Bertram. 1997. Effects of particle exposure and particle-elicited inflammatory cells on mutation in rat alveolar epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis 18:423-30.
25.Fan, X., Y. Ling, Y. Wu, and J. Hou. 1999. [Relationship between complement activation and reactive oxygen species generation in inflammatory response]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 21:170-4.
26.Fukatsu, K., K.A. Kudsk, B.L. Zarzaur, Y. Wu, M.K. Hanna, and R.C. DeWitt. 2001. TPN decreases IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide stimulated intestinal lamina propria cells but glutamine supplementation preserves the expression. Shock 15:318-22.
27.Furukawa, S., H. Saito, T. Matsuda, T. Inoue, K. Fukatsu, I. Han, S. Ikeda, A. Hidemura, and T. Muto. 2000. Relative effects of glucose and glutamine on reactive oxygen intermediate production by neutrophils. Shock 13:274-8.
28.Garrett-Cox, R.G., G. Stefanutti, C. Booth, N.J. Klein, A. Pierro, and S. Eaton. 2009. Glutamine decreases inflammation in infant rat endotoxemia. J Pediatr Surg 44:523-9.
29.Glazier, A.P., G.O. Kokwaro, S. Ismail, and G. Edwards. 1994. Effect of an experimental malaria infection on the metabolism of phenacetin in the rat isolated perfused liver. Xenobiotica 24:785-93.
30.Green, C.J., G. Healing, S. Simpkin, J. Lunec, and B.J. Fuller. 1986. Desferrioxamine reduces susceptibility to lipid peroxidation in rabbit kidneys subjected to warm ischaemia and reperfusion. Comp Biochem Physiol B 85:113-7.
31.Green, C.J., G. Healing, S. Simpkin, J. Gower, and B.J. Fuller. 1989. Allopurinol inhibits lipid peroxidation in warm ischaemic and reperfused rabbit kidneys. Free Radic Res Commun 6:329-37.
32.Greene, K.E., J.R. Wright, K.P. Steinberg, J.T. Ruzinski, E. Caldwell, W.B. Wong, W. Hull, J.A. Whitsett, T. Akino, Y. Kuroki, H. Nagae, L.D. Hudson, and T.R. Martin. 1999. Serial changes in surfactant-associated proteins in lung and serum before and after onset of ARDS. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160:1843-50.
33.Hall, J.C., K. Heel, and R. McCauley. 1996. Glutamine. Br J Surg 83:305-12.
Hammarqvist, F. 1999. Randomised trial of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on infectious morbidity in patients with multiple trauma. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 23:43-4.
34.Hammarqvist, F., B. Petersson, M.R. Ali, and J. Wernerman. 1989. [Glutamine in postoperative parenteral nutrition has a positive affect on nitrogen balance]. Lakartidningen 86:229-31.
35.Hammarqvist, F., B. Westman, C.E. Leijonmarck, K. Andersson, and J. Wernerman. 1996. Decrease in muscle glutamine, ribosomes, and the nitrogen losses are similar after laparoscopic compared with open cholecystectomy during the immediate postoperative period. Surgery 119:417-23.
36.Hammermann, C., R. Goldstein, M. Kaplan, M. Eran, D. Goldschmidt, and A.I. Eidelman. 1998. Bilirubin in the premature: toxic waste or natural defense? Clin Chem 44:2551-3.
37.Hanasaki, Y., S. Ogawa, and S. Fukui. 1994. The correlation between active oxygens scavenging and antioxidative effects of flavonoids. Free Radic Biol Med 16:845-50.
38.Harlin, J.C., M. Tredano, M.H. Rider, M. Bollen, A. Chedeville, and A. Lavoinne. 1997. Identification of a novel Ca2+-stimulated S6-kinase in rat liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 239:451-6.
39.Hausenloy, D.J., and D.M. Yellon. 2007. Preconditioning and postconditioning: united at reperfusion. Pharmacol Ther 116:173-91.
40.Haussinger, D. 1990. Liver glutamine metabolism. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 14:56S-62S.
41.Hayden, M.S., and S. Ghosh. 2008. Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling. Cell 132:344-62.
42.Heinecke, J.W. 2002. Tyrosyl radical production by myeloperoxidase: a phagocyte pathway for lipid peroxidation and dityrosine cross-linking of proteins. Toxicology 177:11-22.
43.Herkowitz, H.N., and K.S. Sidhu. 1995. Lumbar Spine Fusion in the Treatment of Degenerative Conditions: Current Indications and Recommendations. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 3:123-135.
44.Horvath, C.J., T.J. Ferro, G. Jesmok, and A.B. Malik. 1988. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor increases pulmonary vascular permeability independent of neutrophils. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:9219-23.
45.Hotter, G., D. Closa, M. Prados, L. Fernandez-Cruz, N. Prats, E. Gelpi, and J. Rosello-Catafau. 1996. Intestinal preconditioning is mediated by a transient increase in nitric oxide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 222:27-32.
46.Houdijk, A.P., E.R. Rijnsburger, J. Jansen, R.I. Wesdorp, J.K. Weiss, M.A. McCamish, T. Teerlink, S.G. Meuwissen, H.J. Haarman, L.G. Thijs, and P.A. van Leeuwen. 1998. Randomised trial of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on infectious morbidity in patients with multiple trauma. Lancet 352:772-6.
47.Hulsewe, K.W., R.R. van der Hulst, G. Ramsay, C.L. van Berlo, N.E. Deutz, and P.B. Soeters. 2003. Pulmonary glutamine production: effects of sepsis and pulmonary infiltrates. Intensive Care Med 29:1833-6.
48.Iyonaga, K., M. Takeya, N. Saita, O. Sakamoto, T. Yoshimura, M. Ando, and K. Takahashi. 1994. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases. Hum Pathol 25:455-63.
49.Jassem, E., R. Rosell, J. Jassem, M. Monzo, G. Kobierska, A. Badzio, A. Roszkiewicz, J. Skokowski, and A. Szulc. 1998. [Evaluation of the prognostic significance of P53 mutation in patients with non-small cell lung cancer]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol 66:290-6.
50.Jolly, S.R., W.J. Kane, M.B. Bailie, G.D. Abrams, and B.R. Lucchesi. 1984. Canine myocardial reperfusion injury. Its reduction by the combined administration of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Circ Res 54:277-85.
51.Karinch, A.M., M. Pan, C.M. Lin, R. Strange, and W.W. Souba. 2001. Glutamine metabolism in sepsis and infection. J Nutr 131:2535S-8S; discussion 2550S-1S.
52.Keane, M.P., C.A. Wilke, M.D. Burdick, S.B. Morris, M.C. Glass, and R.M. Strieter. 1999. CXC chemokines regulate angiogenic activity in acute lung injury. Chest 116:93S-94S.
53.Khimenko, P.L., G.J. Bagby, J. Fuseler, and A.E. Taylor. 1998. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat lungs. J Appl Physiol 85:2005-11.
54.Kim, Y.S., G.Y. Kim, J.H. Kim, H.J. You, Y.M. Park, H.K. Lee, H.C. Yu, S.M. Chung, Z.W. Jin, H.M. Ko, and B.H. Cho. 2006. Glutamine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 activation and protects against endotoxin shock in mouse. Shock 25:290-4.
55.Kubes, P., J. Hunter, and D.N. Granger. 1991. Effects of cyclosporin A and FK506 on ischemia/reperfusion-induced neutrophil infiltration in the cat. Dig Dis Sci 36:1469-72.
56.Kudsk, K.A., Y. Wu, K. Fukatsu, B.L. Zarzaur, C.D. Johnson, R. Wang, and M.K. Hanna. 2000. Glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition maintains intestinal interleukin-4 and mucosal immunoglobulin A levels. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 24:270-4; discussion 274-5.
57.Kurahashi, K., O. Kajikawa, T. Sawa, M. Ohara, M.A. Gropper, D.W. Frank, T.R. Martin, and J.P. Wiener-Kronish. 1999. Pathogenesis of septic shock in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. J Clin Invest 104:743-50.
58.Lai, K.N., L.Y. Chan, S.C. Tang, A.W. Tsang, F.F. Li, M.F. Lam, S.L. Lui, and J.C. Leung. 2004. Mesangial expression of angiotensin II receptor in IgA nephropathy and its regulation by polymeric IgA1. Kidney Int 66:1403-16.
59.Li, J., and L.H. Stahlgren. 1995. Glutamine prevents the biliary lithogenic effect of total parenteral nutrition in rats. J Surg Res 58:491-5.
60.Liboni, K., N. Li, and J. Neu. 2004. Mechanism of glutamine-mediated amelioration of lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 production in Caco-2 cells. Cytokine 26:57-65.
61.Liboni, K.C., N. Li, P.O. Scumpia, and J. Neu. 2005. Glutamine modulates LPS-induced IL-8 production through IkappaB/NF-kappaB in human fetal and adult intestinal epithelium. J Nutr 135:245-51.
62.Matthay, M.A. 1994. Function of the alveolar epithelial barrier under pathologic conditions. Chest 105:67S-74S.
63.Matthay, M.A. 1999. Conference summary: acute lung injury. Chest 116:119S-126S.
64.Matthay, M.A., and J.P. Wiener-Kronish. 1990. Intact epithelial barrier function is critical for the resolution of alveolar edema in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 142:1250-7.
65.McIntyre, R.C., Jr., E.J. Pulido, D.D. Bensard, B.D. Shames, and E. Abraham. 2000. Thirty years of clinical trials in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 28:3314-31.
66.Meduri, G.U., A.S. Headley, E. Golden, S.J. Carson, R.A. Umberger, T. Kelso, and E.A. Tolley. 1998. Effect of prolonged methylprednisolone therapy in unresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 280:159-65.
67.Menasche, P., A.A. Hagege, M. Scorsin, B. Pouzet, M. Desnos, D. Duboc, K. Schwartz, J.T. Vilquin, and J.P. Marolleau. 2001. Myoblast transplantation for heart failure. Lancet 357:279-80.
68.Mitchell, I., and D. Bihari. 1998. Prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding during mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med 339:266; author reply 267-8.
69.Modelska, K., J.F. Pittet, H.G. Folkesson, V. Courtney Broaddus, and M.A. Matthay. 1999. Acid-induced lung injury. Protective effect of anti-interleukin-8 pretreatment on alveolar epithelial barrier function in rabbits. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160:1450-6.
70.Morlion, B.J., P. Stehle, P. Wachtler, H.P. Siedhoff, M. Koller, W. Konig, P. Furst, and C. Puchstein. 1998. Total parenteral nutrition with glutamine dipeptide after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Ann Surg 227:302-8.
72.Muhlbacher, F., C.R. Kapadia, M.F. Colpoys, R.J. Smith, and D.W. Wilmore. 1984. Effects of glucocorticoids on glutamine metabolism in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 247:E75-83.
73.Murray, J.F., M.A. Matthay, J.M. Luce, and M.R. Flick. 1988. An expanded definition of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 138:720-3.
74.Naidu, B.V., B. Krishnadasan, A.S. Farivar, S.M. Woolley, R. Thomas, N. Van Rooijen, E.D. Verrier, and M.S. Mulligan. 2003. Early activation of the alveolar macrophage is critical to the development of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126:200-7.
75.Nawroth, P.P., and D.M. Stern. 1986. Implication of thrombin formation on the endothelial cell surface. Semin Thromb Hemost 12:197-9.
76.Ng, C.S., S. Wan, A.A. Arifi, and A.P. Yim. 2006. Inflammatory response to pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury. Surg Today 36:205-14.
77.Osborne, M.P., S.J. Haddon, K.J. Worton, A.J. Spencer, W.G. Starkey, D. Thornber, and J. Stephen. 1991. Rotavirus-induced changes in the microcirculation of intestinal villi of neonatal mice in relation to the induction and persistence of diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 12:111-20.
78.Palace, G.P., P.J. Del Vecchio, M.J. Horgan, and A.B. Malik. 1993. Release of tumor necrosis factor after pulmonary artery occlusion and reperfusion. Am Rev Respir Dis 147:143-7.
79.Panes, J. 1999. [Adhesion molecules: their role in physiopathology and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease]. Gastroenterol Hepatol 22:514-24.
80.Panesar, N., K. Tolman, and J.E. Mazuski. 1999. Endotoxin stimulates hepatocyte interleukin-6 production. J Surg Res 85:251-8.
81.Pang, C.Y., R.Z. Yang, A. Zhong, N. Xu, B. Boyd, and C.R. Forrest. 1995. Acute ischaemic preconditioning protects against skeletal muscle infarction in the pig. Cardiovasc Res 29:782-8.
82.Pease, J.E., and I. Sabroe. 2002. The role of interleukin-8 and its receptors in inflammatory lung disease: implications for therapy. Am J Respir Med 1:19-25.
83.Peng, X., H. Yan, Z. You, P. Wang, and S. Wang. 2006a. Glutamine granule-supplemented enteral nutrition maintains immunological function in severely burned patients. Burns 32:589-93.
84.Peng, Z.Y., N.J. Serkova, D.J. Kominsky, J.L. Brown, and P.E. Wischmeyer. 2006b. Glutamine-mediated attenuation of cellular metabolic dysfunction and cell death after injury is dependent on heat shock factor-1 expression. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 30:373-8; discussion 379.
85.Peralta, C., G. Hotter, D. Closa, E. Gelpi, O. Bulbena, and J. Rosello-Catafau. 1997. Protective effect of preconditioning on the injury associated to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion in the rat: role of nitric oxide and adenosine. Hepatology 25:934-7.
86.Peterson, C.B., D.L. Burman, and H.K. Schachman. 1992. Effects of replacement of active site residue glutamine 231 on activity and allosteric properties of aspartate transcarbamoylase. Biochemistry 31:8508-15.
87.Pratt, P.C., R.T. Vollmer, J.D. Shelburne, and J.D. Crapo. 1979. Pulmonary morphology in a multihospital collaborative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation project. I. Light microscopy. Am J Pathol 95:191-214.
88.Prescott, S.M., T.M. McIntyre, and G. Zimmerman. 1999. Two of the usual suspects, platelet-activating factor and its receptor, implicated in acute lung injury. J Clin Invest 104:1019-20.
89.Prohaska, J.R., and R.A. Sunde. 1993. Comparison of liver glutathione peroxidase activity and mRNA in female and male mice and rats. Comp Biochem Physiol B 105:111-6.
70.Quinton, L.J., S. Nelson, P. Zhang, D.M. Boe, K.I. Happel, W. Pan, and G.J. Bagby. 2004. Selective transport of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant from the lung to the blood facilitates pulmonary neutrophil recruitment. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 286:L465-72.
71.Riordan, S.M., C.J. McIver, B.M. Walker, V.M. Duncombe, T.D. Bolin, and M.C. Thomas. 1996. The lactulose breath hydrogen test and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Am J Gastroenterol 91:1795-803.
72.Rodriguez, J.L. 1993. Hospital-acquired gram-negative pneumonia in critically ill, injured patients. Am J Surg 165:34S-42S.
73.Ropeleski, M.J., J. Riehm, K.A. Baer, M.W. Musch, and E.B. Chang. 2005. Anti-apoptotic effects of L-glutamine-mediated transcriptional modulation of the heat shock protein 72 during heat shock. Gastroenterology 129:170-84.
74.Roth, E. 2008. Nonnutritive effects of glutamine. J Nutr 138:2025S-2031S.
75.Sakamoto, K., H. Arakawa, S. Mita, T. Ishiko, S. Ikei, H. Egami, S. Hisano, and M. Ogawa. 1994. Elevation of circulating interleukin 6 after surgery: factors influencing the serum level. Cytokine 6:181-6.
76.Sato, N., F.A. Moore, M.A. Smith, L. Zou, S. Moore-Olufemi, S.G. Schultz, and R.A. Kozar. 2005. Immune-enhancing enteral nutrients differentially modulate the early proinflammatory transcription factors mediating gut ischemia/reperfusion. J Trauma 58:455-61; discussion 461.
77.Sawada, T., K. Koike, Y. Sakamoto, A. Nohara, Y. Kanda, Z.X. Zhang, M. Ohmichi, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirota, and A. Miyake. 1994. In vitro effects of CINC/gro, a member of the interleukin-8 family, on interleukin-6 secretion by rat posterior pituitary cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 200:742-8.
78.Seekamp, A., J.S. Warren, D.G. Remick, G.O. Till, and P.A. Ward. 1993. Requirements for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 in limb ischemia/reperfusion injury and associated lung injury. Am J Pathol 143:453-63.
79.Shah, A., E. Unger, M.D. Bain, R. Bruce, J. Bodkin, J. Ginnetti, W.C. Wang, B. Seon, C.C. Stewart, and S.S. Evans. 2002. Cytokine and adhesion molecule expression in primary human endothelial cells stimulated with fever-range hyperthermia. Int J Hyperthermia 18:534-51.
80.Shalaby, M.R., B.B. Aggarwal, E. Rinderknecht, L.P. Svedersky, B.S. Finkle, and M.A. Palladino, Jr. 1985. Activation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil functions by interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factors. J Immunol 135:2069-73.
81.Singleton, K.D., V.E. Beckey, and P.E. Wischmeyer. 2005a. GLUTAMINE PREVENTS ACTIVATION OF NF-kappaB AND STRESS KINASE PATHWAYS, ATTENUATES INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE RELEASE, AND PREVENTS ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (ARDS) FOLLOWING SEPSIS. Shock 24:583-9.
82.Singleton, K.D., N. Serkova, V.E. Beckey, and P.E. Wischmeyer. 2005b. Glutamine attenuates lung injury and improves survival after sepsis: role of enhanced heat shock protein expression. Crit Care Med 33:1206-13.
83.Singleton, K.D., N. Serkova, A. Banerjee, X. Meng, F. Gamboni-Robertson, and P.E. Wischmeyer. 2005c. Glutamine attenuates endotoxin-induced lung metabolic dysfunction: potential role of enhanced heat shock protein 70. Nutrition 21:214-23.
84.Smith, R.J., and D.W. Wilmore. 1990. Glutamine nutrition and requirements. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 14:94S-99S.
85.Soethout, E.C., K.E. Muller, and V.P. Rutten. 2002. Neutrophil migration in the lung, general and bovine-specific aspects. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 87:277-85.
86.Souba, W.W. 1991. Glutamine: a key substrate for the splanchnic bed. Annu Rev Nutr 11:285-308.
87.Steinberg, K.P., J.A. Milberg, T.R. Martin, R.J. Maunder, B.A. Cockrill, and L.D. Hudson. 1994. Evolution of bronchoalveolar cell populations in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150:113-22.
88.Steininger, R., E. Roth, R. Fugger, S. Winkler, F. Langle, T. Grunberger, P. Gotzinger, T. Sautner, and F. Muhlbacher. 1994. Transhepatic metabolism of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and endotoxin in the early hepatic reperfusion period after human liver transplantation. Transplantation 58:179-83.
89.Sterpetti, A.V., A. Cucina, A.R. Morena, S. Di Donna, L.S. D'Angelo, A. Cavalarro, and S. Stipa. 1993. Shear stress increases the release of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 by aortic endothelial cells. Surgery 114:911-4.
90.Suzuki, H., M. Suematsu, S. Miura, Y.Y. Liu, K. Watanabe, M. Miyasaka, S. Tsurufuji, and M. Tsuchiya. 1994. Rat CINC/gro: a novel mediator for locomotive and secretagogue activation of neutrophils in vivo. J Leukoc Biol 55:652-7.
91.Sznajder, J.I. 1999. Strategies to increase alveolar epithelial fluid removal in the injured lung. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160:1441-2.
92.Wagner, J.G., J.R. Harkema, and R.A. Roth. 2002. Pulmonary leukostasis and the inhibition of airway neutrophil recruitment are early events in the endotoxemic rat. Shock 17:151-8.
93.Wakabayashi, G., J.G. Cannon, J.A. Gelfand, B.D. Clark, K. Aiura, J.F. Burke, S.M. Wolff, and C.A. Dinarello. 1994. Altered interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor production and secretion during pyrogenic tolerance to LPS in rabbits. Am J Physiol 267:R329-36.
94.Ware, L.B., J.A. Golden, W.E. Finkbeiner, and M.A. Matthay. 1999. Alveolar epithelial fluid transport capacity in reperfusion lung injury after lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159:980-8.
95.Wendland, M.F., M. Saeed, C. Kondo, N. Derugin, and C.B. Higgins. 1993. Effect of lidocaine on acute regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in the cat. An in-vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Invest Radiol 28:619-28.
96.Wiener-Kronish, J.P., and M.A. Matthay. 1988. Pleural effusions associated with hydrostatic and increased permeability pulmonary edema. Chest 93:852-8.
97.Wiener-Kronish, J.P., K.H. Albertine, and M.A. Matthay. 1991. Differential responses of the endothelial and epithelial barriers of the lung in sheep to Escherichia coli endotoxin. J Clin Invest 88:864-75.
98.Wischmeyer, P.E., M. Kahana, R. Wolfson, H. Ren, M.M. Musch, and E.B. Chang. 2001a. Glutamine reduces cytokine release, organ damage, and mortality in a rat model of endotoxemia. Shock 16:398-402.
99.Wischmeyer, P.E., M. Kahana, R. Wolfson, H. Ren, M.M. Musch, and E.B. Chang. 2001b. Glutamine induces heat shock protein and protects against endotoxin shock in the rat. J Appl Physiol 90:2403-10.
100.Wischmeyer, P.E., J. Riehm, K.D. Singleton, H. Ren, M.W. Musch, M. Kahana, and E.B. Chang. 2003a. Glutamine attenuates tumor necrosis factor-alpha release and enhances heat shock protein 72 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Nutrition 19:1-6.
101.Wischmeyer, P.E., T.L. Vanden Hoek, C. Li, Z. Shao, H. Ren, J. Riehm, and L.B. Becker. 2003b. Glutamine preserves cardiomyocyte viability and enhances recovery of contractile function after ischemia-reperfusion injury. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 27:116-22.
102.Wright, S.D., R.A. Ramos, P.S. Tobias, R.J. Ulevitch, and J.C. Mathison. 1990. CD14, a receptor for complexes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS binding protein. Science 249:1431-3.
103.Wu, Z.K., M.R. Tarkka, E. Pehkonen, L. Kaukinen, E.L. Honkonen, and S. Kaukinen. 2000. Ischaemic preconditioning has a beneficial effect on left ventricular haemodynamic function after a coronary artery biopass grafting operation. Scand Cardiovasc J 34:247-53.
104.Yeh, C.L., C.S. Hsu, S.L. Yeh, M.T. Lin, and W.J. Chen. 2006. Dietary glutamine supplementation reduces cellular adhesion molecule expression and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in mice with gut-derived sepsis. Nutrition 22:408-13.
105.Yoshino, M., and K. Murakami. 1998. Interaction of iron with polyphenolic compounds: application to antioxidant characterization. Anal Biochem 257:40-4.
106.Ziegler, T.R. 1994. Glutamine is essential for epidermal growth factor-stimulated intestinal cell proliferation. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 18:84-6.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊