跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(35.172.223.30) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/25 12:20
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:歐陽戰
研究生(外文):Chan Ou-Yang
論文名稱:以損害函數法評估空氣污染對社會成本影響
論文名稱(外文):Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution to Social Cost Using Damage Function Approach
指導教授:楊國樑楊國樑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Grant G. L. Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南華大學
系所名稱:環境管理研究所
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境資源學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:擴散效應社會成本空污防治損害函數法
外文關鍵詞:Damage Function MethodSocial CostAir Pollution AbatementExpansion Effect
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:9
  • 點閱點閱:952
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:107
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
  為了經濟發展與國民生活水準提升,工業化時代到來是時勢所趨,但伴隨著工業化所帶來對環境之影響亦是另一項重要課題,尤其是空氣污染之嚴重性,更是明顯且令人直接感受到不舒服。而呼吸道疾病更是嚴重受到空氣污染影響,呼吸不乾淨的空氣容易引起或加劇肺癌、肺炎、氣喘和結核等呼吸疾病。台灣在呼吸道疾病門、住診之費用相當龐大,根據1999年至2006年醫療統計年報顯示,台灣在呼吸道疾病門、住診費用平均每年約有516億元之多。
 
  政府為保障民眾呼吸道健康,歷年來陸續建立空氣品質監控系統,對環境排放量進行監控與管制,並持續投入空氣污染防治費,以改善各縣市空氣品質。根據政府環保歲出預算統計,1999年至2006年,政府平均每年約花費3.2億歲出預算於空氣品質防治,然此空氣品質防治歲處預算與醫療費用相比則明顯偏低。政府若能持續投入改善經費,提升空氣品質,空氣品質之提升應能降低健康醫療費用,則社會成本(空氣品質防治費用與醫療費用之總和)當能因此大為降低。
 
  本研究以三類空氣污染指數資料(環保署環境品質變化資料PSI不良日數比例、環境資料庫與空氣品質年報內之污染物濃度)為分析基礎,結合環保歲出預算資料與行政院衛生署健保醫療支出進行統計分析,藉此了解空氣污染對人體健康之不良影響。經由損害函數法之評估,得出以下幾點:(一)整體PSI不良比率結果顯示,政府空氣品質防治預算,對於呼吸道疾病醫療費用確實有所影響;(二)以環境資料庫與空氣品質年報內之全台污染物濃度進行分析,結果顯示二氧化硫與PM10之迴歸函數符合預期結果;(三)以各空品區之汙染物進行分析,污染物濃度較高地區(如高屏),結果與PSI不良日數比率對社會成本影響相似;(四)根據污染物具有移動性與地域性之特性進行各空品區與鄰近空品區之擴散效應分析,結果亦顯示出污染物在各空品區平均之後,平均濃度會被臨近空品區拉低,此分析結果不符全台變化,以此推斷污染物濃度似乎對鄰近空品區影響不大。
  Industrialization is unavoidable for economic development and living standard increasing. The resulting impact from industrialization, however, is an important issue that should be considered. The severity of air pollution is recognized as obviously and directly uncomfortable for living. Chronic respiratory diseases are seriously influenced by air pollution and the inhalation of unclean air will easily cause or worsen respiratory diseases such as lung cancer, pneumonia, asthma, and tubercle etc. According to the annual medical statistics from 1999 to 2006, average medical expenditure accounts for an enormous number as much as NT$ 51.6 billion in Taiwan.
 
  The government has continuously built up supervision system of the air quality annually to monitor and control environment emissions. Abatement fee is also devoted to improve air quality in every city. According to the annual environmental protection statistics from 1999 to 2006, the amount of abatement fee could be as much as NT$ 0.32 billion, an amount that is relatively lower compared to the medical expenditure. If government can keep improving on the abatement budget of air pollution, air quality will therefore be improved and medical expenditure on respiratory diseases will decrease with a resulting decrease in social cost (summation of air pollution abatement fee and medical expenditure).
 
  This research employs three different types of air pollution index data (ratio of inferior daily PSI from Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) data bank, environmental database, and density of pollutant from annual report of air quality), data of EPA annual budget, and health insurance and medical expenditure from Department of Health to estimate the influence of air pollution to human healthy. Damage Function Method is used in this research and the estimated results show that (A) ratio of inferior daily PSI suggests a significant influence of government abatement expenditure on medical expenditure of respiratory diseases; (B) regression analysis from environmental database and annual report of air quality show that sulphur dioxide (SO2) and PM10 match the ex ante expectation; (C) analysis on 7 areas of air quality in Taiwan demonstrates a perfect match of influence of PSI to social cost in high pollutant density area; (D) analysis of expansion effect according to mobility of pollutants and geographical characteristics shows that average density of pollutants will be lighter because of the neighboring effects, and the result is contradictory to that of PSI with the implication of a minimal influence of pollutant density to the area of air quality.
第一章 緒論...........................................1
第一節 研究背景........................................1
第二節 研究目的........................................5
 
第二章 文獻探討.......................................6
第一節 空氣污染對人體健康之影響........................6
第二節 空氣品質防治政策................................9
第三節 空氣污染對經濟成本耗損.........................10
 
第三章 研究方法......................................13
第一節 基礎損害函數法.................................13
第二節本研究建構之損害函數............................14
 
第四章 資料來源......................................18
第一節 汙染濃度測值...................................18
第二節 呼吸道疾病的門、住診費用.......................22
第三節 政府空氣污染防治預算...........................26
 
第五章 結果..........................................28
第一節 全台空氣品質不良日數比率、呼吸道疾病門、住診費用和空氣品質防治預算三者之關係..............................28
第二節 全台一氧化碳、二氧化硫、二氧化碳、臭氧和PM10染物濃度為污染測值分析結果....................................29
第三節 全台各空品區污染物質分析結果...................33
第四節 全台各空品區污染物質擴散效應分析結果...........38
 
第六章 結論與建議...................................45
第一節 結論...........................................45
第二節 建議...........................................47
 
參考文獻..............................................49
 
表附錄................................................52
行政院環境保護署1999-2006,「空氣品質監測報告」,行政院環境保護署。
 
林俊昇、黃文琪2005,「空氣品質改善之效益評估-高屏地區案例」,自然資源與環境經濟學,雙葉書廊,435-464。
 
林全、蔡妙珊,1985,「燃煤發電外部成本分析」,國立政治大學財政研究所,碩士論文。
 
吳佩瑛,2005,「經濟發展與環境品質」,自然資源與環境經濟學,雙葉書廊,187-228。
 
吳佩瑛、林雅芳,2006,「氣候變遷對健康效益評估之概述」,全球變遷通訊雜誌第,50:11-14。
 
洪玉珠、李明燦,2001,「高雄市空氣品質與居民呼吸系統疾病之相關性探討」,高雄醫學大學公共衛生學研究所,碩士論文。
 
馬一中、宋鴻樟、鄭筱蓉,2002,「交通污染與學童呼吸道健康相關性之探討」,國立台灣大學公共衛生學院環境衛生研究所,碩士論文。
 
康信鴻、張慧雯,1993,「臺灣地區石化工業外部污染成本之評估-損害函數法之實證研究」,國立成功大學企業管理研究所,碩士論文 。
 
陳玉琨,台灣與美國實施空氣品質管理計畫的歷史經驗回顧,宜蘭縣政府環境保護局研究及計劃執行成果。
 
陳凱俐、吳佩瑛,2005,「非市場財貨的價值衡量方法」,自然資源與環境經濟學,雙葉書廊,187-228。
 
郭育良、李永凌,2004,「台灣室內室外環境暴露,遺傳因子,與學齡孩童呼吸道過敏性疾病之相關性研究」,國立成功大學基礎醫學研究所,博士論文。
 
郭育良、陳秉鈺,2004,「空氣污染與先天性缺陷發生之相關性研究」,國立成功大學環境醫學研究所,碩士論文。
 
葉新興、許志義、蕭代基,1987,工廠空氣汙染之防治投資及其經濟效益之研究,衛生署環保局與中華經濟研究院。
 
張永源、陳招式,2002,「門診急性呼吸道感染及氣喘病患醫療資源耗用分析」,高雄醫學大學健康科學院公共衛生研究所。
 
葛應欽,1996,學童呼吸系統健康檢查計畫(高屏區),行政院環境保護署「空氣污染防制基金之運用-學童呼吸系統健康檢查」。
 
蕭代基、胡玉蕙,1987,「空氣污染之反應函數與損害成本--台北市學童之實證分析」,國立政治大學經濟研究所,碩士論文。
 
行政院環保署空氣品質監測網,http://www.epa.gov.tw
 
行政院衛生署統計資訊網, http://www.doh.gov.tw/statistic/index.htm
 
Afroz, R., Hassan, M.N. and N. A. Ibrahimb (2003), “Review of Air Pollution and Health Impacts in Malaysia”. Environmental Research, 92, 71– 77.
 
Beardsley, T.(1997), ”Smoke Alarm: Haze From Fires Might Promote Bacterial Growth”. Scientific American, December, 24-25.
 
Brauer, M., and J.Hisham-Hishim (1998), “Fires in Indonesia: Crisis and Reaction”. Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 404-407.
 
Chitano P., Hosselet J.J., Mapp C.E., and L.M.Fabbri (1995),” Effect of oxidant air pollutants on the respiratory system:insights from experimental animal Research”.Eur. Respir. J, 8: 1357- 1371.
 
Cropper, M. (1981), “Measuring the Benefits from Reduced Morbidity”. American Economic Review. 71: 235-240.
 
Dockery, D.W.and C.A. Pope (1994), ” Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution”. Annu. Rev. Public Health 15:107-32
 
Dockery, D.W., Pope, C.A., Xu, X., Spengler, J.D., Ware ,J.H., Fay ,M.E., Ferris, B.G., Jr. and F.E. Speizer (1993),” An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities”. N. Engl. J. Med. 329:1753-9
 
Dockery, D.W., Pope ,C.A.,, Xu, X., Spengler, J.D., Ware, J.H., Fay ,M.E., Ferris,B.G., Jr., and F.E. Speizer FE. (1993),” An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities”. N. Engl. J. Med. 329:1753-9
 
Koenig J.Q., Pierson W,E,, Horike M.,and R.Frank(1982),”Effects of inhaled sulfur dioxide (SO2) on pulmonary function in healthy adolescents:exposure to SO2 + sodium chloride droplet aerosol during rest and exercise”. Arch.Environ. Health, 37:5 - 9.
 
Lave, L. B. and E. P. Seskin(1970),“Air Pollution and Human Health ”. Science,169.
 
Lave, L. B. and E. P. Seskin,( 1973), “An Analysis of the Association Between U.S. Mortality and Air Pollution”. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 68: 284-290.
 
Molfino,N.A.,Wright,S.,C., Katz I, et al(1991),” Effect of low concentrations of ozone on inhaled
 
allergen responses in asthmatic subjects”. Lancet,338:199-203.
 
Orehek J., Massari J.P., Gayrard P., Grimand C.,and J.Charpin(1976),” Effects of short-term, low-level nitrogen exposure on bronchial sensitivity of asthmatic patients”. J.Chin. Invest., 57:301-307.
 
Pope ,C. A., Schwartz , J. and M. R. Ransom(1992),”Daily mortality and PM10 pollution in Utah Valley”. Arch. Environ, Health 47:211-7
 
Pierson ,W.E.,and J.Q.Koenig (1992), “Reapiratory effects of air pollution on allergic disease”. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol, 90:557-566.
 
Ritz, B.and F.Yu(1999), “The effect of ambient carbon monoxide on low birth weight among children born in southern California between 1989 and 1993”. Environ Health Perspect ,107:17–25, 1999.
 
Schwing ,R.C.and G.C.McDonald(1976),”Measures of Association of Some Air Pollutants,Natural Ionizing Radiation and Cigarette Smoking with Mortality Rates”.Science,Total Environment,5.
 
Seskin,E.P.(1979),”Pollution and Health in Washington”.Jurnal of Urban Economics,6:275-291.
 
Timblin,C., Berube,K., Churg,A., Driscoll,K.,Gordon,T., Hemenway,D.,Walsh,E.,Cummins,A.B., Vacek,P.,and B.Mossman (1998), “Ambient Particulate Matter Causes Activation of c-jun Kinase/Stress-activated Protein Cascade and DNA Synthesis in Lung Epithelial Cells“. Cancer Research , 58:4543-4547.
 
Wardlaw,A.J.(1993),”The role of air pollution in asthma”.Clin Exp Allergy,23:81-96
 
World Health Organization (1998),” Report of the Bioregional Workshop on Health Impacts of Haze Related Air Pollution”, WHO, Manila, Philippines.
 
Yang, C.Y., Wang ,J.D., Chan ,C.C., Chen ,P.C., Huang ,J.S. and M.F. Cheng ( 1997),”Respiratory and irritant health effects of a population living in a petrochemical-polluted area in Taiwan”. Environ. Res. 74:145-9
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top