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研究生:吳欣靜
研究生(外文):Hsin-ching Wu
論文名稱:環保標章對綠色消費的影響研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of eco-label in affecting green consumption
指導教授:陳中獎陳中獎引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-chiang Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南華大學
系所名稱:環境管理研究所
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境資源學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:綠色採購綠色消費條件評估法Logistic迴歸分析環保標章願付價格
外文關鍵詞:contingent valuation method (CVM)logistic regression analysiswilling to pay (WTP)eco-labelsgreen consumptiongreen purchasing
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  綠色消費的推行必須要有讓消費者辨識產品是否對環境有益的環保標章,由於國內的相關研究並不多,而國外的文獻對環保標章計劃是否可以改變消費行為模式也沒有一致性的看法;況且,國內外在環保標章的研究上,大都只針對某一個特定的環保標章或特定的環保標章產品,並沒有針對不同的環保標章去探討消費者對標章的偏好與願付價格(WTP)是否相同。因此,本研究要調查消費者對於不同的環保標章產品之願付價格(WTP),並瞭解願付價格(WTP)會受到哪些因素的影響;此外,本研究也要探討綠色消費的影響因素,因此以綠色採購為操作性定義,調查環保標章產品的購買會受到哪些因素的影響。
  
  為了調查我國綠色採購的現況,本研究針對政府單位、民間單位、一般消費者的綠色採購現況作一系列的調查,除了參考環保署網站公佈的資料,另外針對10名政府單位採購者、11名民間企業的採購者與20名一般消費者進行質性訪談,並將消費者購買綠色產品的動機與障礙做一分析與整理。根據現況調查的結果,本研究提出一套綠色消費的理論架構,以瞭解影響綠色消費的因素為何,並進行後續一系列的實證工作。實證分析方面,將樣本分為學生與社會人士兩個族群,應用條件評估法(The contingent valuation method, CVM)且透過面對面訪問與問卷的調查方式來進行資料的蒐集。最後,依據調查資料進行敘述性統計分析、二元Logistic迴歸與次序Logistic迴歸分析。
  
  在願付價格的調查方面,研究結果顯示受訪者對環保標章(Green Mark)、節能標章與回收標誌的願付價格(WTP),都以不願意多支付價格(0%)區間所佔的比例最高;對於願意多支付價格的受訪者而言,三種環保標章產品的平均願付價格(Mean WTP)分別為6.67%、10.79%、5.95%。為了評估哪些因素會影響消費者對於三種環保標章產品的願付價格(WTP),透過次序Logistic迴歸分析的結果顯示:(一)環保標章(Green Mark)方面,標章的願付價格(WTP)主要會受到環境信念、環境涉入、性別與收入的影響;(二)節能標章方面,標章的願付價格(WTP)會受到環境信念、環境涉入、性別的影響;(三)回收標誌方面,標章的願付價格(WTP)主要會受到環境信念、性別、婚姻、教育程度與收入的影響。
  
  在綠色消費的調查方面,研究結果顯示未曾購買過環保標章(Green Mark)、節能標章與回收標誌的受訪者為41.3%、65.1%、14.2%,以節能標章的比例最高,回收標誌的比例最低。為了評估消費者對環保標章產品的購買是受到哪些因素影響,透過二元 Logistic迴歸分析的結果顯示:消費者對環保標章產品的購買會受到產品品質、產品普及度、促銷方式、標章辨識度、願付價格與標章偏好的影響。
  
  對綠色消費的推動,本研究提出下列幾項建議:(一)建立統一的環保標章指導原則; (二)環保標章與企業品牌標誌的大小,應該有一固定比例;(三)標章推廣方式應該以消費者與製造商的需求為導向;(四)強制性規範企業必須申請第一類環保標章;(五)第一類環保標章應該要分等級。
  Promotion of green consumption must depend on eco-label that is a tool to help consumers recognize environment characteristic of products easily, because there are few research about eco-label in Taiwan, and most studies were focus on only one single label or particular label products, and has not to discuss the difference or the equivalent of different eco-labels, so we attempt to analysis the WTP (willing to pay) of different eco-labels and the factors affecting WTP. Besides, we also attempt to analysis the factors affecting green consumption, use the operation definition of green purchasing to investigate factors affecting eco-label products procurements.
  
  To investigate the current condition of green purchasing in Taiwan, we did some surveys on government institution, private firms and general consumers. The data is partly obtained from the in-depth survey with 10 governmental officials, 11 manufacturers and 20 consumers, and partly refer to the information release of relevant websites. We surveyed the consumers’ motivation and barriers of buying eco-label products, and attempt to analysis the factors affecting green consumption, and eventually present a theoretic framework. This study was undertaken by contingent valuation method (CVM) where in the questionnaire and face-to-face survey that was designed for the students and members of society, finally use descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression to analysis the data.
  
  For WTP investigation, the analysis results conclude that the percentage of who will not to pay for Green Mark, Energy Label and Recycling Label are the highest. For respondents that had a positive WTP, the mean WTP for these three kinds of labels are 6.67%, 10.79%, 5.95%. To analysis the factors affecting WTP by ordinal regression method, the result shows (1) environment belief, environment involvement, gender and income are significant for WTP of Green Mark; (2) environment belief, environment involvement and gender are significant for WTP of Energy Label; (3) environment belief, gender, marriage status, the degree of education and income are significant for WTP of Recycling Label.
  
  For green consumption, the analysis results conclude that the percentage of who had never bought the products of Green Mark, Energy Label and Recycling Label are 41.3%, 65.1%, 14.2%, the highest percentage is Energy Label, the last is Recycling Label. Furthermore, investigate the factors for eco-label products procurement by binary regression method, the result shows product quality, popularization, the way of promotion, label identification, WTP and preference for label affected the eco-label products procurement.
  
  Some suggestion for the promotion of green consumption: (1) construct the guidelines for eco-label; (2) the label size and business brand size have a fixed ratio; (3) the promotion of green consumption should consider the demand of consumers and producers; (4) regulate all the firms to apply for type-I label mandatory; (5) rank the environmental benefit of type-I label.
摘 要........................................i
Abstract......................................iii
目 錄......................................v
表 目 錄................................vii
圖 目 錄................................viii
  
第一章 緒論.................................1
  
第二章 模式建構.............................4
第一節 現況分析.............................4
一、 政府單位.................................4
二、 民間單位.................................7
三、 一般消費者...............................8
第二節 文獻探討............................10
一、 總體環境對綠色消費的影響............10
二、 環保標章制度對綠色消費的影響........12
三、 綠色行銷對綠色消費的影響............13
四、 消費者願付價格對綠色消費的影響......15
  
第三章 研究方法............................19
第一節 環保標章............................19
第二節 條件評估法(The contingent valuation method, CVM)...................................26
一、 條件評估法(CVM)的沿革.............27
二、 條件評估法(CVM)的具備要素 .........28
三、 條件評估法(CVM)的詢價方式 .........29
四、 WTP與WTA的比較......................30
五、 影響有效性、可靠性的因素............30
六、 指導原則............................33
七、 小結................................34
第三節 問卷設計............................34
一、 環保標章產品購買行為與願付價格(WTP).35
二、 調查環保標章制度的管理情形..........36
三、 環境信念與環境涉入 ................. 37
四、 個人社經背景........................37
第四節 Logistic迴歸模型....................38
一、 二元Logistic迴歸模型(binary logistic regression model)..............................38
二、 次序Logistic迴歸模型(ordinal logistic regression model)..............................39
第五節 抽樣調查............................40
  
第四章 結果與討論..........................43
第一節 願付價格(WTP).....................43
第二節 影響綠色消費因素分析................48
第三節 環保標章制度建議....................53
  
第五章 結論與建議.........................56
第一節 結論................................56
第二節 貢獻................................58
第三節 建議................................59
  
參考文獻.....................................62
一、中文部分.................................62
二、英文部分.................................63
附錄一、「政府採購法第九十六條」.............68
附錄二、「機關優先採購環境保護產品辦法」.....69
附錄三、「民國96年企業與團體的綠色採購金額」.74
附錄四、 問卷................................76
一、中文部分
 
1.王濟川、郭志剛,2008,Logistic回歸模型-方法及應用,台北:五南出版社。
 
2.吳俊賢、劉瓊霦等人,2006,「六龜試驗林森林生態系經營經濟效益評估之研究」,台灣林業科學,第21卷第二期,191-203頁。
 
3.吳玉潔,2006,「墾丁國家公園居民環境意識之探討」,國立高雄師範大學成人教育研究所碩士論文。
 
4.吳欣靜、陳中獎,2009,「影響綠色消費因素分析」,遠東學報,第26卷第一期,41-64頁。
 
5.沈美惠,2004,「垃圾污染減量的效益評估:條件評估法之應用」,逢甲大學會計與財稅研究所碩士論文。
 
6.相元翰,2008,「綠色行銷下消費者之綠色消費行為分析」,國立交通大學交通運輸研究所碩士論文。
 
7.陳中獎、黃榮福,2004,「不同環保團體對環境資源願付價值差異之研究-以七股濕地為例」,環境教育學刊,第三期,17-36頁。
 
8.黃乃熒,2005,「學校組織變革之意識型態研究-以一所國民中學為例」,師大學報:教育類,第50卷第一期,101-121頁。
 
9.黃坤傑,2006,「女性消費者對再生衛生紙的願付價格:條件評估法與聯合分析比較」,國立中山大學公共事務管理研究所碩士論文。
 
10.葉名容,2000,「臺灣消費者對國際森林及木材認證制度態度之分析」,國立臺灣大學森林學研究所碩士論文。
 
11.潘秀芬,2006,「以買方觀點看電子化採購之效益-個案研究」,銘傳大學管理研究所在職專班碩士論文。
 
12.蔡淑瓊,2006,「地方財政與預算編列問題之探討-輔以臺中市為例」,逢甲大學經營管理碩士在職專班碩士論文。
 
13.嘉義市政府全球資訊網,2007/12,http://www.chiayi.gov.tw/ 。
 
14.嘉義縣政府全球資訊網,2007/12,http://www.cyhg.gov.tw/ 。
 
15.奇摩新聞,「買國產家電 節能標章可補助」,2009/01/01,http://tw.news.yahoo.com/article/url/d/a/081210/11/1ax23.html。
 
16.自由時報電子報 ,「環保標章清潔劑不環保竟驗出氯」,2008/02/05 ,http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2008/new/feb/5/today-life2.htm。
 
17.公視新聞網,「環保標章不環保」,2008/02/05,http://www.pts.org.tw/php/news/view_pda.php?TB=NEWS_C_2008&NEENO=3321。
 
18.經濟部中小企業處,2006/12/31,「中小企業白皮書」, http://www.moeasmea.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=1143&CtNode=391&mp=1。
 
19.行政院環保署-綠色生活資訊網,2009/01,http://greenliving.epa.gov.tw/GreenLife/。
 
20.行政院環保署-資源回收基管會,2009/01,http://recycle.epa.gov.tw/epa/。
 
21.經濟部能源局-節能標章,2009/01,http://www.energylabel.org.tw/。
 
二、英文部分
 
1.Alfredsson, E. C. (2004), "Green consumption–no solution for climate change". Energy, 29: 513-524.
 
2.Banerjee, A. & Solomon, B. D. (2003), "Eco-labeling for energy efficiency and sustainability: a meta-evaluation of US programs". Energy Policy, 31: 109-123.
 
3.Basu, A. K., Chau, N. H., Grote U. (2003), "Eco-Labeling and Stages of Development". Review of Development Economics, 7: 228-247.
 
4.Bhate, S. (2005), "An examination of the relative roles played by consumer behaviour settings and levels of involvement in determining environmental behavior". Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 12: 419-429.
 
5.Bjørner, T. B., Hansen, L. G. & Russell, C. S. (2004), "Environmental labeling and consumers’ choice-an empirical analysis of the effect of the Nordic Swan". Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 47: 411-434.
 
6.Bozowsky, E. & Mizuno, H. (2004), "Introduction To Ecolabelling". Global Ecolabelling Network (GEN) Information Paper.
 
7.Boccaletti, S. & Nardella, M. (2000), "Consumer willingness to pay for pesticide-free fresh fruit and vegetables in Italy". International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 3: 297-310.
 
8.Buckley, R. (2002), "Tourism Ecolabels". Annals of Tourism Research, 29(1): 183-208.
 
9.Charter, M., Peattie, K., Ottman, J. & Polonsky M. J. (2002), "Marketing and sustainability". Centre for Sustainable Design.
 
10.Chen, N. H., Wei, S., Hung, Y.W. & Tu, C. (2007), "Willingness to pay for locally branded sportswear in Taiwan". Proceedings of the 13th Asia Pacific Management Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 1438-1449.
 
11.Corral, C. M. (2003), "Sustainable production and consumption systems-cooperation for change: assessing and simulating the willingness of the firm to adopt/develop cleaner technologies. The case of the In-Bond industry in northern Mexico". Journal of Cleaner Production, 11: 411-426.
 
12.Estelami, H. & Maeyer, P. De. (2004), "Product category determinants of price knowledge for durable consumer goods". Journal of Retailing, 80: 129-137.
 
13.Foxall, G. R. (2003), "The behavior analysis of consumer choice: An introduction to the special issue". Journal of Economic Psychology, 24: 581-588.
 
14.Ginsberg, J. M. & Bloom, P. N. (2004), "Choosing the Right Green Marketing Strategy". Mit Sloan Management Review, 35: 79-84.
 
15.Global Ecolabelling Network, (2007), "Category And Criteria". http://globalecolabelling.net/categ.html.
 
16.Kotchen, M. J. & Reiling, S. D. (2000), "Environmental attitudes, motivations, and contingent valuation of nonuse values: a case study involving endangered species". Ecological Economics, 32: 93-107.
 
17.Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (2008), Principles of Marketing, 12th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
 
18.Laroche, M., Bergeron J. & Barbaro-Forleo, G. (2001), "Targeting consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products". Journal Of Consumer Marketing, 18(6): 503-520.
 
19.Lea, E. & Worsley, A. (2008), "Australian consumers’ food-related environmental beliefs and behaviours". Appetite, 50: 207-214.
 
20.Lee, C. K. & Han, S.Y. (2002), "Estimating the use and preservation values of national parks’ tourism resources using a contingent valuation method". Tourism Management, 23: 531-540.
 
21.Lee, K. M. & Uehara, H. (2003), "Best Practices of ISO 14021". Committee on Trade and Investment.
 
22.Lemos, A. D. C. & Giacomucci, A. (2002), "Green procurement activities: some environmental indicators and practical actions taken by industry and tourism". Int. J. Environment and Sustainable Development, 1(1): 59-72.
 
23.Loureiro, M. L. & Lotade, J. (2005), "Do fair trade and eco-labels in coffee wake up the consumer conscience? ". Ecological Economics, 53: 129-138.
 
24.Muldoon A. (2006), "Where the Green Is: Examining the Paradox of Environmentally Conscious Consumption". Electronic Green Journal, 1(23): Article 3.
 
25.Müller, E. (2002), "Environmental Labelling, Innovation and the Toolbox of Environmental Policy: Lessons Learned from the German Blue Angel Program". Federation of German Consumer Organisations.
 
26.Murray, J. G. (2001), "Local government and private sector purchasing strategy: a comparative study". European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, 7: 91-100.
 
27.Nash, H. A. (2008), "The European Commission’s sustainable consumption and production and sustainable industrial policy action plan". Journal of Cleaner Production, 17(4): 496-498.
 
28.Nomura, N. & Akai, M. (2004), "Willingness to pay for green electricity in Japan as estimated through contingent valuation method". Applied Energy, 78: 453-463.
 
29.Polonsky, M. J. & Rosenberger III, P. J. (2001), "Reevaluating Green Marketing: A Strategic Approach". Business Horizons, 44: 21-30.
 
30.Rex, E. & Baumann, H. (2007), "Beyond ecolabels: what green marketing can learn from conventional marketing". Journal of Cleaner Production, 15: 567-576.
 
31.Scot, C. (2003, October), "Earth-Friendly GREEN Procurement Gains Ground". Government Procurement, 8-13.
 
32.Stern, P. C. (2000), "Toward a Coherent Theory of Environmentally Significant Behavior". Journal of Social Issues, 56(3): 407-424.
 
33.Swanson M., Weissman, A., Davis, G., Socolof, M. L. & Davis K. (2005), "Developing priorities for greener state government purchasing: a California case study". Journal of Cleaner Production, 13: 669-677.
 
34.Teisl, M. F., Roe, B. & Hicks, R. L. (2002), "Can Eco-Labels Tune a Market? Evidence from Dolphin-Safe Labeling". Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 43: 339-359.
 
35.Turpie, J. K. (2003), "The existence value of biodiversity in South Africa: how interest, experience, knowledge, income and perceived level of threat influence local willingness to pay". Ecological Economics, 46: 199-216.
 
36.Valentini, L. & Venice, V. S. (2005), "Environmental Quality Provision and Eco-labelling: Some Issues (ERSD-2005-02) ". World Trade Organization-Economic Research and Statistics Division Working Paper.
 
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38.Venkatachalam, L. (2004), "The contingent valuation method: a review". Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 24: 89-124.
 
39.Whitehead, J. C. & Cherry, T. L. (2007), "Willingness to pay for a Green Energy program: A comparison of ex-ante and ex-post hypothetical bias mitigation approaches". Resource and Energy Economics, 29: 247-261.
 
40.Zhao, X. & Xia, Q. (1999), "China’s Environmental Labeling Program". Environ Impact Assess Rev, 19: 477-497.
 
41.Zsidisin, G. A. & Siferd, S. P. (2001), "Environmental purchasing: a framework for theory development". European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, 7: 61-73.
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