跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.235.60.144) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/23 23:58
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:徐嘉君
研究生(外文):Chia-chun Hsu
論文名稱:國際觀光旅館從業人員心理賦能與組織犬儒關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):An Exploration of the Relationship between Perceived Psychological Empowerment and Organizational Cynicism in the Taiwan Hotel Industry
指導教授:潘澤仁潘澤仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tze-jen Pan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南華大學
系所名稱:旅遊事業管理學系碩士班
學門:民生學門
學類:餐旅服務學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:旅館業組織犬儒主義心理賦能
外文關鍵詞:Hotel IndustryOrganizational CynicismPsychological Empowerment
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:12
  • 點閱點閱:1047
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:191
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
  旅館業泛屬服務業之一環,當員工對顧客進行服務傳遞時,勢必因身處第一線直接面對顧客而產生更大的壓力。過去的文獻指出,賦能應被視為可提供更優質服務與幫助員工迅速解決顧客要求的要點之一。相較於賦能此種激勵作法,文獻亦認為組織中的領導者更應審慎面對員工在職場上的負面反應。對員工而言,自我防衛態度的展現,即是對組織不滿的反射,而犬儒主義就是員工的防衛心態之ㄧ,亦最普遍存在於組織中。綜觀目前國內外相關研究,鮮有以心理賦能下之四個認知構面來驗證對組織犬儒主義的影響。雖然從事心理賦能之相關研究不少,但探討何種人口統計特性的員工對心理賦能認知程度的相關研究卻相對罕見。此外,本研究也發現以人口統計變項為自變數,探討其對組織犬儒主義是否有所差異的議題亦被忽略。
 
  為填補上述之文獻缺口,本研究以問卷進行調查,樣本來源為全國二十家國際觀光旅館全職的從業人員,總計發出500份問卷,有效問卷為180份,有效問卷回收率為36%。統計分析採敘述性統計、信度分析、獨立樣本t檢定、單因子變異數分析、相關分析與多元迴歸分析來驗證各研究構面的影響關係。本研究發現:1.國際觀光旅館從業人員的個人變項對意義、自我效能、自我決策、影響力及心理賦能有顯著差異,但對於組織犬儒主義沒有顯著差異;2.意義對組織犬儒主義有顯著的負向影響關係。
  The front-line employees in the service industry are referred to as boundary spanners because they operate at the organization’s boundary. The boundary-spanning role may create stress and conflict while individuals are undertaking their job. Thus, organizations may delegate or grant authority to boundary-spanning personnel in order to respond to customers’ requirements. However, empowerment is likely to be the best strategy for front-line employees to respond immediately and to satisfy unpredicted customer requirements. In addition, it builds up front-line employee’s self-confidence and greater trust and commitment with organisation and thus, leads to reduce individuals’ cynical toward the organisation. A growing number of studies have recently lamented that cynicism is growing phenomenon in organisational settings. The outcome of such negative attitude will have tendencies towards disparaging the organisation and its members and will have critical behavior. Although much attention has been devoted to understanding forms of cynicism develop in workplace and to relate them to affective outcomes. Relatively, little research has attempted to understand the relationship between demographics of employees and empowerment and relate them to organizational cynicism. This is focused on the use of four psychological empowerment dimensions (meaning, competence, self-determination and impact). 
 
  To fill this gap, 500 questionnaires were sent out to 20 international and national hotels positioned in the upper market in Taiwan. A total of 180 questionnaires were valid. Means, descriptive statistics analysis, reliability analysis, t-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis and mutiple regression analysis, are administered on the sample. The results indicated that different demographic variables have significant impact on meaning, competence, self-determination, impact, and psychological empowerment, but not organizational cynicism. Moreover, meaning was related negatively to organizational cynicism.
中文摘要…………………………………………………i
英文摘要…………………………………………………ii
目錄………………………………………………………iii
表目錄……………………………………………………v
圖目錄……………………………………………………viii
 
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………… 1
1.1 研究動機與目的…………………………………………… 1
 
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………… 8
2.1 賦能……………………………………………………… 8
2.2 組織犬儒主義…………………………………………… 27
 
第三章 研究方法…………………………………………… 45
3.1 研究架構……………………………………………… 45
3.2 研究假設……………………………………………… 45
3.3 研究變項之操作型定義……………………………… 47
3.4 研究工具……………………………………………… 50
3.5 前測結果……………………………………………… 53
3.6 問卷資料收集………………………………………… 53
3.7 資料分析方法………………………………………… 54
 
第四章 實證分析結果…………………………………… 57
4.1 樣本資料分析………………………………………… 57
4.2 信度分析……………………………………………… 60
4.3 心理賦能與組織犬儒主義差異分析………………… 62
4.4 心理賦能與組織犬儒主義相關分析………………… 74
4.5 心理賦能對組織犬儒主義之多元迴歸分析…………… 76
4.6 研究假設結果彙整……………………………………… 78
 
第五章 討論與建議…………………………………………… 80
5.1 研究結果討論…………………………………………… 80
5.2 管理意涵………………………………………………… 93
5.3 研究貢獻………………………………………………… 97
5.4 研究限制………………………………………………… 98
5.5 未來研究建議…………………………………………… 100
 
參考文獻………………………………………………………… 101
 
附錄一 心理賦能與組織犬儒主義問卷 ……………………… 113
 
表目錄
表2.1 人口統計變項對心理賦能差異分析表……………………… 20
表2.2 人口統計變項對心理賦能差異分析表……………………… 21
表2.3 人口統計變項對心理賦能差異分析表……………………… 22
表2.4 人口統計變項對心理賦能差異分析表……………………… 23
表3.1 研究假設……………………………………………………… 45
表3.2 心理賦能問項………………………………………………… 50
表3.3 組織犬儒主義問項…………………………………………… 51
表3.4 人口統計變項………………………………………………… 52
表4.1 受訪者基本資料分析表……………………………………… 59
表4.2 信度分析表…………………………………………………… 61
表4.3 性別與心理賦能之t檢定…………………………………… 62
表4.4 年齡與心理賦能之變異數分析……………………………… 63
表4.5 現任職務工作年資與心理賦能之變異數分析……………… 65
表4.6 教育程度與心理賦能之變異數分析………………………… 66
表4.7 月薪與心理賦能之變異數分析……………………………… 68
表4.8 工作職位與心理賦能之變異數分析………………………… 69
表4.9 工作部門與心理賦能之變異數分析………………………… 70
表4.10 性別與組織犬儒主義之t檢定……………………………… 71
表4.11 年齡與組織犬儒主義之變異數分析……………………… 71
表4.12 現任職務工作年資與組織犬儒主義之變異數分析……… 72
表4.13 教育程度與組織犬儒主義之變異數分析………………… 72
表4.14 月薪與組織犬儒主義之變異數分析……………………… 73
表4.15 工作職位與組織犬儒主義之變異數分析………………… 73
表4.16 工作部門與組織犬儒主義之變異數分析………………… 74
表4.17 研究變數平均數、標準差及相關係數…………………… 75
表4.18 心理賦能對組織犬儒主義之多元迴歸分析……………… 77
表4.19 研究假設結果彙整………………………………………… 78
表5.1 人口統計變項對心理賦能差異分析比較表………………… 88
 
圖目錄
圖3.1 研究架構圖……………………………………… 45
中文文獻
牛涵錚 (2000),自我效能、工作投入與生涯承諾關係之研究,中國文化大學觀光事業研究所碩士論文。
 
江亭儒 (2003),組織犬儒主義之前因與後果,國立台灣大學心理學研究 所碩士論文。
 
吳萬益、林清河 (2001),企業研究方法,台北:華泰出版社。
 
邱皓政 (2006),量化研究與統計分析─SPSS中文視窗版資料分析範例解析,台北:五南圖書公司。
 
余明助、張簡英翔、陳仁龍 (2008),銀行員工面對組織變革知覺對組織公民行為影響之研究―以犬儒主義、組織政治知覺為中介變數,2008公民文化與公私協力學術研討會,國立台南大學,台南,台灣。
 
徐賁 (2001),當今中國大眾社會的犬儒主義,二十一世紀,65卷,82-88 頁。
 
梁素君 (2002),組織犬儒主義及其影響因素之研究─以助人工作者為例,長榮學報,6卷2期,145-158頁。
 
陳建和 (2002),觀光研究方法,台北:五南文化。
 
陳映羽 (2005),餐飲業員工之溝通滿意度與個人─工作契合程度對個人─組織契合度之影響研究,旅遊管理研究,5卷1期,55-76頁。
 
陳惠芳、洪嘉徽 (2006),員工知覺新酬公平與賦權對組織承諾影響之研究,東吳經濟商學學報,52卷,235-262頁。
 
陳惠芳、陳怡菁 (2006),工作特性變動與心理賦能對組織承諾之影響研究─以民營化中之公營事業為例,人力資源管理學報,6卷2期,49-69頁。
 
陳惠芳 (2008),在組織變革環境下賦權對組織承諾之影響研究─檢視內外控傾向與知覺心理契約違反之干擾效果,臺大管理論叢,18卷2期,1-26頁。
 
黃品全、王斐青 (2002),提昇旅館員工賦權與能的環境特質─以結構模式分析建立研究模型,觀光研究學報,8卷1期,1-14頁。
 
黃品全 (2003),顧客接觸人員與上司、同事關係對賦能及服務工作之影響─社會交換的觀點,管理評論,22卷4期,57-80頁。
 
黃品全 (2004),旅館餐飲人員賦能認知與服務導向組織公民行為之關聯-從領導者與成員交換理論的觀點,觀光研究學報,10卷4期,19-37頁。
 
黃品全 (2005),轉型與交易領導對心理賦能及服務導向組織公民行為之影響:模式建立及全職、部份工時餐飲人員比較分析,觀光研究學報,11卷3期,233-258頁。
 
黃怡禛 (2006),組織中的僱用關係與職場偏差行為:員工犬儒主義的中介角色及誠信性格的調節效果,中原大學心理學研究所碩士論文。
 
彭台光、高月慈、林鉦棽 (2006),管理研究中的共同方法變異:問題本質、影響、測試和補救,管理學報,23卷1期,77-98頁。
 
鍾安宜 (2001),替代領導影響員工對領導的需求以及工作結果的情形,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。
 
羅世輝、湯雅云 (2003),內外控人格特質與授權賦能認知對工作滿足之影響─以金融保險業為例,人力資源管理學報,3卷1期,1-19頁。
 
嚴秀茹、林育理、戴淑賢 (2004),服務氣候對服務導向公民行為之影響歷程探討─心理授權與角色界定之中介模式,管理評論,23卷1期,25-48頁。
 
行政院主計處 (2007),96年受僱員工動向調查統計結果綜合分析,2009年5月27日,取自http://www.stat.gov.tw/lp.asp?ctNode=1871&CtUnit=412&BaseDSD=7。
 
交通部觀光局行政資訊系統 (2009),2009年2月17日,取自http://admin.taiwan.net.tw/indexc.asp。
 
英文文獻
Abraham, R. (2000). Organizational cynicism: Bases and consequences, Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, Vol.126, No.3, pp.269-292.
 
Andersson, L. M. (1996). Employee cynicism: An examination using a contract violation framework, Human Relations, Vol.49, No.11, pp.1395-1418.
 
Andersson, L. M., & Bateman, T. S. (1997). Cynicism in the workplace: Some causes and effects, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.18, No.5, pp.449-469.
 
Atwater, L. E., Waldman, D. A., Atwater, D., & Cartier, P. (2000). An upward feedback field experiment: Supervisors’ cynicism, reactions, and commitment to subordinates. Personnel Psychology, Vol.53, pp.273-297.
 
Avey, J. B., Hughes, L. W., Norman, S. M., & Luthans, K. W. (2008). Using positivity, transformational leadership and empowerment to combat employee negativity, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol.29, No.2, pp.110-126.
 
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Euwema, M. C. (2005). Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol.10, No.2, pp.170-180.
 
Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory, American Psychological Review, Vol.84, pp.191-215.
 
Barsky, J. D., & Dittmann, S. (1990). Theory S: Total customer service, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol.31, No.1, pp.88-95.
 
Bartunek, J. M., & Spreitzer, G. M. (2006). The interdisciplinary career of a popular construct used in management: Empowerment in the late 20th century, Journal of Management Inquiry, Vol.15, No.3, pp.255-273.
 
Bedeian, A. G. (2007). Even if the tower is “Ivory,” It isn’t “White:” Understanding the consequences of faculty cynicism, Academy of Management Learning & Education, Vol.6, No.1, pp.9-32.
 
Bies, R. J., & Tripp, T. M. (1996). Beyond distrust: “Giving even” and the need for revenge, In R. M. Kramer & T. R. Tyler (Eds), Trust in organizations, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
 
Birdir, K. (2002). General manager turnover and root causes, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol.14, Vol.1, pp.43-47.
 
Bordin, C., Bartram, T., & Casimir, G. (2007). The antecedents and consequences of psychological empowerment among Singaporean IT employees, Management Research News, Vol.30, No.1, pp.34-46.
 
Brandes-Duncan, P. (1995). An exploration of organizational cynicism, working paper, University of Cincinnati.
 
Brief, A. P., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1986). Prosocial organizational behaviors, Academy of Management Review, Vol.11, No.4, pp.710-725.
 
Broner, C. K. (2003). Cynicism about organizational change-disposition, or leadership’s creation? The reactions of K-12 educators undergoing systems change, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Walden University.
 
Brown, M., & Cregan, C. (2008). Organizational change cynicism: The role of employee involvement, Human Resource Management, Vol.47, No.4, pp.667-686.
 
Brymer, R. A. (1991). Employee empowerment: A guest driven leadership strategy, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol.32, No.1, pp.58-68.
 
Bryne, Z. S., & Hochwarter, W. A. (2008). Perceived organizational support and performance: Relationships across levels of organizational cynicism, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol.23, No.1, pp.54-72.
 
Chebat, J. C., Babin, B., & Kollias, P. (2002). What makes contact employees perform? Reactions to employee perceptions of managerial practices, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol.20, No.7, pp.325-332.
 
Chen, H. F., & Chen, Y. C. (2008). The impact of work redesign and psychological empowerment on organizational commitment in a changing environment: An example from Taiwan’s state-owned enterprises, Public Personnel Management, Vol.37, No.3, pp.279-302.
 
Chow, I. H., Lo, T. W., Sha, Z., & Hong, J. (2006). The impact of developmental experience, empowerment, and organizational support on catering service staff performance, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol.25, No.3, pp.478-495.
 
Cole, M. S., Bruch, H., & Vogel, B. (2006). Emotion as mediators of the relations between perceived supervisor support and psychological hardiness on employee cynicism, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.27, pp.463-484.
 
Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice, Academy of Management Review, Vol.13, No.3, pp.471-482.
 
Cook, W. W., & Medley, D. M. (1954). Proposed hostility and parasitic virtue scales for the MMPI, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.38, pp.414-418.
 
Cordes, C. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (1993). A review and an integration of research on job burnout, Academy of Management Review, Vol.18, No.4, pp.621-656.
 
Costa, P. T., Zonderman, A. B., McCrae, R. R., & Williams, R. B. (1986). Cynicism and paranoid alienation in the Cook and Medley Ho scale, Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol.48, No.3, pp.283-285.
 
Dainty, A. R. J., Bryman, A., & Price, A. D. F. (2002). Empowerment within the UK construction sector, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol.23, No.6, pp.333-342.
 
Dean, J. W. Jr., Brandes, P., & Dharwadkar, R. (1998). Organizational cynicism, Academy of Management Review, Vol.23, No.2, pp.341-352.
 
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior, New York: Plenum Press.
 
Dee, J. R., Henkin, A. B., & Duemer, L. (2003). Structural antecedents and psychological correlates of teacher empowerment, Journal of Educational Administration, Vol.41, No.3, pp.257-277.
 
Devos, G., Bouckenooghe, D., Engles, N., Hotton, G., & Aelterman, A. (2007). An assessment of well-being of principals in Flemish primary schools, Journal of Educational Administration, Vol.45, No.1, pp.33-61.
 
Dimitriades, Z. S. (2005). Employee empowerment in the Greek context, International Journal of Manpower, Vol.26, No.1, pp.80-92.
 
Duchon, D., Green, S. G., & Taber, T. D. (1986). Vertical dyad linkage: A longitudinal assessment of antecedents, measures, and consequences, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.71, No.1, pp.56-60.
 
Eaton, J., & Struthers, C. W. (2002). Using the Internet for organizational research: A study of cynicism in the workplace, Cyber Psychology & Behavior, Vol.5, No.4, pp.305-313.
 
Enz, C. A. (2001). What keeps you pp at night? Key issues of concern for lodging managers, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol.42, No.2, pp.38-45.
 
Feldman, D. C. (2000). The Dilbert syndrome: How employee cynicism about ineffective management is changing the nature of careers in organizations, American Behavioral Scientist, Vol.43, No.8, pp.1286-1300.
 
Ferres, N., & Connell, J. (2004). Emotional intelligence in leaders: an antidote for cynicism towards change?, Strategic Change, Vol.13, No.2, pp.61-71.
 
Foster-Fishman, P. G., Salem, D. A., Chibnall, S., Legler, R., & Yapchai, C. (1998). Empirical support for the critical assumptions of empowerment theory, American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol.26, No.4, pp.507-536.
 
Fulford, M. D., & Enz, C. A. (1995). The impact of empowerment on service employees, Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol.7, No.2, pp.161-175.
 
Geralis, M., & Terziovski, M. (2003). A quantitative analysis of the relationship between empowerment practices and service quality outcomes, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, Vol.14, No.1, pp.45-62.
 
Ghiselli, R. F., Joseph, M. L. L., & Billy, B. (2001). Job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover intent, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol.42, No.2, pp.28-37.
 
Gist, M. E. (1987). Self-efficacy: Implications for organizational behavior and human resource management, Academy of Management Review, Vol.12, No.3, pp.472-485.
 
Gist, M. E., & Mitchell, T. R. (1992). Self-efficacy: A theoretical analysis of its determinants and malleability, Academy of Management Review, Vol.17, No.2, pp.183-211.
 
Gomez, C., & Rosen, B. (2001). The leader-member exchange as a link between managerial trust and employee empowerment, Group & Organization Management, Vol.26, No.1, pp.53-68.
 
Graham, J. R. (1993). MMPI-2: Assessing personality and psychopathology (2nd ed). New York: Oxford University Press.
 
Greasley, K., Bryman, A., Dainty, A., Price, A., Soetanto, R., & King, N. (2005). Employee perceptions of empowerment, Employee Relations, Vol.27, No.4, pp.354-368.
 
Greasley, K., Bryman, A., Dainty, A., Price, A., Naismith, N., & Soetanto, R. (2008). Understanding empowerment from employee perspective: What does it mean and do they want it, Team Performance Management, Vol.14, No.1/2, pp.39-55.
 
Hair, J. F. Jr., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis with reading, New York: Macmillan.
 
Hancer, M., & George, R. T. (2003). Psychological empowerment of non-supervisory employees working in full-service restaurants, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol.22, No.1, pp.3-16.
 
Harrison, W. D. (1983). A social competence model of burnout. In B. Farber (Ed.), Stress and burnout in the human service professions, New York: Pergamon Press.
 
Hartline, D. M., & Ferrell, O. C. (1999). The Management of customer-contact service employees: an empirical investigation, Bateson, J. E. G. and Hoffman K. D. (Eds), Managing Services Marketing: Texts and Readings, Drysden Press, Orlando, FL, 226-248.
 
Hechanova, M. R. M., Alampay, R. B. A., & Franco, E. P. (2006). Psychological empowerment, job satisfaction and performance among Filipino service workers, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, Vol.9, No.1, pp.72-78.
 
Herriot, P. (2001). Future work and its emotional implications. In R. L. Payne & C. L. Cooper (Eds), Emotions at work: Theory, research and applications for management, Chichester: John Wiley.
 
Hochwarter, W. A., James, M., Johnson, D., & Ferris, G. R. (2004). The interactive effects of politics perceptions and trait cynicism on work outcomes, Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, Vol.10, No.4, pp.44-57.
 
Holbeche, L., & Springett, N. (2004). In search of meaning in the workplace. UK: Roffey Park Institute.
 
Hui, M. K., Au, K., & Fock, H. (2004). Empowerment effects across cultures, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.35, No.1, pp.46-60.
 
Johnson, P. R. (1994). Brains, heart, and courage: Keys to empowerment and self-directed leadership, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol.9, No.2, pp.17-21.
 
Johnson, J. L., & O’Leary-Kelly, A. M. (2003). The effects of psychological contract breach and organizational cynicism: Not all social exchange violations are created equal, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.24, No.5, pp.627-647.
 
Kahn, R. L., Wolfe, D. M., Quinn, R. P., Snoek, J. D., & Rosenthal, R. A. (1964). Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity, New York: John Wiley.
 
Kanter, R. M. (1989). The new managerial work, Harvard Business Review, Vol.67, No.6, pp.85-92.
 
Kanter, D. L., & Mirvis, P. H. (1989). The Cynical Americans: Living and working in an age of discontent and disillusion, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
 
Kaplan, S. A., Bradley, J. C., & Ruscher, J. B. (2004). The inhibitory role of cynical disposition in the provision and receipt support: the case of the September 11th terrorist attack, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol.37, pp.1221-1232.
 
Klidas, A., van den Berg, P. T., & Wilderom, C. P. M. (2007). Managing employee empowerment in luxury hotels in Europe, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol.18, No.1, pp.70-88.
 
Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1993). Credibility: How leaders gain and lose it, why people demand it, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
 
Lashley, C., & Lee-Ross, D. (2003). Organizational Behaviour for Leisure Services, Butterworth-Heinemann.
 
Lee, M., & Koh, J. (2001). Is empowerment really a new concept, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol.12, No.4, pp.684-695.
 
Leiter, M. (1988). Burnout as a function of communication patterns: A study of a multidisciplinary mental health team, Group & Organization Studies, Vol.13, No.1, pp.111-128.
 
Leiter, M. P., Harvie, P., & Frizzell, C. (1998). The correspondence of patient satisfaction and nurse burnout, Social Science & Medicine, Vol.47, No.10, pp.1611-1617.
 
Lenney, E., Gold, J., & Browning, C. (1983). Sex differences in self-confidence: The influence of comparison to others’ ability level, Sex Roles, Vol.9, No.9, pp.925-942.
 
Liang, S. C., & Hsieh, A. T. (2005). Individual’s perception of career development and job burnout among flight attendants in Taiwan, International Journal of Aviation Psychology, Vol.15, No.2, pp.119-134.
 
Matthews, R. A., Diaz, W. M., & Cole, S. G. (2003). The organizational empowerment scale, Personnel Review, Vol.32, No.3, pp.297-318.
 
McCarthy, A., & Garavan, T. (2006). Postfeedback development perceptions: Applying the theory of planned behavior, Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol.17, No.3, pp.245-267.
 
McClelland, D. C. (1975). Power: The inner experience, Irvington Press.
 
Menon, S. T. (2001). Employee empowerment: An integrative psychological approach, Applied Psychology: An International Review, Vol.50, No.1, pp.153-180.
 
Meyerson, D. E. (1990). Uncovering socially undesirable emotions: Experiences of role ambiguity in organizations, American Behavioral Scientist, Vol.33, No.3, pp.296-307.
 
Meyerson, S. L., & Kline, T. J. B. (2008). Psychological and environmental empowerment: Antecedents and consequences, Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, Vol.29, No.5, pp.444-460.
 
Mirivs, P. H., & Kanter, D. L. (1991). Beyond demography: A psychographic profile of the workforce, Human Resource Management, Vol.30, No.1, pp.45-68.
 
Moye, M. J., & Henkin, A. B. (2006). Exploring associations between employee empowerment and interpersonal trust in managers, Journal of Management Development, Vol.25, No.2, pp.101-117.
 
Naus, F., van Iterson, A., & Roe, R. (2007a). Organizational cynicism: Extending the exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect model of employees’ response to adverse conditions in the workplace, Human Relations, Vol.60, No.5, pp.683-718.
 
Naus, F., van Iterson, A., & Roe, R. A. (2007b). Value incongruence, job autonomy, and organization-based self-esteem: A self-based perspective on organizational cynicism, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol.16, No.2, pp.195-219.
 
Niederhoffer, A. (1967). Behind the shield. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company.
 
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory (Second Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.
 
O’Connell, B. J., Holzman, H. H., & Armandi, B, R. (1986). Police cynicism and the modes of adaptation, Journal of Police Science and Administration, Vol.14, No.4, pp.307-313.
 
Peterson, W. C. (1994). Silent depression: The fate of the American dream, New York: W. W. Norton.
   
Psoinos, A., & Smithson, S. (2002). Employee empowerment in manufacturing: a study of organizations in the UK, New Technology, Work and Employment, Vol.17, No.2, pp.132-148.
 
Pugh, S. D., Skarlicki, D. P., & Passell, B. S. (2003). After the fall: Layoff victims’ trust and cynicism in re-employment, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol.76, No.2, pp.201-212.
 
Qian, Y., & Daniels, T. D. (2008). A communication model of employee cynicism toward organizational change, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol.13, No.3, pp.319-332.
 
Regoli, B., Crank, J. P., & Rivera, G. F. (1990). The construction and implementation of an alternative measure of police cynicism, Criminal Justice and Behavior, Vol.17, No.4, pp.395-409.
 
Reichers, A. E., Wanous, J. P., & Austin, J. T. (1997). Understanding and managing cynicism about organizational change, Academy of Management Executive, Vol.11, No.1, pp.48-59.
 
Rousseau, D. M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations, Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, Vol.2, No.2, pp.121-139.
 
Seibert, S., Silver, S., & Randolph, W. (2004). Taking empowerment to the next level: A multiple-level model of empowerment, performance, and satisfaction, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.43, No.3, pp.332-349.
 
Smith, T. W., Pope, M. K., Sanders, J. D., Allred, K. D., & O’Keefe, J. L. (1988). Cynical hostility at home and at work: Psychosocial vulnerability across domains, Journal of Research in Personality, Vol.22, pp.525-548.
 
Spector, P. E. (2006). Method variance in organizational research: Truth or urban legend?, Organizational Research Methods, Vol.9, No.2, pp.221-232.
 
Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.38, No.5, pp.1442-1465.
 
Spreitzer, G. M. (1997). Toward a common ground in defining empowerment, Research in Organizational Change and Development, Vol.10, pp.31-62.
 
Stanley, D. J., Meyer, J. P., & Topolnytsky, L (2005). Employee cynicism and resistance to organizational change, Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol.19, No.4, pp.429-459.
 
Taborda, C. G. (2000). Leadership, teamwork, and empowerment: Future management trends, Costing Engineering, Vol.42, No.10, pp.41-44.
 
Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: An interpretive model of intrinsic task motivation, Academy of Management Review, Vol.15, No.4, pp.666-681.
 
Tinsley, H. E. A., & Tinsley, D. J. (1987). Use of factor analysis in counseling psychology research, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol.34, No.4, pp.414-424.
 
Toppinen-Tanner, S., Kalimo, R., & Mutanen, P. (2002). The process of burnout in white-collar and blue-collar jobs: Eight-year prospective study of exhaustion, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.23, No.5, pp.555-570.
 
Treadway, D. C., Hochwarter, W. A., Ferris, G. R., Kacmar, C. J., Douglas, C., Ammeter, A. P., & Buckley, M. R. (2004). Leader political skill and employee reactions, Leadership Quarterly, Vol.15, No.4, pp.493-513.
 
Turner, J. H., & Valentine, S. R. (2001). Cynicism as fundamental dimension of moral decision-making: A scale development, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol.34, No.2, pp.123-136.
 
Vance, R. J., Brooks, S. M., & Tesluk, P. E. (1996). Organizational cynicism and change, Pennsylvania State University, University Park.
 
Van Dyne, L., Graham, J. W., & Dienesch, R. M. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement and validation, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.37, No.4, pp.765-802.
 
Wallach, V. A., & Mueller, C. W. (2006). Job characteristics and organizational predictors of psychological empowerment among paraprofessionals within human service organizations: An exploratory study, Administration in Social Work, Vol.30, No.1, pp.94-115.
 
Wanous, J. P., Reichers, A. E., & Austin, J. T. (1994). Organizational cynicism: An initial study, Academy of Management Best Papers proceedings, 269-273.
 
Wanous, J. P., Reichers, A. E., & Austin, J. T. (2000). Cynicism about organizational change: Measurements, antecedents, and correlates, Group and Organizational Management, Vol.25, No.2, pp.132-153.
 
Wanous, J. P., Reichers, A. E., & Austin, J. T. (2004). Cynicism about organizational change: An attribution process perspective, Psychological Reports, Vol.94, No.2, pp.1421-1434.
 
Wat, D., & Shaffer, M. A. (2005). Equity and relationship quality influences on organizational citizenship behaviors: The mediating role of trust in the supervisor and empowerment, Personnel Review, Vol.34, No.4, pp.406-422.
 
Watt, J. D., & Piotrowski, C. (2008). Organizational change cynicism: A review of the literature and intervention strategies, Organization Development Journal, Vol.26, No.3, pp.23-31.
 
Wilkerson, J. M., Evans, W. R., & Davis, W. D. (2008). A test of coworkers’ influence on organizational cynicism, badmouthing, and organizational citizenship behavior, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol.38, No.9, pp.2273-2292.
 
Wilkinson, A. (1998). Empowerment: Theory and practice, Personnel Review, Vol.27, No.1, pp.40-56.
 
Wu, C., Neubert, M. J., & Yi, X. (2007). Transformational leadership, cohesion perceptions, and employee cynicism about organizational change: The mediating role of justice perceptions, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Vol.43, No.3, pp.327-351.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 梁素君 (2002),組織犬儒主義及其影響因素之研究─以助人工作者為例,長榮學報,6卷2期,145-158頁。
2. 陳映羽 (2005),餐飲業員工之溝通滿意度與個人─工作契合程度對個人─組織契合度之影響研究,旅遊管理研究,5卷1期,55-76頁。
3. 陳惠芳、洪嘉徽 (2006),員工知覺新酬公平與賦權對組織承諾影響之研究,東吳經濟商學學報,52卷,235-262頁。
4. 陳惠芳、陳怡菁 (2006),工作特性變動與心理賦能對組織承諾之影響研究─以民營化中之公營事業為例,人力資源管理學報,6卷2期,49-69頁。
5. 陳惠芳 (2008),在組織變革環境下賦權對組織承諾之影響研究─檢視內外控傾向與知覺心理契約違反之干擾效果,臺大管理論叢,18卷2期,1-26頁。
6. 黃品全 (2003),顧客接觸人員與上司、同事關係對賦能及服務工作之影響─社會交換的觀點,管理評論,22卷4期,57-80頁。
7. 彭台光、高月慈、林鉦棽 (2006),管理研究中的共同方法變異:問題本質、影響、測試和補救,管理學報,23卷1期,77-98頁。
8. 羅世輝、湯雅云 (2003),內外控人格特質與授權賦能認知對工作滿足之影響─以金融保險業為例,人力資源管理學報,3卷1期,1-19頁。
9. 嚴秀茹、林育理、戴淑賢 (2004),服務氣候對服務導向公民行為之影響歷程探討─心理授權與角色界定之中介模式,管理評論,23卷1期,25-48頁。
 
1. 內部行銷、心理賦能對服務導向組織公民行為與工作投入的影響
2. 公立醫院契約人員的知識學習、工作價值觀對心理賦能、工作倦怠與工作士氣之關聯性研究—以南部地區榮民醫院及軍醫院為例
3. 國際觀光旅館顧客導向策略執行對員工顧客導向行為影響之研究─以直線主管賦權認知為調節變項
4. 旅館員工之授權賦能與工作滿足及組織承諾之關聯性研究
5. 軍機維修組織領導型態、心理賦能、組織承諾與工作滿足及工作績效之關聯性研究
6. 女性高階主管職涯發展之探討-以國際觀光旅館業為例
7. 自我效能與工作壓力對學習動機之影響-以台中市國際觀光旅館全職從業人員為例
8. 觀光旅館業之餐飲單位主管對餐飲專業能力之認知
9. 結合平衡計分卡與資料包絡分析法-應用於國際觀光旅館標竿管理之探討
10. 轉化型領導對組織公民行為之影響-心理賦權與內控性格之角色探討
11. 市場結構、廠商行為與營運績效之研究-以我國國際觀光旅館業為例
12. 臺灣國際觀光旅館品牌形象、知覺品質與知覺價值對旅客再宿意願之影響
13. 組織互動公平認知對360度評量受評者自我發展接受性之影響-以組織犬儒主義為中介變項
14. 調節焦點對心理賦能與退卻行為之干擾效果研究
15. 國際觀光旅館管理者領導風格、員工工作壓力與工作績效之關係研究