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研究生:簡維綱
研究生(外文):Wei-Kang, Chien
論文名稱:蜂王乳粉添加羊乳抽出物之儲存穩定性研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Improving Royal Jelly Powder Storage Stability by Goat Milk Extract
指導教授:曹博宏、陳裕文
指導教授(外文):Po-Hung, Tsao;Yue-Wen, Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:動物科技學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:蜂王乳新鮮度指標羊乳抽出物
外文關鍵詞:Royal jellyFreshness markerFermented goat milk extract
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蜂王乳是具機能性價值的蜂產品,惟其活性對儲藏環境極為敏感,目前判定其新鮮度之指標不足。一般生鮮蜂王乳必須冷凍保存,導致食用上的不方便性,目前產業界常以冷凍乾燥技術改良生鮮蜂王乳。由於蜂王乳粉吸濕性強且口感辛辣,產業界多以添加澱粉、乳糖等賦形劑來改善這些問題。本研究首先藉由建立新鮮度評估指標,蜂王乳57 kDa標的蛋白之分子鑑定:並進一步以此分子標的,輔以顏色、pH值、外觀等物化性狀,作為新鮮度指標,以探討添加羊乳抽出物對蜂王乳粉儲存安定性之影響。
研究結果顯示,經原態電泳、電溶離分離取得之蜂王乳57kDa蛋白質以二維電泳與液相層析質譜儀分析,經NCBI資料庫比對,發現與已知之蜂王乳機能性蛋白分子major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP-1) 胺基酸序列涵蓋度達43%,且進一步經由比較電泳結果與部分胺基酸序列比對確認為royalactin。凍乾與生鮮蜂王乳分別於 -20、4、25及37℃儲存四週,經原態電泳與影像分析鑑定royalactin蛋白質光學密度差異。結果顯示新鮮蜂王乳royalactin蛋白質會隨著儲存時間及溫度增加而逐漸消失,凍乾蜂王乳變化則維持一致。於蜂王乳粉末中添加羊乳抽出物能減緩蜂王乳的顏色變深。儲存實驗結果亦發現添加羊乳抽出物能減緩royalactin的降解。此外,吸濕性實驗結果亦發現,添加羊乳抽出物能減緩蜂王乳粉顏色變深且外觀不易變粘稠。綜合上述發現,蜂王乳57 kDa蛋白質為MRJP-1家族一員,且為royalactin,而利用羊乳抽出物添加可有效改善凍乾蜂王乳粉的儲存安定性。未來可進一步應用此蛋白質來進行抗體製備,以開發快速簡易之蜂王乳新鮮度評估指標方法。
Royal jelly (RJ) a neutraceutical bee product is suffered from labile activity during normal storage condition. At present, the suitable marker to evaluate its freshness is still lacked. Fresh RJ needs to be storage by frozen, that could be caused inconvenient consuming. Therefore, using lyophilization technique to produce RJ powder is developed in industry. The strong hygroscopic property and bad taste for RJ powder need to be improved by using starch or lactose as carriers. The purpose of this study is to identify the 57 kDa protein in royal jelly, as well to evaluate whether it could be as a freshness marker for lyophilized RJ powder. In addition using this marker and several physical-chemical properties including examine browning tendencies, pH and powder shape to evaluate storage stability of formulated RJ powder in adding yeast-fermented goat milk extract as carrier.
The isolated 57 kDa protein was analyzed by native-electrophoresis, electro elution, 2D-PAGE and LC-MS/MS; as well the digested peptides sequence was compared with NCBI database. The result showed a 43% coverage with major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP-1), well known as a neutraceutical protein in royal jelly. In addition, compared with the result of several references of amino acid sequences of royalactin, we considered that the 57 kDa protein of royal jelly is royalactin. The lyophilized royal jelly and raw material samples were stored at -20, 4, 25 and 37℃ for 4 weeks, respectively. As compared with electrophoresis and densitometer methods, the result showed that the target protein in raw material gradually disappeared as storage temperature and time increased while the target molecule in lyophilized group remained consistent. Adding fermented goat milk extract could have less browning tendencies, much better powder shape, and more protection on royalactin. In conclusion, the 57 kDa protein could be a family of MRJP-1, and consider as royalactin. Adding the fermented goat milk extract can improve storage stability of lyophilized royal jelly. In future, the production of antibody for royalactin can be developed a faster and easier method to evaluate the freshness of royal jelly products.
目錄

誌謝…………………………………………………………………………………………….I
中文摘要………………………………………………………………………………………II
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………………...III
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………………..IV
表目錄……………………………………………………………………………………….VII
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………………VIII
縮寫…………………………………………………………………………………………..IX

第壹章、前言…………………………………………………………………………………...1
第貳章、文獻探討……………………………………………………………………………...3
第一節、 蜂王乳的來源………………………………………………………………...3
第二節、 蜂王乳的生產………………………………………………………………...3
第三節、 蜂王乳的機能性……………………………………………………………...4
第四節、 蜂王乳的新鮮度指標………………………………………………………...5
一、 水溶性蛋白質………………………………………………………………...5
二、 超氧歧化酶…………………………………………………………………...5
三、 葡萄糖氧化酶………………………………………………………………...6
四、 蛋白質結構傅立葉轉換紅外光譜分析…………………………………….6
五、 γ-球蛋白………………………………………………………………………7
六、 胺基酸………………………………………………………………………...7
七、 Furosine……………………………………………………………………….7
八、 Apisin…………………………………………………………………………9
九、 Royalactin……………………………………………………………………..9
第五節、 蜂王乳的儲存……………………………………………………………….10
第六節、 羊乳蛋白的特性…………………………………………………………….12
第七節、 研究動機…………………………………………………………………….14
第參章、材料與方法………………………………………………………………………….15
第一節、材料…………………………………………………………………………….15
第二節、實驗儀器與藥品試劑………………………………………………………….16
一、 實驗儀器……………………………………………………………………...16
二、 藥品試劑……………………………………………………………………...18
第三節、實驗策略……………………………………………………………………….20
一、 凍乾蜂王乳粉新鮮度指標之建立與評估…………………………………..20
二、 添加羊乳抽出物對於改善凍乾蜂王乳粉末儲存性之評估…………...........21
第四節、實驗方法……………………………………………………………………….22
一、蜂王乳57 kDa蛋白分子分離與鑑定…………………………………………22
1、聚丙烯醯胺膠體電泳 (Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, PAGE) …….22
a. 原態電泳……………………………………………………………22
b. SDS電泳……………………………………………………………22
c. 二維電泳……………………………………………………………23
2、蜂王乳57kDa蛋白質分離與鑑定………………………………………...24
二、添加羊乳抽出物對改善凍乾蜂王乳粉末儲存性之評估…………………….25
1、原物料樣品分析…………………………………………………………...25
a. pH值測定………………………………………………………….25
b. 色澤測定…………………………………………………………...25
c. 一般化學成份分析………………………………………………...25
2、儲存試驗…………………………………………………………………...26
3、吸濕性試驗………………………………………………………………...26
4、光學密度測定……………………………………………………………...27
第肆章、結果與討論………………………………………………………………………….28
第一節、 蜂王乳57 kDa蛋白質分離與鑑定……………………………………...….28
第二節、 評估添加羊乳抽出物對於改善凍乾蜂王乳粉末之儲存性……………….29
一、 原物料樣品分析……………………………………………………………...29
二、 儲存試驗……………………………………………………………………...30
1、 蜂王乳粉末 (PRJ) 儲存的變化…………………………………………30
2、 混合粉末 (FPRJ) 儲存的變化………………………………………….31
3、 羊乳抽出物 (FGMP) 儲存變化………………………………………...33
三、吸濕性試驗…………………………………………………………………….33
第伍章、結論………………………………………………………………………………….56
第陸章、參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………….57
附錄…………………………………………………………………………………………...64

表目錄
表一、蜂王乳中57 kDa蛋白質經Mascot 分析的鑑定結果………………………………36
表二、各原物料的化學組成分……………………………………………………………….37
表三、蜂王乳粉末 (PRJ) 儲存期間顏色及pH值變化……………………………………..38
表四、混合粉末 (FPRJ) 儲存期間顏色及pH值變化……………………………………...39
表五、羊乳抽出物 (FGMP) 儲存期間顏色及pH值的變化……………………………….40
表六、各樣品在不同相對濕度下顏色及pH值變化………………….……………………..41

圖目錄
圖一、各樣品儲存於不同溫度一週的 SDS 電泳及原態電泳分析結果………………….42
圖二、蜂王乳57 kDa蛋白質的電泳分析結果………………………………………………43
圖三、57 kDa蛋白質經電溶離後二維電泳分析結果……………………………………….44
圖四、蜂王乳57 kDa蛋白質經液相層析串聯質譜儀及Mascot分析結果………………..45
圖五、LC-MS /MS結果與其他報告的連結比對……………………………………………47
圖六、蜂王乳粉末 (PRJ) 儲存期間顏色變化………………………………………………48
圖七、蜂王乳粉末 (PRJ) 儲存期間的原態電泳及蛋白質光密度變化……………………49
圖八、混合粉末 (FPRJ) 儲存期間的顏色變化…………………………………………….50
圖九、混合粉末 (FPRJ) 儲存期間的原態電泳及蛋白質光密度變化…………………….51
圖十、羊乳抽出物 (FGMP) 儲存期間顏色變化…………………………………………...52
圖十一、不同相對溼度下各樣品於25℃儲存2週後增重率……………………………….53
圖十二、經吸濕性實驗後各樣品外觀的比較……………………………………………….54
圖十三、各樣品經吸濕性實驗後的原態電泳分析結果…………………………………….55
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