(3.236.222.124) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/13 19:32
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:周家頎
研究生(外文):Jia-qi Zhou
論文名稱:影響英語檢定考試中閱讀能力之因素探討
論文名稱(外文):The investigation of factors affecting EFL reading performance in an English proficiency test
指導教授:洪紹挺洪紹挺引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shao-ting Hung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:應用英語所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:閱讀因素英語檢定考試閱讀過程
外文關鍵詞:Reading factorsEnglish proficiency testsReading process
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:535
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:116
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
在台灣,對於因職場上的需求或是因國內外學術進修之目地而言的國人,英文檢定證照已經成為英語能力證明不可或缺重要指標。目前,最為國人熟悉的英文檢定考試有多益(TOEIC),托福(TOELF),艾思(IELTS),及全民英檢(GEPT)。其中,以多益考試為例,根據台灣多益官方網站 (http://www.toeic.com.tw/stat.htm) 所公布的報考人數統計中顯示出,自2004年的40,925人到2008上半年的80,723人可以明顯看出國人對於英文檢定證照已逐年重視。
本研究主要探討檢定考試閱讀部份中,影響閱讀理解的因素。在因素的部份採用Freedle與Kostin在1993年的研究中提出的12項文本因素,包含否定詞、代名詞指稱、本文類型、fronted structure句型、單字、句子長短、段落長短、段落個數、文章主旨的抽象或具體與否、文章長度、文章資訊在段落上的分佈、及文章與選項的單字重覆 (Freedle & Kostin, 1993)。根據此12項文本因素在閱讀考試題型裡的文本段落、題目、正確解答、其他選項四個部份,研究問題為下列四項:(1) 在文本段落中,學生認為那些因素會影響他們的閱讀理解能力?(2) 在題目中,學生認為那些因素會影響他們的閱讀理解能力? (3) 在正確選項中,學生認為那些因素會影響他們的閱讀理解能力?(4) 在其他選項中,學生認為那些因素會影響他們的閱讀理解能力?
本次研究以問卷方式及訪問為主要資料收集方式,其受試對象是台灣南部某科技大學裡多益加強班學生共133名。其中,問卷回收105名,無效問卷有10名,有效問卷有95名。此外,從95名有效問卷裡隨機選出8名受試者做進一步的訪談。經過資料的分析,主要的結果如下:(1) 在文本段落裡,對閱讀理解有影響之因素有五項,包含文章主旨的抽象或具體與否、文章長度、單字、句子長短、段落長度。(2) 在問題裡,對閱讀理解有影響之因素有兩項,包含單字及句子長短 (3) 在正確選項裡,對閱讀理解有影響之因素只有單字一項。(4) 在其他選項裡,對閱讀理解有影響之因素同樣只有單字一項。
針對此研究所發現的結果,對於受試者,老師,或題目設計者之教學建議也在本篇研究中提出。
In Taiwan, English certificates have become prerequisite indices of English ability for people with either the vocational requirement or the purpose of studying abroad. So far, the proficiency tests which have been widely known in Taiwan are TOEIC, TOEFL, IELTS, and GEPT. Take the number of examinees of TOEIC as an example. It is obvious that English certificates have been greatly emphasized because of 40,925 test-takers in 2004 to 80,723 in the first half of 2008 revealed from the statistics of the number of examinees of TOEIC, according to the official TOEIC website in Taiwan (http://www.toeic.com.tw/stat.htm).
The study chiefly investigates the factors affecting reading comprehension in the reading section of English proficiency tests. Twelve influential factors mentioned in Freedle and Kostin’s study (1993) were applied in this study, including negations, referentials, rhetorical organizers, fronted structures, vocabulary, sentence length, paragraph length, number of paragraphs, abstractness/concreteness of text, passage length, location of relevant text information, and the lexical overlap between text and options. Based on these 12 factors in reading passages, prompts, correct answers, and distractors in reading section, four research questions were presented: (1) Which variables do students consider the factors influencing their reading comprehension in the reading passages? (2) Which variables do students consider the factors influencing their reading comprehension in the prompts? (3) Which variables do students consider the factors influencing their reading comprehension in correct answers? (4) Which variables do students consider the factors influencing their reading comprehension in distractors?
Data were collected from the questionnaires and the short interviews. The subjects are 133 students in TOEIC classes in a national university of science and technology in the southern part of Taiwan. Among these 133 subjects, 105 questionnaires were collected, 10 of which were invalid, and 95 of which were valid. Moreover, 8 of these 95 subjects were randomly selected for the interviews. After the data analysis, the main results were presented: (1) In the category of reading passages, there are 5 factors influencing students’ reading comprehension, including abstractness/concreteness of text, passage length, vocabulary, sentence length, and paragraph length. (2) In the category of prompts, there are 2 influential factors affecting students’ reading comprehension, including vocabulary and sentence length. (3) In the category of correct answers, only vocabulary was selected as the influential factor affecting students’ reading comprehension. (4) In the category of distractors, only vocabulary was regarded as the influential factor affecting students’ reading comprehension.
Based on these results, pedagogical implications are demonstrated for test-takers, instructors, and test-designers.
Table of Contents
摘要.......i
Abstract....iii
Acknowledgement.....vi
Table of Contents.....viii
List of Tables.....x

Chapter 1 Introduction.....1
The Introduction of English Proficiency Tests.....1
Twelve Text Factors Affecting Students’ Reading Performance.....3
Purpose of the Study.....5
Research Questions.....6
Definition.....6
The Organization of the Present Study.....7

Chapter 2 Literature Review .....8
Introduction.....8
The Process of Reading Comprehension.....9
The Introduction of 4 Proficiency Tests.....14
GEPT.....14
IELTS.....15
TOEFL.....17
TOEIC.....20
The Instruction of Testing Strategies in Taiwan.....22
The Introduction of 12 Influential Factors.....24
Negation.....25
Referentials.....27
Rhetorical Organizer.....28
Fronted Structures.....30
Sentence Length.....32
Passage Length.....34
The Lexical Overlap.....35
The Location of Relevant Information.....36
Abstractness/Concreteness of Text.....38
Vocabulary.....40
The Paragraph Length and the Number of the Paragraph.....42

Chapter 3 Methodology.....45
Subjects.....45
Instrument.....49
Questionnaire.....49
Interview .....50
Procedure .....51
Data Collection.....51
Data Analysis.....52

Chapter 4 Results and Discussion.....55
Research Question 1......56
The Abstractedness and Concreteness of the Reading Text.....59
Passage Length.....60
Vocabulary.....62
Sentence Length.....68
The Paragraph Length.....69
Research Question 2......69
Vocabulary.....70
Sentence Length.....72
Research Question 3......74
Vocabulary.....75
Research Question 4......79
Vocabulary.....80

Chapter 5 Conclusion.....84
Summary of the Present Study.....84
Limitations.....85
Implications.....86
Further Study.....88

References.....90

Appendix 1 Questionnaire (Chinese Version).....97
Appendix 2 Questionnaire (English Version).....102
Appendix 3 Frequencies of Each Cell in the Questionnaire.....108
Appendix 4 The Interview Data.....110
Abrahamsen, E. P., & Shelton, K. C. (1989). Reading comprehension in adolescents with learning disabilities: Semantic and syntactic effects. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22(9), 569-572.

Adams, S. J. (1982). Scripts and the recognition of unfamiliar vocabulary: Enhancing second language reading skills. Modern Language Journal, 66, 155-159.

Alejo, R., & McGinity, M. (1997). Terminological loans and the teaching/learning of technical vocabulary: The use of economic anglicisms in the business classroom. In J. P. Angordans & D. J. Viera (Eds.), Applied languages: Theory and practice in ESP (pp. 211-227). Valencia: Universitat de Valncia.

Amer, A. A. (1993). Teaching EFL students to use a test-taking strategy. Language Testing, 10(1), 71-77.

Anderson, R. C. (1972). How to construct achievement tests to assess comprehension. Review of Educational Research, 42(2), 145-170.

Begg, I., & Paivio, A. (1969). Concretness and imagery in sentence meaning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 821-827.

Bever, T. G., & Townsend, D. J. (1979). Perceptual mechanisms and formal properties of main and subordinate clauses. In W. E. Cooper & E. C. Walker (Eds.), Sentence processing: Psycholinguistic studies presented to Merill Garrett (pp. 159-226). Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Bond, L. (1981). Before the test: Coaching, equity, and admissions. New Directions for Testing and Measurement, (9), 53-59.

Bormuth, J. R., Carr, J., Manning, J., & Pearson, D. (1970). Children''s comprehension of between- and within- sentence syntactic structures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 61(5), 349-357.

Carpenter, P. A., & Just, M. A. (1975). Sentence comprehension: A psycholinguistic processing model of verification. Psychological Review, 82(1), 45-73.
Clark, H. H., & Haviland, S. E. (1977). Comprehension and the given-new contract. In R. O. Freedle (Ed.), Discourse production and comprehension (Vol. 1, pp. 1-40). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Davey, B. (1988). Factors affecting the difficulty of reading comprehension items for successful and unsuccessful readers. Journal of Experimental Education, 56, 67-76.

Davis, F. B. (1944). Fundamental factors of comprehension in reading. Psychometrika, 9(3), 185-197.

Drum, P. A., Calfee, R. C., & Cook, L. K. (1981). The effects of surface structure variables on performance in reading comprehension tests. Reading Research Quarterly, 16(4), 486-514.

Educational Testing Service (ETS). (2007). The official guide to the new TOEFL iBT. New York: Mcgraw-Hill.

Embretson, S. E., & Wetzel, C. D. (1987). Component latent trait models for paragraph comprehension tests. Applied Psychological Measurement, 11(2), 175-193.

Examinee Handbook. (n.d.). Retrieved Fall, 2008, from ETS TOEIC Web site: http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/TOEIC/pdf/NTOEIC_LR_Examinee_Handbook_A4_web.pdf

Forster, D. E., & Karn, R. (1998). Teaching TOEIC/TOEFL test-taking strategies. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Retrieved November 20, 2008, from ERIC database: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/17/56/44.pdf

Freedle, R. O., & Fellbaum, C. (1987). An exploratory study of the relative difficulty of TOEFL''s listening comprehension items. In R. O. Freedle & R. P. Duran (Eds.), Cognitive and linguistic analyses of test performance (pp. 162-192). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Freedle, R., & Kostin, I. (1993). The prediction of TOEFL reading item difficulty: implications for construct validity. Language Testing, 10(2), 133-170.

Gill, A. M., & Whedbee, K. (1997). Rhetoric. In T. A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as structure and process (Vol. 1, pp. 157-184). London: SAGE Publications.

Gorin, J. S., & Embretson, S. E. (2006). Item diffficulty modeling of paragraph comprehension items. Applied Psychological Measurement, 30(5), 394-411.

Gough, P. B. (1965). Grammatical transformations and speed of understanding. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 4, 107-111.

Grabe, W. (2007). What every teacher needs to know about L2 reading: 2007. In Y. N. Leung (Ed.), Selected Papers from the Sixteenth International Symposium on English Teaching (pp. 31-46). Taipei: CRANE Publishing Co, LTD.

Graham, D. M., & Watts, S. M. (1990). Contextual analysis in naturally occurring prose: Effects of passage length, word frequency, and grade. Paper presented at 21st annual conference of the Northeastern Educational Research Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED399511) Retrieved August 29, 2008, from ERIC database: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/14/b3/7b.pdf

Graves, M. F. (1986). Vocabulary learning and instruction. In E. Z. Rothkopf (Ed.), Review of research in education (Vol. 13, pp. 49-89). Washington, D. C.: American Educational Research Association.

Hammadou, J. (1991). Interrelationships among prior knowledge, inference, and language proficiency in foreign language reading. The Modern Language Journal, 75(1), 27-38.

Hare, V. C., Rabinowitz, M., & Schieble, K. M. (1989). Text effects on main idea comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 72-88.

Hewett, T., Markel, M., & Vaccaro, M. (1992). Effects of paragraph length on attitudes toward technical writing (current research in technical communication). Technical Communication, 39(3), 454-56.

Hornby, P. A. (1974). Surface structure and presupposition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 530-538.

Huang, S. F. (2002). The correlation between the lexical and syntactic competence and reading comprehension of EFL senior high school students in Taiwan. National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan.

IELTS handbook 2007. (n.d.). Retrieved Summer, 2008, from IELTS Web site: http://www.ielts.org/pdf/IELTS_Handbook_2007.pdf

Jeng, H. S. (2007). Correlations between readability, sentence lengths and vocabulary levels of ten reading passages from five major international English proficiency tests. In Y. N. Leung (Ed.), Selected Papers from the Sixteenth International Symposium on English Teaching (pp. 87-99). Taipei: CRANE Publishing Co., LTD.

Johnson, M. K., Bransford, J. D., Nyberg, S. E., & Cleary, J. J. (1972). Comprehension factors in interpreting memory for abstract and concrete sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 451-454.

Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1971). Comprehension of negation with quantification. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10, 244-253.

Just, M. A., & Clark, H. H. (1973). Drawing inferences from the presuppositions and implications of affirmative and negative sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 21-31.

Kieras, D. E. (1978). Good and bad structure in simple paragraphs: Effects on apparent theme, reading time, and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 13-28.

Kieras, D. E. (1985). Thematic processes in the comprehension of technical prose. In B. Britton, & J. Black (Eds.), Understanding expository prose. Hillsdale, NJ: L.Erlbaum.

Kintsch, W., & Keenan, J. (1973). Reading rate and retention as a function of the number of propositions in the base structure of sentences. Cognitive Psychology, 5, 257-274.

Kintsch, W., & van Dijk, T. A. (1978). Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review, 85(5), 363-394.

Kintsch, W., & Yarbrough, C. (1982). Role of rhetorical structure in text comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(6), 828-834.

Klare, G. R. (1974-75). Assessing readability. Reading Research Quarterly, 10, 62-102.

Kobayashi, M. (2002). Method effects on reading comprehension test performance: Text organization and response format. Language Testing, 19(2), 193-220.

Koen, F., Becker, A., & Young, R. (1969). The psychological reality of the paragraph. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 49-53.

Kruse, A. F. (1979). Vocabulary in context. English Language Teaching Journal, 33(3), 207-213.

Kulik, J. A., Bangert-Drowns, R. L., & Kulik, C.-L. C. (1984). Effectiveness of coaching for aptitude tests. Psychological Bulletin, 95(2), 179-188.

Li, X. L. (1988). Effects of contextual cues on inferring and remembering meanings of new words. Applied Linguistics, 9(4), 402-413.

Ligon, G. D. (1983). Preparing students for standardized testing. In W. E. Hathaway (Ed.), New directions for testing and measurement (pp. 19-59). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lougheed, L. (2003). Introduction. In How to prepare for the TOEIC test [Introduction] (p. 3). NY: Barron''s Educational Series, Inc.

Marschark, M., & Paivio, A. (1977). Integrative processing of concrete and abstract sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 16, 217-231.

Meyer B. J. F. (1977). What is remembered from prose: A function of passage structure, In Roy O. Freedle (Ed.), Discourse production and comprehension (pp. 307-336). Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Meyer, B. J., & Freedle, R. O. (1984). Effects of discourse type on recall. American Educational Research Journal, 21(1), 121-143.

Mikk, J. (2008). Sentence length for revealing the cognitive load reversal effect in text comprehension. Educational Studies, 34(2), 119-127.

Newsom, R. S., & Gaite, J. H. (1971). Prose learning: Effects of pretesting and reduction of passage length. Psychological Reports, 28, 123-129.

Next Generation TOEIC Know English. Know Success. (n.d.). Retrieved Fall, 2008, from TOEIC Web site:http://www.toeic.com.tw/pdf/New%20TOEIC.pdf

Qian, D. D. (2002). Investigating the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic reading performance: An assessment perspective. Language Learning, 52(3), 513-536.

Richek, M. A. (1976-77). Reading comprehension of anaphoric forms in varying linguistic contexts. Reading Research Quarterly, 12(2), 145-165.

Robb, T. N., & Ercanbrack, J. (1999). A study of the effect of direct test preparation on the TOEIC scores of Japanese university students. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, 3(4).

Roever, C., & Pan, Y. C. (2008). GEPT: General English proficiency test. Language Testing, 25(3), 403-418.

Sanders, T. J., & Gernsbacher, M. A. (2004). Accessibility in text and discourse processing. Discourse Processes, 37(2), 79-89.

Schmidt-Rinehart, B. C. (1994). The effects of topic familiarity on second language listening comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 78(2), 179-189.

Spilich, G. J., Vesonder, G. T., Chiesi, H. L., & Voss, J. F. (1979). Text processing of domain-related information for individuals with high and low domain knowledge. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18(3), 275-290.

Sternberg, R. J., & Powell, J. S. (1983). Comprehending verbal comprehension. American Psychologist, 38(8), 878-893.

Suarez, A., & Meara, P. (1989). The effects of irregular orthography on the processing of words in a foreign language. Reading in a Foreign Language, 6(1), 349-356.

Tian, S. P. (2000). TOEFL reading comprehension: Strategies used by Taiwanese students with coaching school training. Dissertation Abstracts. (UMI No. 9976766)

TOEIC® - Test of English for International CommunicationTM. (n.d.). Retrieved Spring, 2009, from ETS TOEIC Web site: http://www.ets.org/portal/site/ets/menuitem.fab2360b1645a1de9b3a0779f1751509/?vgnextoid=06cfd898c84f4010VgnVCM10000022f95190RCRD

Ulijn, J. M., & Salager‐Meyer, F. (1998). The professional reader and the text: Insights from L2 research. Journal of Research in Reading, 21(2), 79-95.

Whitely, S. E., & Barnes, M. (1979). The implications of processing event sequences for theories of analogical reasoning. Memory and Cognition, 7(4), 323-331.

Yorio, C. A. (1971). Some sources of reading problems for foreign-language learners. Language Learning, 21(1), 107-115.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔