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研究生:陳佑任
研究生(外文):You-Ren Chen
論文名稱:不同副資材對食品廢棄物堆肥之影響
論文名稱(外文):The effect of different bulking agent on food waste composting
指導教授:張一岑
指導教授(外文):James I. C. Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:環境與安全衛生工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:多變量迴歸吸水率孔隙度
外文關鍵詞:Mixture experimental designWater-absorptivityPorosityMultivariate analysis
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廢棄物堆肥過程中,皆需添加稻殼、木屑等副資材,將水份、碳氮比及孔隙度等調整至適當範圍之內,以便於空氣通過與微生物成長。雖然副資材特性對堆肥過程的影響很大,但由於研究者少,缺乏量化數據。有鑑於此,本論文乃應用小型攪拌式反應槽,除探討稻殼、木屑與米糠等三種台灣最常用的副資材的成份對食品廢棄物堆肥化的影響、吸水率、孔隙度等物理性質與堆肥結果的相關性外,並應用多變量迴歸分析,發展經驗公式,以預測堆肥時間、最高溫度、最終pH值等。
實驗結果顯示,木屑的比例愈高,堆肥時間愈短,當木屑含量由0%(對照組)增至100%時,堆肥時間由289小時減至大約一半左右(150小時);米糠吸水率低、密度大與水分控制不易,因此含量愈高,反應越緩慢,堆肥時間越長。當米糠含量達100%,溫度難以到達40度,堆肥速度緩慢。
吸水率是影響堆肥過程最主要的物理特性,吸水率越高,堆肥時間與酸化時間越低,且最終pH值亦較低;孔隙度越大,空氣通過較順暢,反應較佳,最低pH值較低,而且試程的最高溫度較高。
以木屑及米糠為副資材所產生的最終堆肥產物的水溶性碳氮比高於堆肥的腐熟指標(5~6),顯示木屑及米糠在堆肥過程中皆會分解,導致水溶性碳含量偏高。
為確保堆肥過程順利與產品穩定,宜以稻殼為主要副資材。木屑雖可加速反應進行,縮短反應時間,但易於分解;因此,含量應控制於於50%。米糠吸水率與孔隙度皆差,且密度大,不適於作為堆肥副資材。

關鍵字:孔隙度、吸水率、多變量迴歸
It is well known that bulking agents are added to successfully compost waste materials, to adjust the moisture, C/N ratio, porosity etc. The physical properties of bulking agents such as the water absorptivity and the porosity play an important roles in the composting process; however, no study has been focused on this subject in years. The purpose of this study was to utilize a laboratory composter to study the effects of three bulking agents (rice rusks, sawdust, and rice bran) on the composting process of food waste. The mixture experimental design, multivariate regression and response surface method were also applied to obtain optimal mixing ratio.
Experimental results showed that bulking agents affect the composting process significantly. The higher the sawdust content was, the faster the composting process was. When the sawdust content increased from none to 100%, the composting time reduced from 289 hours to 150 hours. Rice bran was the worst bulking agent due to its low water absorption and high density. The composting process slowed and the time increased, as the content of rice bran increased. The temperature was unable to rise above 40 oC and the composting process was sluggish, when only rice bran was used as the bulking agent.
The water absorptivity of the bulking agent significantly affected the composting process time, the acidification time and the final pH value. When sawdust and rice bran were used as bulking agents, final composting products had higher water-soluble carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) than the maturity index of 5~6. It implied that the sawdust and rice bran decomposed during the composting.
To ensure the smoothness of the composting process and the maturity of the final compost product, rice husks were recommended as the bulking agent. Sawdust could be added to accelerate the composting rate, but the content of sawdust should be kept below 50%. Rice bran should never be used at all due to its poor waster absorption and higher density..

Keywords: Porosity, Water-absorptivity, Mixture experimental design, Multivariate analysis
摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 XII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 4
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2-1 食品廢棄物 5
2-1-1 基本特性 5
2-1-2 處理方式 8
2-2 堆肥原理 16
2-2-1 堆肥方法介紹 16
2-2-2 堆肥之操作參數 17
2-3 使用不同副資材的堆肥研究 23
第三章 研究材料與方法 25
3-1 實驗設備 25
3-2 實驗材料 29
3-3 實驗流程圖 33
3-4 實驗設計 34
3-4-1 混合物實驗設計法 34
3-4-2 實驗方法 36
3-5 分析項目與方法 37
第四章 結果與討論 40
4-1 稻殼、木屑進行堆肥之比例調配與變化過程 41
4-1-1 試程A、E、B之反應溫度、CO2釋放率與pH值 41
4-1-2 水溶性成分變化 49
4-1-3 試程A、E、B三成份變化 52
4-2 稻殼、米糠進行堆肥之比例調配與變化過程 53
4-2-1 試程D、L之反應溫度、CO2釋放率與pH值 53
4-2-2 水溶性成分變化 59
4-2-3 試程A、D、L三成份變化 61
4-3 木屑、米糠進行堆肥之比例調配與變化過程 62
4-3-1 試程F、K之反應溫度、CO2釋放率與pH值 62
4-3-2 水溶性成分變化 68
4-3-3 試程B、F、K三成份變化 70
4-4 稻殼、木屑、米糠進行堆肥之比例調配與變化過程 71
4-4-1 試程G、H、I、J之反應溫度、CO2釋放率與pH值 71
4-4-2 試程G、H、I、J水溶性變化 81
4-4-3 試程G、H、I、J三成份變化 84
4-5 不同副資材比例與物理性質對堆肥過程的影響 85
4-5-1 副資材比例對試程現象的探討 87
4-5-2 副資材物理性質對試程現象的探討 97
第五章 結論與建議 105
5-1 結論 105
5-2 建議 106
參考文獻 107
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