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研究生(外文):Dai-rong Yang
論文名稱(外文):Measurement of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in indoor environment
指導教授(外文):Yu-li Huang
外文關鍵詞:high-performance liquid chromatographymicrowave extractionpolybrominated diphenyl ethersindoor environment
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十溴聯苯醚(decabromodiphenyl ether, BDE-209)為使用廣泛的溴系阻燃劑成分,由於長期大量使用的結果已造成環境污染。現有BDE-209之檢測方式主要以索氏萃取法配合管柱分離技術純化樣本後,再以氣相層析質譜儀進行分析。此方法之樣本前處理程序耗時,且氣相層析質譜儀在氣化樣本的過程中可能導致BDE-209裂解,進而影響量化結果。本研究以微波萃取裝置及高效液相層析儀進行BDE-209的分析,並針對室內微環境灰塵中的含量進行檢測。灰塵樣本先經烘乾過篩後,以丙酮進行微波萃取,萃取功率為960 Watt,溶劑加熱至120℃後萃取10分鐘,冷卻過濾後即以HPLC進行分析,樣本濃度若低於儀器檢量線範圍,則以吹氮濃縮樣本後再行分析。儀器檢量線範圍在0.2~100�nng/�尳之間,樣本平均回收率為84% (71% ~ 93%),灰塵樣本之方法偵測極限為130 ng/g。分析3種不同類型室內環境灰塵中BDE-209之含量,總計採集52個室內環境灰塵樣本,十溴聯苯醚之最大濃度為100,000 ng/g,平均濃度為12,000 ng/g。個別室內環境灰塵中BDE-209檢測結果如下:汽車內部為2,700~38,000 ng/g之間,平均濃度為16,000 ng/g;住家房間介於1,100~12,000之間,平均濃度是5,600 ng/g;而室內工作環境則在2,000~100,000 ng/g之間,平均濃度為13,000 ng/g。整體而言,本研究結果與相同類型文獻數據相當,而以微波萃取法進行樣本前處理簡便快速,而配合紫外光偵測器的高效液相層析儀(HPLC/UV)已足以分析室內環境中BDE-209的含量,或可能成為較高濃度BDE-209的替代分析方法,為環境檢測帶來更大的便利性。
Decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE) has been widely used as a flame retardant. The analyses of deca-BDE have typically relied on sohxlet extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The method calls for complex sample pretreatment, and deca-BDE may break down during sample gasification during the GC/MS measurement. In this study, we explore the use of microwave extraction method and high-performance liquid chromatography for the analyses of decabromodiphenyl ether in indoor dusts. Dust samples were collected from various indoor environments, including offices, laboratories, private homes and automobiles. Each sample was dried and screened with 0.149 mm sieve. Pre-weighed samples were added to 20 mL acetone and treated in the microwave extraction device. The solution was heated to 120℃ and maintained for 10 minutes for sample extraction, and the cooled solution was filtered and analyzed using an HPLC equipped with a UV detector (HPLC/UV). For samples with deca-BDE concentration below the calibration range, the sample solution was further concentrated with nitrogen-drying technique. Fifty-two dust samples were collected from 3 different types of indoor environments, and 36 yielded sufficient BDE-209 levels detectable with current method. The average BDE-209 concentration was 12,000 ng/g for all detected samples, and mean concentrations for individual indoor environment are as follows: automobiles, 16,000 ng/g (2,700~38,000 ng/g); house bedrooms, 5,600 ng/g (1,100~12,000 ng/g); indoor workplaces, 13,000 ng/g (2,000~100,000 ng/g). The results were comparable to those reported in the literature.
摘要 i
誌謝 iii
圖目錄 v
表目錄 vi
第一章 前言 1
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 十溴聯苯醚之危害特性 4
2.2 十溴聯苯醚之人體暴露與生物偵測 6
2.3 十溴聯苯醚的環境污染 7
2.4 分析原理 13
2.5 綜合討論 14
第三章 研究方法 17
3.1材料與設備 17
3.2研究流程設計 19
第四章 結果與討論 27
4.1 採樣結果 27
4.2 採樣結果與文獻資料的比較分析 34
4.3 綜合討論 37
第五章 結論與建議 39
參考文獻 40
附錄一 46
附錄二 48
附錄三 49
附錄四 50
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