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研究生:謝佳玲
研究生(外文):Chia-Ling Hsieh
論文名稱:消費者種族優越感、自我形象一致性:日本、韓國與台灣之消費者本土品牌偏愛比較
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of Consumer Ethnocentrism and Self-Image Congruence on the Consumer Local Brand Preference: A Comparison among Japan, Korea and Taiwan.
指導教授:徐世同徐世同引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih-Tung Shu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:行銷與流通管理所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:消費者種族優越感自我形象一致性品牌偏愛國家認同
外文關鍵詞:national identityconsumer ethnocentrismbrand preferenceself-image congruence
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日本、韓國與台灣皆為集體主義社會,並受到儒家思想的薰陶。過去研究發現此三個國家之消費者會受到消費者種族優越感之影響進而偏愛本土產品,但鮮少著重於此三個相似國家在消費者種族優越感上的差異,及此傾向如何影響到消費者的品牌偏愛。再者,當消費者的個人形象與本土品牌形象不一致時,是否依然會產生品牌偏愛。本研究以日本、韓國與台灣為主,進一步探討消費者種族優越感之差異,及此傾向對於自我形象一致性與本土品牌偏愛之間的影響關係。
本研究採問卷調查法,針對啤酒、化妝品及個人電腦三種產品品類進行發放,其中全部有效問卷共為783份。統計分析結果顯示:1. 台灣及韓國消費者會直接受到消費者種族優越感之影響,進而偏愛本土品牌;2. 日本消費者受到消費者種族優越感之影響,產生國家認同進而認為本土品牌形象與自我形象相符後才會產生本土品牌偏愛;3. 當日本和韓國消費者擁有高產品知識時,能幫助消費者更加確認本土品牌與自我形象一致;4. 產品品類差異也會對消費者種族優越感與本土品牌偏愛之間的關係產生影響。據研究發現,建議台灣與韓國之本土品牌行銷人員除了著重於強調購買本土品牌外,應該多與消費者溝通、傳遞本土品牌形象,與其建立更強的連繫關係;國外品牌想成功進入日本市場,則需在地化及微調其行銷方案並強調其產品獨特性來吸引消費者。
Japan, Korea and Taiwan all are collectivist societies with Confucian culture orientation. Previous cross-culture studies found that Japanese, Korean and Taiwanese consumers generally display an ethnocentrism tendency and prefer domestic products to imported. However, these studies paid less attention on the difference of consumer ethnocentrism tendency among the three nations and how this tendency affects consumer brand preference. In addition, if local brand image does not fit with consumer’s self-image, does consumers’ preference to local brands still exist? This study aims to examine the consumer ethnocentrism difference among the three nations and its relative impacts on consumer self-image congruence and local brand preference.
A questionnaire survey with three product categories- beer, cosmetics and personal computer was developed to test the opinion of Japanese, Korean and Taiwanese consumers. A total of 783 usable questionnaires were collected. The research results are as follows. First, Taiwanese and Korean consumers who show high consumer ethnocentrism tendency tend to prefer local brands directly. Second, Japanese consumers with high consumer ethnocentrism tend to have high congruence between their self-image and local brands image through national identity. Third, Japanese and Korean consumers with high product knowledge tend to convince themselves of local brand image that manifests and fits to their self-image because of national identity. Finally, different product categories demonstrate different moderating effects on the relationships between consumer ethnocentrism and local brand preference and between consumer ethnocentrism and self-image congruence. Based on the results, this study suggest that Taiwanese and Korean local brands marketers could not only depend on the importance of “buy local products”, but also invest resources on communicating the identity of brand image with target consumers. Foreign brands that would succeed in Japanese market should first localize the marketing plan and emphasize on superiority, uniqueness or novelty to attract Japanese consumers, particularly in congruence with their self-image.
Abstract……………..……………………………………….……I
Chinese Abstract……………………………………………...…III
Acknowledgements………………………………………..……IV
Contents………………………………………………….………V
List of Tables……………………………..………………..……IX
List of Figures…………………………….…………..………. XII
CHAPTER 1 Introduction ………………………...……………..1
1.1 Research Background …………………………………………………..1
1.2 Research Objectives ……………………………………………………5
1.3 Research Procedure …………………………………………………….6
CHAPTER 2 Literature Review…………………………..….…..7
2.1 Cultural Factors and Their Impact on Brand Preference ………...…….7
2.1.1 Consumer Collectivism ……………………………………………………...…9
2.1.2 Consumer Ethnocentrism and Brand Preference………………………………11
2.1.3 Consumer Ethnocentrism, Self-Image Congruence and Brand Preference……13
2.2 Control Valuables…………………………………………………......17
2.2.1 Product Knowledge……………………………………………………………17
2.2.2 Product Category……………………………………………………………...20
2.2.3 Nationality………………………………………………………………….....23
CHAPTER 3 Research Design and Methodology……………...24
3.1 Conceptual Framework and Hypotheses……………………………...24
3.1.1 Conceptual Framework of This Research…………………………………......24
3.1.2 Hypotheses of This Research……………………………………………..……25
3.2 The Operationalization of the Variables…………………………..…..26
3.2.1 Collectivism and Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence (CSII) …………………………………………………………………..….….26
3.2.2 Consumer Ethnocentrism………………………………………………..….…27
3.2.3 Self-Image Congruence and Enduring Involvement………………….….…....27
3.2.4 Local Brand Preference……………………………………………….….…....29
3.2.5 Consumer Product Knowledge……………………………………….….…….29
3.3 Selection of Product Categories and Questionnaire Survey….….…....29
3.3.1 Selection of Product Categories…………………….…………………….…...29
3.3.2 Questionnaire Design and Pilot Test……………….……………………….....30
3.4 The Results of the Pilot Test………………….…………………….....35
3.4.1 The Sample……………………………………………….…………………....35
3.4.2 The Procedure………………………………………….…………………....…36
3.4.3 The Results of Pilot Test ……………………………………………………....37
3.5 Formal Data Collection (Questionnaire Survey) …………………..…47
CHAPTER 4 Date Analysis and Results….………………….....49
4.1 Characteristic of Respondents……………….……………………..…49
4.2 Factor Analysis……………………………….…………………….....51
4.3 Reliability Analysis…………………………….……………………..59
4.4 One-Way ANOVA Analysis…………………………………………..65
4.5 Correlation Analysis………………………………………………......67
4.6 Linear Regression Analysis and Hypotheses Test..…………………...67
4.6.1 Results of Taiwanese Survey……….…………………………….……………67
4.6.2 Results of Japanese Survey ……………………………………………………70
4.6.3 Results of Korean Survey ……………………………………………………..72
4.6.3.1 Separate Results and Discussion of Students and Non-Students in Korean Survey……………………………………………………………………...74
CHAPTER 5 Conclusions and Recommendations……………..78
5.1 Conclusions of This Research………………………………………...78
5.1.1 Direct Effect of Consumer Ethnocentrism on Local Brand Preference and Self-Image Congruence…………………………………………….……….....78
5.1.2 Impacts of Consumer Product Knowledge and Product Category on the Research Model…………………………………………………….………….80
5.1.3 Difference among Taiwan, Japan and Korea……………………….………….81
5.2 Implications …………………………………………………………..82
5.3 Recommendations for Further Research ……………………………..86
5.4 The Limitation of This Research ……………………………………..87
REFERENCE ………………………………………………..…88
APPENDIX 1: Formal Questionnaire – Chinese Version ……...99
APPENDIX 2: Formal Questionnaire – Japanese Version ……108
APPENDIX 3: Formal Questionnaire – Korean Version ……..120
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