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研究生(外文):Tsai Ju-yin
論文名稱(外文):the acquisition of English DP by EFL learners in Taiwan
指導教授(外文):Hsin Ai-li
外文關鍵詞:L2 acquisitionDParticle systemNPcountabilitydefiniteness
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本論文旨在探討台灣學生在英文定詞組的學習與使用。本論文中的實驗包含了定詞組填空、引導翻譯、以及是非判斷三大測驗,受試者共有160位學生,以教育程度分為初級、中級、高級三組。三大測驗的結果互為支持,得出以下幾項發現。定詞組的學習涉及特定非特定、以及可數不可數的判斷,本研究發現學習者先習得特定與否的判斷,或者說學習者在特定與否的判斷上優於可數與否的判斷。他們首先能辨別the N和a N的不同。此外,思考過程似乎也影響學習者對於特定性以及可數性的判斷。在是非判斷測驗中,優先考慮特定性的人其表現優於優先考慮可數性的人。而且,在是非判斷測驗中得分高者,其在定詞組填空測驗中得分也高。本研究亦發現定冠詞以及空冠詞的誤用非常普遍。藉由錯誤分析發現,學生誤用空冠詞是受到母語的影響,將光桿名詞(bare noun)與泛指做聯結並視之有定指義。以往的研究大多將不可數名詞的錯誤使用解釋為學習者在可數性的判斷上產生困難,然而,本研究發現其實這問題反映的不只是可數性上的判斷問題,也是特定性上的判斷問題。在單複數皆可的語境中,學習者一致顯示出對複數的使用偏好,可見他們對可數性並没有那麼欠缺敏感度。定詞組的類別也影響學習的成效,其中泛指對於學生而言最困難,而具有[+SR]特性的類別,如定指與殊指似乎比較容易些。不過,學習者有誤將[+SR]特性視為表現定指語意的傾向。
The present study investigates the DP use of students in Taiwan learning English as a second or foreign language. 160 subjects categorized as low, intermediate, and advanced levels according to their education level participate in the experiment consisting of a three-part test: a fill-in-the-DP task, an elicited translation task, and a yes-no judgment task. The results of the three parts support each other and have led to several findings. First, in the learning of DP, there is a problem involving the determination of definiteness and countability; learners first learn to detect definiteness distinguishing the N from a N indicating that the ability to successfully detect definiteness is acquired earlier or better performed than countability. Furthermore, thinking processes may affect learners’ judgments about matters of definiteness and countability. Beginning with the consideration of definiteness leads to a better performance on the judgment task. Besides, those who perform well on the judgment test tend also to perform well in DP production. This study also finds that the overuse and Ø overuse are everywhere. By error analyses, it is found that the overuse of Ø results from the fact that learners, affected by L1, associate a bare noun with a generic reading and a self-evident identity of being definite. The failure in handling mass nouns has usually been taken to be the result of a difficulty with countability. However, it is found that the failure implies a difficulty not only in detecting countability but also in detecting definiteness. The insensitivity to countability may have been overestimated since learners show a preference in plurality, a subclass of countability. Moreover, DP type has great effects on performance. The generic context is the most difficult for learners. In addition, the type with feature [+SR], i.e. the definite and the specific types, seems to be easier for L2 learners. Yet, learners are prone to take [+SR] as a sign of being definite.
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Chinese versus English DP Representation 3
1.2.1 Generic DP Environments 4
1.2.2 Definite DP Environments 6
1.2.3 Specific DP Environments 7
1.2.4 Indefinite DP Environments 9
1.3 Research Questions 11
1.4 Significance of This Study 13
2.1 Cross-Linguistic Contrast between English and Chinese DPs 15
2.1.1 Generic DPs 15
2.1.2 Definite & Indefinite DPs 18
2.1.3 Specific DPs 20
2.2 L2 Acquisition of English Articles 21
2.2.1 L1 with Articles vs. L1 without Articles 21
2.2.2 Interlanguage Development 22
2.3 Components Other Than Referentiality 28
2.3.1 Specificity in Semantic Interpretation 28
2.3.2 Specificity in Syntactic Representation 29
2.3.3 Countability 30
3.1 Subjects 34
3.2 Instruments 35
3.2.1 Fill-in-the-DP Test 35
3.2.2 Elicited Chinese-English Translation Test 41
3.2.3 Yes-no Judgment on Article Use 41
3.3 Rating of the Test 42
3.4 Procedure 43
3.5 Data Analysis 43
4.1 Acquisition Order of English Articles 45
4.2 Interlanguage Development 49
4.2.1 Overuse of the, a, Ø, and -s 49
4.2.2 Prominent Error Types 53
4.2.3 Relation between Article Omission and Modifier 57
4.2.4 Choice between a N and Ns 59
4.3 Variables in English DP Learning 60
4.3.1 DP Type 61
4.3.2 L1 Interference: Observation from the Guided Translation Task 72
4.3.3 Interaction Effect of DP Type and Countability 77
4.3.4 Sentential Position 82
4.4 Cognitive Constraint 84

5.1 Summary of Major Findings 91
5.2 Pedagogical Implications 93
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Study 96
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