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研究生:鄧雅丰
論文名稱:副修法文或日文之英文系學生英文學習動機、語言的交互影響及英文成就之比較
論文名稱(外文):COMPARISON OF ENGLISH LEARNING MOTIVATION, CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCE AND ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN FRENCH OR JAPANESE MINOR ENGLISH MAJOR STUDENTS
指導教授:石素錦石素錦引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:英文學習動機語言的交互影響英文成就
外文關鍵詞:English learning motivationcross-linguistic influenceEnglish achievement
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本研究旨在比較副修法文或日文之英文系學生的英文學習動機、語言的交互影響及英文成就,此外也探討英文學習動機、語言的交互影響及英文成就的相互關係。參與此研究的受試者為80名文藻外語學院英國語文學系五專部三年級副修法文或日文之學生各40名。所有受試者皆需填寫一份問卷,內容包含英文學習動機、語言的交互影響、大專英語檢定成績的調查;及學生對副修不同語言對英文學習動機、語言的交互影響及英文成就的影響程度之意見調查。本研究採用統計計量法及質性研究法,藉以了解修習不同副修語言的英文系學生,在英文學習動機、語言的交互影響及英文成就上的差異情形,並探討英文學習動機、語言的交互影響及英文成就之關聯。
本研究結果摘要如下:
1. 副修不同語言之英文系受試學生,在英文學習動機及英文成就上無顯著差異。
2. 學生的英文學習動機主要來自於外在動機。二組受試學生皆認為學好英文能幫助擁有高學歷、好工作、優渥的生活和獲得成就感。此外,其英文學習動機和立即成就、個人發展有高度相關。
3. 二組受試學生在語言的交互影響如正向遷移、干擾、字彙及整體影響等層面皆達顯著差異。此外,相較於副修日文之受試學生,副修法文之受試學生在學習英法文時,有更多語言正向遷移及干擾的影響。且多數副修法文之受試學生認為,學習法文有助於學習英文。另外,二組受試學生皆認為其副修語言對英文單字的習得有助益。
4. 針對本研究八十名受試者的研究調查發現,英文學習動機和英文成就;英文學習動機和語言的交互影響之相關皆無達到顯著。
5. 針對本研究八十名受試者的研究調查發現,語言的交互影響和英文成就有顯著相關。此外,在副修日文組中相關性比起副修法文組更為顯著。
6. 語言的交互影響和英文成就在副修日文組中呈現負相關,亦即在英日語的交互影響因素多為干擾。
總括而言,教師可在學生在英文學習之餘,也鼓勵自由修習有興趣之語言。同時修習語系相近的語言,在學習上易有相輔相成的效果;然而,因語系相近也易有干擾情形。反之,同時學習語系差異大的二種語言,學習者不易受干擾,卻也少有相輔相成之效,學習者較偏向將二種語言獨立學習。此外,教師也可進而利用對比分析幫助學生同時學習二種語言。
The aim of this study was to compare English learning motivation, cross-linguistic influence and English achievement between French or Japanese minor English major students. In addition, this study investigated the relationship among language learners’ English learning motivation, cross-linguistic influence and English achievement. Also, this study performed a qualitative analysis of language learners’ cross-linguistic influence between French and English or Japanese and English.
The subjects were 80 English major, third-year students recruited from the 5-year junior college in Wenzao Ursuline College of Language and 40 of them minor in French and another 40 subjects minor in Japanese. All the subjects were required to take the modified questionnaire about English learning motivation, cross-linguistic influence and English achievement and provide their opinions according to their language learning experiences. On the other hand, the researcher analyzed the data collected from the questionnaire. Statistical measures and qualitative analyses were employed to compare different minor English major students’ English learning motivation, cross-linguistic influence and English achievement and also to investigate the connections between English learning motivation, cross-linguistic influence and English achievement.
The major findings of this study are summarized as follows:
1. There is no significant difference between the two subject groups in English learning motivation and English achievement.
2. The students’ English learning motivation is mostly affected by extrinsic motivation. Both of the subject groups consider learning English to be important in obtaining a good degree, a good job, a sense of achievement and a successful life. Moreover, the students’ English learning motivation is most concerned about immediate achievement and individual development.
3. As for cross-linguistic influence, there is a significant difference between the two subject groups in positive transfer, interference, vocabulary, and overall cross-linguistic influence.  Moreover, compared to the Japanese-English students, the French-English students found more positive transfer and interference in both English and French learning.  There are more French-English students who agree that their minor study makes English study more efficient. Furthermore, most of the students in both groups agree that their second foreign language study benefits English vocabulary learning
4. The subjects’ English learning motivation did not significantly influence the cross-linguistic influence and the English achievement in this study.
5. There is a significant correlation among the subjects’ cross-linguistic influence and English achievement. Moreover, the correlation is more significant in the Japanese-English group than in the French-English group.
6. The correlation between cross-linguistic influence and English achievement in Japanese-English group is a negative one, which might explain that the cross-linguistic influence in Japanese-English group is more about interference.
In sum, students can be encouraged to learn any other foreign languages they wish to learn. Besides, the study of one language makes easier of the study of closely related languages. However, interference might arise frequently when learning closely related languages. On the other hand, there is less cross-linguistic influence occurring when learning not closely related languages concurrently. The students tend to use different language systems to acquire English and Japanese instead of mingling together. Furthermore, teachers can use contrastive analysis to help students to study several languages at the same time to make language study more efficiently.
Ackowledgements ………………………………………………………… i
Chinese Abstract ……………………………………………………… ii
English Abstract ……………………………………………………… iv
Table of Contents……………………………………………………… vi
List of Tables and Figures ………………………………………… x

Chapter
I. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation …………………………………… 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………6
1.3 Purpose of the Study ………………………………………… 7
1.4 Research Questions ……………………………………………… 8
1.5 Significance of the Study …………………………………… 9
1.6 Definition of Terms …………………………………………… 9
1.7 Limitations of the Study …………………………………… 11
II. LITERATURE REVIEW 12
2.1 Bilingualism and Multilingualism ……………………… 12
2.1.1 Defining Bilingualism ……………………………………………13
2.1.2 Features of Bilingualism …………………………………………5
2.1.3 Defining Multilingualism ………………………………… 18
2.1.4 Multilingual Education …………………………………… 18
2.1.5 A Case Study of Multilingual Education in Canada 19
2.1.5.1 The background of Genesee’s Study of Multilingual Education in Montreal, Canada ………………………………20
2.1.5.2 Results of Genesee’s Study of Multilingual Education in Montreal, Canada …………………………………21
2.2 Genetically Related Languages ………………………………24
2.2.1 English and French ………………………………………………26
2.2.2 English and Japanese ……………………………………………27
2.3 Cross-linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition ………………… 29
2.4 Language Transfer …………………………………………………30
2.4.1 Syntax …………………………………………………………… 32
2.4.2 Phonology ………………………………………………………… 33
2.4.3 Lexicon …………………………………………………………… 36
2.4.4 Code-mixing …………………………………………………… 38
2.5 Motivation ………………………………………………………… 39
2.5.1 Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Motivation…… 41
2.5.2 Integrative and Instrumental Motivation ………… 42
2.5.3 Other Motivation Types …………………………………… 44
2.6 The Relationship between Motivation and Achievement 45
III. METHODOLOGY 48
3.1 Research Design ………………………………………………… 48
3.2 Subjects …………………………………………………………… 49
3.3 Instruments …………………………………………………… 49
3.4 Pilot Study ……………………………………………………… 54
3.5 Procedure ………………………………………………………… 55
3.6 Data Analysis …………………………………………………… 56
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 58
4.1 A Comparison of the Students’ English Learning Motivation, Cross-Linguistic Influence, and English Achievement …………58
4.1.1 A Comparison of the Students’ English Learning Motivation ………59
4.1.2 A Comparison of the Students’ Cross-Linguistic Influence …………65
4.1.3 A Comparison of Students’ English Achievement ………………78
4.2 Pearson Correlation of the Subjects’ English Learning Motivation, Cross-linguistic Influence, and English Achievement ………………………79
V. CONCLUSIONS 84
5.1 Summary of the Major Findings …………………………… 84
5.2 Pedagogical Implications …………………………………… 86
5.3 Suggestions for Future Research ………………………… 87
REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………… 90
APPENDIX A-1: Questionnaire in Chinese for Japanese-English Group ………………………………………………………… 102
APPENDIX A-2: Questionnaire in Chinese for French-English Group ………………………………………………………… 106
APPENDIX B-1: Questionnaire in English for Japanese-English Group ………………………………………………………… 110
APPENDIX B-2: Questionnaire in English for French-English Group ………………………………………………………… 116

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Tabel Page
2.1 Defining Bilingualism Adapted From Skutnabb-Kangas ………………14
2.2 Motivational Dichotomies ………………………………………43
3.1 Level 2 CSEPT Test Sections ………………………… 50
4.1 The Dimensions of English Learning Motivation and the Corresponding Questions …………………………………… 60
4.2 A Comparison of Overall and Four Dimensions of English Learning Motivation among French-English Students and Japanese-English students……………………………………… 62
4.3 A Comparison of French-English Group and Japanese-English Group’s English Learning Motivation ……………… 64
4.4 The Dimensions of Cross-Linguistic Influence and the Corresponding Questions……………………………………… 66
4.5 A Comparison of Overall and Six Dimensions of Cross-linguistic Influence among French-English Students and Japanese-English Students ……………………………………… 67
4.6 A Comparison of French-English Group and Japanese-English Group’s Cross-linguistic Influence ……………… 74
4.7 The Overall Number of the Distributed Approval among Each Aspect of Item 32…………………………… 75
4.8 The Distribution of the Number of Approval among Each Aspect of Item 32 in the French-English Group Purpose of the Study …75
4.9 The Distribution of the Number of Approval among Each Aspect of Item 32 in the Japanese- English Group Research Questions ……………… 76
4.10 The Over-All Number of the Distributed Approval among Each Aspect of Item 34 ……………………………… 77
4.11 The Distribution of the Number of Approval among Each Aspect of Item 34 in the French- English Group…………………………… 77
4.12 The Distribution of the Number of Approval among Each Aspect of Item 34 in the Japanese- English Group ……………………… 77
4.13 Summary of the Difference of French-English and Japanese-English Students on English Achievement ……… 79
4.14 Correlation among the Subjects’ Cross-Linguistic Influence, English Learning Motivation and English achievement …… 81
4.15 Correlation among the French-English Groups’ Cross-Linguistic Influence, English Learning Motivation and English Achievement ………82
4.16 Correlation among the Japanese-English Groups’ Cross-Linguistic Influence,English Learning Motivation and English Achievement …………83

Figure
3.1 Procedures of the study ……………………………………………………… 57
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