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研究生:陳依依
研究生(外文):Yi yi Chen
論文名稱:美國原住民小說「冬曆」之歷史與記憶的研究
論文名稱(外文):History and Memory in Winter Count
指導教授:歐司迪
指導教授(外文):Stephen Ohlander
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:《冬曆》傷膝大屠殺歷史記憶美國原住民
外文關鍵詞:Winter CountWounded Knee MassacreHistory (Historiography)MemoryNative American
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中 文 摘 要
本論文試圖巔覆在歐美歷史中,長期被排除在外的美國原住民歷史。長久以來,美國原住民文學皆被視為少數文學。所以,在本論文中,筆者欲挑戰並質疑那看似毫無問題性的歐美歷史,其本質上,乃包涵與替代了美國原住民的記憶。此外,美國原住民小說《冬曆》(Winter Count)於美國原住民文藝復興時間(約六O與七O年代間)出版,往往人們視它為一部關於「傷膝大屠殺」(the wounded knee massacre)的歷史小說。而「傷膝大屠殺」是原住民有史以來,最慘絕人寰的歷史悲劇扉頁-在1890年的12月29日這天,幾乎導致美國原住民的種族滅絕。
第一章簡介了《冬曆》小說的故事背景,也就是「傷膝大屠殺」;它是原住民記憶中,最顯著的種族滅絕的歷史事件。並且,筆者欲從記載蘇族(the Sioux)部落的曆史(calendar)與歷史的《冬曆》小說中,縱覽美國原住民與歐美人之間所存在的差異。
第二章將著重討論在後現代脈絡中,在美國原住民記憶與歐美歷史之間,所謂的「上史學」(upper historiography)與「下史學案件」(lower case historiography)的文化爭論。「傷膝大屠殺」記念碑所揭櫫的,乃是美國原住民與歐美之間對史學不同的觀點。筆者相信,歷史與記憶乃是從「記憶場域」(lieux de mémoire)同時誕生的,也意謂著歷史與記憶交融合一的場域。職是之故,美國原住民的記憶不應受拒於歐美史學之外。
第三章著重討論美國原住民的還鄉(returning)議題上。而美國原住民的記憶將如何回溯,筆者有著不同觀點的解讀。之後,筆者認為,美國原住民後裔,在現實中,有著一種不可還鄉性。因為土地的喪失、記憶的喪失,再再地重創他們。同時,美國原住民與歐美人之間對土地的看法與生活模式的差異,也加劇了其對歷史與記憶的期待。美國原住民爾後可能潛在的發展,將是結論的主論。關於美國原住民的未來與論述,筆者提出一種另類的看法:相信在未來,除了現今所存有的環境正義(environmental justice)的理論論述外,將會有更多、更多元的論述發生。
Abstract

The thesis attempts to subvert the argument to exclude Native American memory from Euro-American history. Native American literature has long been viewed as a kind of minority literature. In this thesis, I attempt to challenge and even interrogate the seemingly unproblematic Euro-American history that in essence includes and replaces Native American memory. Besides, the Native American novel, Winter Count (1967), published during the Indigenous Renaissance (between the 1960s and the 1970s), is defined as a historical novel about the Wounded Knee Massacre. The Wounded Knee Massacre is regarded as one of the most tragic events of Native American, having occurred on Dec.29, 1890.

In the introductory chapter, I proffer the background of Winter Count—the Wounded Knee Massacre, as the notable slaughter of Native Americans—and discuss different historiographic ideas about the past and their influence on Native Americans and Euro-Americans as well as their significance for Winter Count, the tribal calendar and history recorder of the Sioux, one of the major Native American tribes. Brief introductions to every chapter will be included in this chapter. Chapter Two will focus on debates on cultural issues in the postmodernist context, concerning upper-case vs. lower-case historiography pitting Native American memory against Euro-American history. The monument of the Wounded Knee Massacre offers a glimpse of this argument between the two historical perspectives of Native American and Euro-American historiography. I believe that both memory and history are in fact originated from the same lieux de mémoire, (sites of memory), suggesting a place where both the memory and history initiated. Therefore, Native American memories should not be excluded from Euro-American historiography. Chapter Three lays emphasis on the returning of Native Americans. How Native Americans retrieve their tribal past through their traumatic memories will be illuminated from different perspectives. The following chapter discusses the impossible returning of Native American posterities in reality. Loss of land and memory has frustrated Native American posterities. Meanwhile, different ideas about land and way of life between Native American and Euro-Americans again intensify the different expectations of history and memory. Future potential development of Native American posterity will be the main concern of the conclusion. An alternative perspective of the future and discourse on the Native Americans to come is offered as my conclusion, suggesting that there can be a possible or even multiple discourses for the Native American Literature in the future, besides the existing discourse of environmental justice.
Abstract ………………………………………………………………………i

Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………..iii

Chapter One Introduction………………………………………………………………….1


Chapter Two
Memory in Euro-American History …………………………………14


Chapter Three
Returning in Winter Count………………………………………33


Chapter Four
The Impossible Returning ……………………………………………67


Chapter Five
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………88


Works Cited …………………………………………………………………94
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