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研究生:陳佳芸
研究生(外文):Jia-Yun Chen
論文名稱:情境教學法對一個自閉症兒童在喚起注意與要求訊息之溝通行為的效果
論文名稱(外文):The Influences of the Initiation Including Arousing Attention and Demanding Messages on a Student with Autism by Milieu Teaching
指導教授:曾進興曾進興引用關係吳咸蘭吳咸蘭引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:聽力學與語言治療研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:復健醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:152
中文關鍵詞:情境教學法開啟溝通行為喚起注意要求訊息
外文關鍵詞:milieu teachinginitiationarousing attentiondemanding messages
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本研究旨在探討情境教學法對開啟溝通行為的影響,以一名自閉症學生為例。研究方法採用單一受試實驗設計中跨情境多基線設計,自變項為情境教學法,包含提示--示範、時間延宕、示範與隨機教學等四項教學策略,以及環境的安排。依變項為自閉症學生的開啟溝通行為,包括受試出現喚起注意與要求訊息溝通功能的溝通行為。
本研究以一名國小啟智班的自閉症學生為研究對象,分別在教師、同儕與家長的情境下,接受基線期、介入期、維持期的實驗處理。研究中採用事件記錄法,直接紀錄受試的溝通行為,並輔以數位相機錄影以及MP3隨身碟錄音。蒐集的資料以目視分析,同時輔以繪製曲線圖以及意見調查分析。
研究結果如下:一、情境教學法能增加自閉症學生開啟喚起注意溝通功能之溝通行為的出現率。二、情境教學法能增加自閉症學生開啟尋求訊息溝通功能之溝通行為的出現率。三、情境教學法褪除後,自閉症學生開啟喚起注意溝通功能之溝通行為的出現率亦能維持。四、情境教學法褪除後,自閉症學生開啟尋求訊息溝通功能之溝通行為的出現率亦能維持。
根據上述研究結果,提出本研究之限制及對未來研究之建議。
The purpose of this study was to assess the influences of the initiation including arousing attention and demanding messages on a student with autism by milieu teaching. A single- subject experimental design of multiple baseline design across settings was used to evaluate the effects.
The subject was a student with autism in self-contained classes in the elementary school. The data were collected during the baseline, intervention, and maintenance by recording the communicating behaviors of the students, and analyzed by using visual analysis method as well as charts and questionnaires.
The results of this study showed that the occurrence rate of the initiation of arousing attention could be increased by milieu teaching. The occurrence rate of the initiation of demanding messages could be increased by milieu teaching. The occurrence rate of the initiation including arousing attention and demanding messages would still be maintained even though the teaching was released.
According to the above mentioned results and limitations of this study, some recommendations for further studies were made.
第一章 序論
第一節 研究動機……………………………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的與問題……………………………………………………… 5
第三節 名詞釋義………………………………………………………………. 6
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 功能性溝通……………………………………………………………. 8
第二節 自發性溝通與溝通功能……………………………………………… 16
第三節 自然環境教學之理論及應用………………………………………… 20
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究對象……………………………………………………………… 35
第二節 研究工具與研究設備………………………………………………… 40
第三節 研究設計……………………………………………………………… 46
第四節 資料處理與統計方式………………………………………………… 63
第四章 結果與討論
第一節 個案開啟喚起注意溝通行為的資料分析…………………………… 66
第二節 個案開啟要求訊息溝通行為的資料分析…………………………… 80
第三節 社會效度探討………………………………………………………… 94
第四節 綜合討論………………………………………………………………102
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論……………………………………………………………………106
第二節 研究限制………………………………………………………………109
第三節 建議……………………………………………………………………110
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………… 114
附錄…………………………………………………………………… 123
一、 中文部分
王大延、曹純瓊(民86)。示範、時間延宕及提示對增進自閉症學童自發語言之成效研究。行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告(NSC86-2411-H-133-001)。
王大延、曹純瓊、邱碧娥、胡心怡(民85)。延宕時間策略對增進無自發語言之自閉症學生自發語言之成效研究。行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告(NSC84-2421-H-133-001)。
王姿元(民89)。隨機教學法對自閉症兒童及其家長溝通行為效果之研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,彰化縣。
王姿元(民91)。可以DIY的教學法~隨機教學法之介紹與應用。載於林迺超、王姿元(合著),自閉症兒童之溝通與溝通教育(頁52-91)。台北:教育部出 版,國立台北師範學院特殊教育中心印行。
王澎蘭(民96)。國小啟智班學生社會溝通技能量表之編製。國立高雄師範大學聽力學與語言治療研究所碩士論文。未出版。
王雅芳(民93)。情境教學法對發展遲緩幼兒功能性語言之影響研究。國立屏東師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,屏東縣。
辛宜倩(民90)。智障青年職場溝通技能需求與表現分析。國立高雄師範大學特殊教育學系碩士論文。未出版。
李昆霖(民89)。環境安排對增進重度障礙兒童溝通行為之研究。國立台灣師範大學特殊教育學系碩士論文。未出版。
杜正治譯(民83)。Tawney, J. W.&Gast, D. L. (1984)著。單一受試研究法(Single subject research in special education)。台北:心理。
吳淑美(民82)。特殊幼兒環境訓練成效之研究。載於郭實渝主編。中西教育專題研究(頁293-354)。台北:中央研究院歐美研究所。
宋明君(民91)。應用情境教學法教導功能性語言—以極重度智障學生為例之個案研究。台灣人文生態研究,4(2),129-1。
宋維村(民82)。幼兒自閉症的行為與教育矯治。中華民國自閉症基金會。
宋維村(民89)。自閉症學生輔導手冊。教育部特殊教育工作小組。
李甯(民87)。功能溝通訓練對促進無口語自閉症兒童溝通行為成效之研究。國立台灣師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
林宏熾(民87)。多重障礙學生情境語言教學策略。特教園丁,14(2),12-21。
林寶貴主編(民88):中華民國特殊教育概況。教育部印行。
林寶貴、曹純瓊(民85)。高雄市國小階段自閉症兒童語言能力調查研究。聽語會刊,12,46-61。
林玉芳(民94)。情境教學法對增進中度自閉症學生自發性語言成效之研究。國立台灣師範大學特殊教育學系碩士論文。未出版。
吳侑璇(民94)。失語症病患功能性溝通能力之研究。國立台北護理學院聽語障礙科學研究所碩士論文。未出版。
郭哲凡(民93)。聽覺障礙青年職場溝通技能需求與表現之探討。國立高雄師範大學特殊教育學系碩士論文。未出版。
莊妙芬(民89)。替代性溝通訓練對重度智能障礙兒童溝通能力與異常行為之影響。特殊教育與復健學報,8,1-26。
莊妙芬(民91)。中重度智能障礙兒童的異常行為與溝通功能之研究。東台灣特殊教育學報,4,53-76。
曾進興譯(民91)。June E. Downing等著。教導重度障礙學生溝通技能。台北:心理。
曾怡惇(民93)。國小初任特教教師採用「情境教學法策略」教導智能障礙學生溝通效果之研究。國立台灣師範大學特殊教育學系博士論文。未出版。
黃志雄(民91)。情境教學法對重度智能障礙兒童溝通能力的影響及其相關研究。特殊教育與復健學報, 10,71-102。
黃志雄(民92b)。重度智能障礙兒童的溝通訓練。特殊教育季刊,88,30-36。
黃志雄(民95)。重度及多重障礙學生個別化課程擬定與執行之研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系博士論文。未出版。
曹純瓊(民90b)。自閉症兒童的語言教學發展。特殊教育季刊,79,11-19。
陸莉、劉鴻香(民89)。修訂畢保德圖畫詞彙測驗指導手冊。台北:心理。
廖惠鶯(民93)。中老年失語症患者功能性溝通需求與表現之探究。國立高雄師範大學溝通障礙教育研究所碩士論文。未出版。
錡寶香(民95)。兒童語言障礙 理論、評量與教學。台北:心理。
蔡美華、李偉俊、王碧霞、莊勝發、劉斐文、許家吉、林巾凱、蔡文標(譯)(民88)。Krishef C. H. (1991)著。單一受試者設計與分析(Fundamental approaches to single subject design and analysis )。台北:五南。


二、 英文部分
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Charlop, M. H., Schreibman, L., & Thibodeau, M. G. (1985). Increasing spontaneous verbal responding in autistic children using a time dalay procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(2), 155-166.
Charlop, M. H., & Trasowech,J.E.(1991). Increasing autustic children’s daily spontaneous speech. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(4), 747-761.
Cirrin, F. M., & Rowland, C. M. (1985). Communicative assessment of nonverbal youths with severe/profound mental retardation. Mental Retardation, 23(2), 52-62.
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Davidson, B.J., Worrall, L.E., &Hickson, L. M. H.(2003).Identifying the connunication activities of older people with aphasia: Evidence from naturalistic observation. Aphasiology, 17(3),243-264.
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Hemmeter, M. L., & Kaiser, A. P. (1990). Environmental influences on children’s language: A model and case study. Educational & Treatment of Children. 13(4), 331-346.
Hamre-Nietupski, S., Nietupski, J., & Strathe, M. (1992). Functional life skills, academic skills, and friendship/social relationship development: What do parents of students with moderate/severe/profound disabilities value? Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 17(1), 53-58.
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Kaiser, A. P., Ostrosky, M. M., & Alpert, C. L. (1993). Training teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching with nonvocal preschool children. Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 18(3), 189-199.
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Kaiser, A. P.,Hemmeter, M.L., Ostrosky, M.M.,Fischer, R., Yoder, P.,&Keefer, M.(1996).The effects of teaching parents to use responsive interaction strategies. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education,16,375-406.
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1. 王秀紅 (2000)•老人的健康促進—護理的涵義•護理雜誌,47(1),19-25。
2. 曹純瓊(民90b)。自閉症兒童的語言教學發展。特殊教育季刊,79,11-19。
3. 黃志雄(民92b)。重度智能障礙兒童的溝通訓練。特殊教育季刊,88,30-36。
4. 黃志雄(民91)。情境教學法對重度智能障礙兒童溝通能力的影響及其相關研究。特殊教育與復健學報, 10,71-102。
5. 莊妙芬(民89)。替代性溝通訓練對重度智能障礙兒童溝通能力與異常行為之影響。特殊教育與復健學報,8,1-26。
6. 林寶貴、曹純瓊(民85)。高雄市國小階段自閉症兒童語言能力調查研究。聽語會刊,12,46-61。
7. 林宏熾(民87)。多重障礙學生情境語言教學策略。特教園丁,14(2),12-21。
8. 白玉珠、張霜蘭、蔡玉鳳、鄒怡真、蔡欣玲 (2006)•病人脫離呼叫器後症狀困擾與日常生活功能之相關性研究•實證護理,21(1),61-71。
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