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研究生:鄭俊芬
研究生(外文):Julie Chun-fen Cheng
論文名稱:台灣國小六年級學童對英語腔調之看法與態度
論文名稱(外文):EFL CHILDREN’S PERCEPTIONS OF AND ATTITUDES TOWARD ENGLISH ACCENTS: A CASE IN TAIWAN
指導教授:梁中行梁中行引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jong-shing Liang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東教育大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:腔調英語為母語之教師非英語為母語之教師英語發音教學
外文關鍵詞:accentnative English speaking teachernon-native English speaking teacherpronunciation teaching
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在EFL(English as a Foreign Language)教學中,是否應以NS(母語人士)之腔調作為學習基準,一直被廣泛討論。有學者認為,NS英語腔調應視為正統的發音模式;另有學者則認為,如能達理解程度,NNS(非母語人士)之英語腔調亦無不可。本研究旨在探討台灣地區國小學童對英語老師發音腔調之看法與態度。就讀於屏東縣某國小之134位六年級學童參與本研究。研究者首先請這些學童聆聽二段不同英語腔調但內容完全相同的錄音樣本 (其中一樣本由持美式英語腔調之美國籍婦女所錄製,另一樣本則由本國籍婦女錄製);之後,在未被告知錄音樣本中說話者之母語(L1)背景情況下,學童們挑選出其中一位他們認為較適合擔任自己的英語老師,並寫出他們選擇的理由;最後,他們從此二位錄音者中,挑選出何者為真正之英語為母語人士。為進一步瞭解學童們對英語腔調普遍性的看法與對英語教師所持英語腔調的態度,研究者並邀請了其中的32位學童進行個別訪談。
研究結果顯示,參與者中選擇希望由NS英語腔調說話者成為他們的英語教師佔三分之二強 (共計86人),其中又有69位學童能正確辨識出錄音者之英語為母語之背景。讓這86位學童較喜歡NS腔調的原因中,以發音腔調因素高居第二位,其中為英語流暢度為第一順位。訪談分析的結果則顯示,幾乎所有的學童都承認自己的英語帶有國語或台語的混雜腔調,部分學童能接受這樣的地方腔調,另有一部分學童則認為自己應設法降低這類的腔調;大部份學童皆視美式英語 (General American English) 為較喜愛的英語發音學習典範;多數學童亦表示,若能選擇,他們不希望由英語發音帶有非常濃厚地方腔調者擔任他們的英語教師。
本研究亦發現,在台灣地區,在英語發音教學方面,外籍母語人士教師的條件仍超越本國的英語教師;大部份年幼學童在國小階段學習英語三到四年後,似乎已將NS腔調定為英語發音之學習目標。最後,本研究並對EFL英語發音教學和未來的研究方向提出建議。
Whether EFL learners should conform to native speaker (NS) accent or not has much debated in the teaching of pronunciation. Some believe NS accent to be the legitimate form of pronunciation, while others argue that NNS accent is absolutely acceptable as long as it is comprehensible. This paper attempts to investigate the perceptions and attitudes which Mandarin EFL children have about NS and NNS accents of their language teachers in Taiwan. One hundred and thirty-four Taiwanese EFL six-grade students were recruited to listen to a short passage read by two speakers with different accents of English: General American and Chinese English. Not knowing L1 background of the speakers, the participants were asked to make a selection between the two speakers who would better off to become their language teacher. A follow-up question was given to elicit the reasons for selection. Participants also attempted to identify the NS accent among the two speakers. Individual interviews were further conducted with 32 participants out of the population in order to understand their attitudes towards English accents in general and of their language teachers.
Results from the 3-phase listening task indicate almost two thirds (86 of 134) of the learners preferred the General American speaker to be their language teacher. And out of these 86 children, 69 (80.23%) correctly identified the NS accent. In addition, accent ranked second in the list of reasons stated for choosing the NS with fluency being the top.
Through the interviews, almost all participants admitted that they speak English with local L2 accents, which can be a mixed accent of both Mandarin and Chinese. Some accept their L2 accents in English, while the others believe that they should make efforts in reducing them. General American English is a more preferred model in the practice of pronunciation. Furthermore, if the participants have a choice, they would not wish to be taught by Taiwanese NNES teachers who carry a very strong local accent.
These findings suggest NES teachers in Taiwan possess superiority over domestic NNES teachers particularly in pronunciation. These young EFL learners who have studied English for 3 to 4 years at elementary level had established their goal in adopting native-like accent. This paper concludes with some implications for EFL pronunciations instructions and suggestions for future research.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
CHINESE ABSTRACT iii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES xi
LIST OF FIGURES xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
The Problem Statement 3
The Purpose of the Study 6
Research Questions 6
The Significance of the Study 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 8
Understanding the Concept of Accent 8
The Definition of Accent 9
Types of Accent 10
The Effects of Accent 12
Standard English 12
World Englishes 14
Kachru’s Three Circles of Englishes 14
The Decline of Standard English 17
Accent and Intelligibility 17
The Concept of Intelligibility 17
Nativness Principle 18
Intelligibility Principle 18
Attitudes toward Accents 19
Attitudes toward Native and Foreign Accent 19
Accent DOES Matter 20
Accent Does NOT Matter 21
Native and Non-native English Speakers in ELT 22
Effects of Teachers’ Accents on Students’ Listening Competence 23
Students’ Perception toward Teachers’ Accents 24
Summary 25
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 26
Context and Access 26
Participants 27
Data Collection 28
Listening Task 29
Phase 1: Preference of Accent 29
Phase 2: Follow-up Elicitation Question 30
Phase 3: Identification of NS Accent 31
The Speech Accent Archive 31
Speakers in the Recordings 32
Interviews 33
Individual Interview 33
Interview Framework 35
Interview Prompts 35
Data Analysis 36
Listening Task 36
Phase 1: Preference of Accent 36
Phase 2: Follow-up Elicitation Question 37
The Coding System 37
Phase 3: Identification of NS Accent 41
Interviews 41
Trustworthiness 42
CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 44
Preference of Accent 45
Choice-determined Factors 47
Fluency-related Factors 50
Accent/Pronunciation-related Factors 53
Intelligibility-related Factors 57
Non-language-related Factors 60
Other Unclassifiable Factors 63
Rankings of the Major Categories and Subcategories 65
Ability in Identification with NS Accent 68
Attitudes toward NS and NNS Accents 70
Attitudes toward Accents in General 70
Attitude to Own English Accent 70
Desire for Native-like Accent 72
Perceived Attitudes of Others to NNS Participants’ Accent 74
NNS Participant’s Attitudes toward Other NNS English Accent 77
Beliefs about Accent Hierarchies and Status 78
Attitudes toward Teacher’s Accent 79
Desire to Be Taught by Local Regional L2 Accent 79
Security within NS Accent 80
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION 82
Summary of the Major Findings 82
Pedagogical Implications 86
Limitations of the Study 87
Suggestions for Future Research 89
REFERENCES 91
APPENDIX A 98
APPENDIX B 99
APPENDIX C 101
APPENDIX D 103
APPENDIX E 104
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