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研究生:鄭皓仁
研究生(外文):Hao Jen Cheng
論文名稱:飼糧中添加抗生素對白色肉雞生長性能、免疫性狀與抗發炎之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Antibiotics on Growth Performance, Immune Responses and Anti-immflamatory Properties of Broilers
指導教授:余 祺
指導教授(外文):Chi Yu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:畜產系所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:抗生素發炎反應白血球細胞激素
外文關鍵詞:AntibioticsImmflammatory responsesLeukocytesCytokines
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本試驗旨在探討飼糧中添加抗生素對白肉雞生長性能、免疫性狀與抗發炎之影響。試驗分為兩部分進行,第一部分探討飼糧中添加六肽黴素(nosiheptide, NHT)、羥四環黴素(oxytetracycline, OTC)及泰黴素(tylosin)對白肉雞生長性能、臟器重量比、免疫球蛋白含量、抗新城雞病抗體力價與抗綿羊紅血球抗體力價之影響。第二部分則於35日齡時,各處理組選取體重相近之雞隻,分為兩組,分別為未注射巴豆油之對照組及皮下注射巴豆油(croton oil)之誘發發炎組,並於巴豆油注射後16、41 h及7日採血,進行血液學及血清細胞激素之分析;於注射後7日秤重、犧牲雞隻取華氏囊及脾臟計算臟器重量百分比。綜合統整二批次試驗之生長結果顯示,飼糧中添加NHT、OTC及tylosin,各處理組於21、42日齡之體重、臟器重量比並無差異顯著,但以OTC添加組之華氏囊重量比較對照組者低。此外添加OTC之處理組,其21日齡雞隻之血清IgA含量顯著較tylosin組者高,其餘各處理組間於21及42日齡雞隻血清免疫球蛋白之含量則無差異顯著。抗生素之添加不影響21及42日齡雞隻血清抗新城雞病抗體力價,但對於抗綿羊紅血球之抗體力價則於注射後21天以OTC與tylosin處理組顯著高於對照組(P < 0.05)。比較第二部分35-42日齡發炎處理雞隻之體增重結果顯示,計算巴豆油注射雞隻7日內之體增重變化,可得知抗生素處理組較對照組者,有較佳之體增重,其分別為對照組者之110%(NHT)、111%(OTC)及114%(tylosin)。由華氏囊重量比之結果顯示,巴豆油處理顯著抑制對照組之華氏囊重量比(P < 0.05),但不影響抗生素添加組之華氏囊重量比,脾臟方面則各處理間無差異顯著。由血液學之結果顯示,皮下注射巴豆油,顯著降低對照組及各抗生素處理組16 h之淋巴球百分比(P < 0.05),並提高巴豆油注射後16 h各處理之嗜異性球百分比、單核球百分比、嗜酸性球百分比以及嗜異性球與淋巴球之比值,但其數值於不同抗生素處理組間及同抗生素添加之不同發炎處理組皆無顯著差異。於注射後41 h,各處理組之淋巴球百分比皆有回昇,單核球百分比略高於16 h同處理條件者,嗜異性球則以對照組者數值較低。就細胞激素而言,巴豆油明顯誘發16 h血清中介白素-6(interleukin-6, IL-6)、干擾素-γ(interferon γ, IFN-γ)及腫瘤壞死因子-α(tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α)之含量,而NHT 及 tylosin 處理組,其16 h IL-6、IFN-γ與TNF-α之含量皆顯著較對照組者低(P < 0.05),OTC處理組除IL-6 含量顯著較對照組者低外,IFN-γ與TNF-α之含量則與對照組者無差異顯著。注射巴豆油後16 h之IL-10之含量,則以OTC處理顯著高於其他各處理組。巴豆油注射後41 h後,對照組之IFN-γ及IL-10皆顯著高於抗生素處理組者,IL-6及TNF-α則於各處理間無差異顯著。綜合上述,抗生素之添加不影響21及42日齡之體重,OTC及tylosin處理顯著提升二次免疫之抗綿羊紅血球力價。就抗發炎而言,抗生素處理有減緩發炎雞隻生長抑制及華氏囊重量比下降之趨勢,其對白血球分佈之影響並不顯著,但明顯影響發炎雞隻血清細胞激素之表現。NHT及tylosin處理顯著抑制因發炎造成血清IL-6、IFN-γ與TNF-α含量之升高,OTC雖不明顯抑制前述促發炎激素之增加,但其明顯刺激抗發炎激素IL-10之產生,由此可知抗生素可經細胞激素之調控減緩發炎。
The objectives of this study were to understand the effects of antibiotics on growth performance, immune responses and anti-immflammatory properties of broilers. In this experiment, 320 day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated to four treatments × four replicates with 20 birds in each pen. The 4 treatments were: basal diet (control), basal diet + nosiheptide (NHT), basal diet + oxytetracycline (OTC), and basal diet + tylosin. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The same experiment were repeated twice. Birds were weighed individually at 3 and 6 wks of age and four birds were randomly selected from each treatment for measurement of relative organ weight, immunoglobulin concentrations, and specific antibody titration of sera. The results showed that the body weight and relative organ weight were no significant difference between groups at 3 and 6 wks of age. Values of serum IgG and IgM of broilers at D 21 were increased by dietary supplementation of antibiotics. The supplementation of antibiotics significantly increased the secondary response of antibody titration against sheep red blood cells.
In order to compare the immune ability of different antibiotics administration, the immflammatory challenge had been introduced to this study. Two hundred microliter of croton oil and olive oil mixture were inoculated to young chicks at the age of 35 days, and the body weight gain from D35 to D42, and relative organ weight of spleen and bursa were recorded at the age of 42 days of noninjected control and croton oil injected birds in different dietary treatment groups. Leukocyte populations and serum cytokines concentration were analysed at individual time at 0 (before croton oil injection)、16、41, and 168 h post croton oil treated. The results showed that the body weight gain had promoted 10%, 11%, and 14% in NHT, OTC, and tylosin treated than control group respectively. Croton oil injection significantly decreased the relative organ weight of bursa comparison of the noninjected control in basal diet group. The relative bursa weight were no significant difference between antibiotic groups chicks with or without croton oil injection. Croton oil treatment had decreased the percentage of lymphocyte and increased the percentage of monocyte, heterophil, eosinphil, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio at 16 h post injection. Comparison of the concentration of IFN-γ、IL-6、TNF-α, and IL-10 of serum, the results indicated that croton oil treatment had increased those cytokines concentration in blood, but the addition of antibiotics significantly moderate the increased concentration of these proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines. To sum up, the administration of antibiotics did not influence the broiler growth performances but could moderate the decrease of body weight gain and relative bursa weight after oil challeged and decreased the level of proinflammatory cytokines in serum which were stimulated by croton oil injection.
目 錄
摘要.............................................I
Abstract.......................................III
謝誌.............................................V
目錄............................................VI
圖表目錄.......................................VIII
壹、前言..........................................1
貳、文獻探討.......................................2
一、抗生素與免疫....................................2
(一)抗生素之作用..................................2
(二)抗生素對於免疫相關臟器之影響....................2
(三)抗生素對於免疫球蛋白含量及特異性抗體產生之影響....5
二、發炎反應對雞隻之影響............................11
(一)發炎反應.....................................11
(二)發炎反應相關之白血球...........................13
(三)發炎反應相關之細胞激素.........................15
(四)抗生素對於發炎反應之影響.......................17
参、材料與方法.....................................19
一、試驗動物與試驗設計..............................19
二、飼養管理.......................................19
三、試驗基礎飼糧...................................19
四、測定項目及分析方法..............................21
(一)飼糧中添加抗生素對白色肉雞生長性能及免疫性狀之影響
.................................................21
(二)飼糧中添加抗生素之緩發炎效應探討................23
五、統計分析.......................................25
肆、結果與討論.....................................26
一、飼糧中添加抗生素對白色肉雞生長性能及免疫性狀之影響..26
(一)生長性能及相對臟器重量比.......................26
(二)抗生素之添加對體液免疫之影響....................26
二、飼糧中添加抗生素之緩發炎效應探討..................34
(一)生長性能及相對臟器重量比.......................34
(二)抗生素添加對發炎雞隻白血球百分比之影響...........41
(三)飼糧中添加抗生素對發炎雞隻血清細胞激素含量之影響..51
伍、結論..........................................63
參考文獻..........................................64
作者簡介..........................................73
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