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研究生:蔡聖偉
研究生(外文):Cai, Sheng-Wei
論文名稱:多重代理人系統在軟體專案時程規劃與控制之應用
論文名稱(外文):Application of Multi-Agent Systems on the Software Project Scheduling Plan and Control
指導教授:黃明祥黃明祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang, Ming-Shang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:資訊管理系所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:專案時程規劃專案時程控制限制理論多重代理人系統GAIA
外文關鍵詞:Project Scheduling PlanningProject Scheduling ControlTheory of ConstraintMulti-Agent SystemsGAIA
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在一個分散式的專案組織中,有效的規劃與控制整體專案時程是
為軟體專案管理一項重要的研究主題。因此,建構一個能夠支援分散
式環境下協調軟體專案開發活動之時程規劃與控制之系統,進行軟體
專案活動之定義、分配任務、活動排程以及活動控制對於專案時程績
效應有重要的影響。基於在軟體專案中需求變動大以及需要關鍵資源
的參與,故在軟體專案工作時必需花費額外的時間確認軟體需求以及
必要資源的取得,而限制理論(Theory of Constraints)在先前應用於專
案管理時,則提出關鍵鏈與緩衝管理方法以設定多餘時間以進行專案
控制並可以有效縮短專案時程。

有鑑於此,本研究則再使用限制理論應用於軟體專案管理的分
析,提出一個較有彈性的專案時程縮短方法,並依據專案時程管理流
程,結合本研究之限制理論分析結果發展一個適用於軟體專案的限制
理論應用流程,以建構一個整合性的軟體專案時程規劃與控制模式。
根據本研究對於限制理論的探討與實際分析結果發現,限制理論應用
於軟體專案管理具有以下的效益:(1)消除自我調適(Self-Fulfillng
Prophecy)以及截止效應(Deadline Effect),(2)能夠即早釋放出專案資
源以支援其它專案工作,與(3)能夠縮短一定比例的專案工作時間。

同時,本研究應用Wooldrideg、Jennings 與Kinny 所提出適用於專案
組織結構與功能的代理人方法論─GAIA 進行系統分析與設計,並使
用JADE 為開發工具,建構以多重代理人為基礎的軟體專案時程管理
系統。因此,本研究所發展的軟體專案時程規劃與控制模式與多重代
理人系統結合,建構一個以多重代理人為基礎的軟體專案規劃與控制
系統,協助軟體專案團隊間進行軟體專案團隊之專案規劃與控制之專
案活動,以提昇軟體專案團隊於時程上的績效使專案如期完成。
為驗證本研究發展模式在實務應用之實用性,本研究以一個具代
表性之軟體專案時程案例進行模擬分析,並依據專案時程之緊迫性、
一般性以及寬鬆性,給予軟體專案時程不同比例的時程縮短。總而言
之,根據本研究分析結果顯示,利用本研究所推演之限制理論於發展
軟體專案規劃與控制流程以及資訊系統,對時程規劃與控制方式,具
有下列的助益:(1)依專案工作之時程要求做不同時程縮短之比例
分配,較以往的50-50法則而言更具有彈性,(2)針對軟體專案而言,
能夠更符合軟體專案的特性,達成使用者需求並應變軟體專案需求的
不確定性,(3)不刻意縮短且耗費合理的專案時間,使產品品質能
夠維持一定水準,(4)使用緩衝區管理以掌握各階段狀況確實的狀
況,與(5)在時程上,使用限制理論能達成專案時程縮短,使資源
即早釋出支援其它活動,使專案活動更有績效。本研究的成果可以提
供實務應用及後續之參考。
Effective planning and controlling is considered as an important research topic in a distributed software project organization. Therefore, developing a project scheduling and control system to support a project organization’s work such as activities, task assignments, scheduling and control, etc. should have significant impacts on project performance. Due to the changes in requirements and the need for the application of key resources for a software project, it is necessary to spend more times on conforming software requirements and the necessary key resources. To resolve the issues mentioned above, Theory of Constraints (TOC) proposes a method of applying critical chain and buffer management to deal with scheduling and control of software projects. So far, TOC is considered as an effective way to save times spending on the project.
Based on the above discussions, a research framework is formulated and a model, which integrates TOC with software project scheduling and control process, is proposed. According to related research on TOC, applying TOC into the software project management has the following benefits: (1) to eliminate the occasion of Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and the Deadline Effect, (2) to release project resource to support other project work, and (3) to save a proportion of project working hours simultaneously. This research applied GAIA methodology, which was proposed by Wooldrideg, Jenning and Kinny. GAIA methodology is used to analyze decentralized project organization and design multi-agent systems in this research. It also uses JADE as the developing tool to build up multi-agent systems with software project planning and control system to support the activities of project planning and control to accomplish the project on time.
In order to verify the applications in practice, we use a representative software project to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. A simulation study is conducted by using urgent, general, and non-urgent project cases. According the results of the study, the proposed method based on TOC has the following benefits: (1) to have more flexibility than the TOC method which uses 50-50 rules with different proportion of time-reduction, (2) in terms of software project, the proposed method is more suitable to the characteristics of software project, and to meet the user’s demand and the uncertain needs of software project requirements, (3) to keep a certain standard of quality without reducing reasonable project time, (4) to control the progress of software projects by using the buffer management, and (5) to release resources to support other project by using the critical chain of projects and buffer management to reduce project times. The findings of this study can provide useful suggestions for practitioners.

摘要 I
Abstract III
謝誌 VI
目錄 VII
圖表索引 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究流程 3
第二章 文獻探討 6
2.1 多重代理人系統 6
2.1.1 多重代理人的運作機制 8
2.1.2 合作分散式問題求解 12
2.1.3 多重代理人的應用 15
2.2 專案時程管理 15
2.3 限制理論 19
2.3.1 限制理論分析架構 20
2.3.2 限制理論應用於專案管理 22
2.4 GAIA多重代理人系統分析與設計 25
第三章 研究架構 28
3.1 專案參與者 28
3.2 專案式組織時程規劃與控制之活動 30
3.3 多重代理人系統 31
3.4 限制理論之軟體專案時程分析 32
3.4.1 軟體專案的不確定因素 32
3.4.2 軟體專案管理現況 34
3.4.3 以限制理論為基礎解決軟體專案時程問題 39
3.5 以限制理論為基礎的軟體專案規劃與控制模式 49
第四章 系統分析與設計 57
4.1 GAIA方法論之分析階段 58
4.2 GAIA方法論之設計階段 61
4.3 系統運作方式 64
4.4 系統實作 76
第五章 分析與討論 91
第六章 結論與建議 103
6.1 結論 103
6.2 研究貢獻 104
6.3 研究限制 104
6.4 未來發展 105
參考文獻 106
作者簡介 109


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