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研究生:蔡明穎
研究生(外文):Ming-Ying Tsai
論文名稱:應用田口法於硬質式PCBM/P3HT/MWCNT異質混合太陽能電池之參數設計
論文名稱(外文):Parameter Design of glass-based PCBM/P3HT/MWCNT Heterojunction Solar Cell by Applying Taguchi Methods
指導教授:吳德和
指導教授(外文):Der-Ho Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:有機高分子太陽能電池PCBMP3HT多壁奈米碳管田口品質法
外文關鍵詞:organic polymer solar cellPCBMP3HTMWCNTTaguchi Method
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奈米碳管是一種新型的碳材料。從奈米碳管被發現到現今為止,它的各項特性,如機械強度、韌性、導熱性、電傳導方向都有優異表現,因此常做為改善材料性質之用。太陽能為新興的綠色能源,有機高分子太陽能電池更是近來備受矚目之一。近年來已有許多利用奈米碳管於有機高分子的複合材料研究,其目的在於提升高分子複合材料的性能。本篇論文中的有機高分子主動層材料則是使用([6,6] Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM)與( poly(3-hexylthiophene, P3HT)。本實驗將使用田口品質法(Taguchi Method)對有機高分子太陽能電池做製程穩健設計,尋求其最佳參數以期得到最佳光電特性。最後以實驗探討分析其各項參數對於其光電轉換效率的影響,最後透過最佳參數製程所得的有機高分子太陽能電池的確能獲得較佳的光電特性。
Carbon nanotube is a new kind of carbon materials. Since it has been found, there are several properties related to this material, such as good conductivity of heat and electricity, superb mechanical strength and toughness, so it is often used to improve the materials properties. The solar energy is new developing green energy, the organic polymer solar cell has received much concern recently even more. There are a lot of research of using carbon nanotube/organic polymer compound materials in recent years, these reports are aiming at the purpose of improving the performance of the polymer composite materials. The organic polymer active layer is consisted of ([6,6] Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM) and ( poly(3-hexylthiophene, P3HT). Taguchi Method is used in this experiment to obtain the robust design and the optimal parameters of organic polymer solar cell, try to discover the best photoelectric characteristic of the novel device. The several parameter effects of short circuit current (Isc) are analyzed by ANOM and ANOVA, and the best parameter settings of manufacturing process could be obtained.
目錄

摘要.............................................................................................................Ⅰ
Abstract.......................................................................................................Ⅱ
謝誌.............................................................................................................Ⅳ
目錄.............................................................................................................Ⅵ
表目錄.........................................................................................................Ⅹ
圖目錄........................................................................................................ XI
第1章緒論....................................................................................................1
1.1研究背景與動機.................................................................................1
1.2論文架構.............................................................................................4
第2章文獻回顧...........................................................................................5
2.1太陽能電池介紹.................................................................................5
2.2矽基太陽能電池...................................................................………..8
2.2.1結晶矽............ .............................................................................8
2.2.2非晶矽..........................................................................................9
2.3化合物半導體...................................................................................10
2.3.1Ⅲ-Ⅴ族........................................................................................10
2.3.2Ⅱ-Ⅵ族....................................................................................... 11
2.4 有機物太陽能電池..........................................................................11
2.4.1有機高分子.................................................................................11
2.4.2有機/無機奈米複合材料...........................................................12
2.4.3有機/C60複合材料....................................................................15
第3章有機高分子太陽能電池..................................................................17
3.1光電轉換原理...................................................................................17
3.1.1運作原理....................................................................................17
3.1.2光電特性量測............................................................................19
3.2有機高分子太陽能電池發電原理...................................................21
3.2.1染料敏化太陽能電池................................................................23
3.2.2單層有機異質高分子太陽能電池............................................25
3.2.3雙層有機異質高分子太陽能電池............................................25
3.2.4混合層有機異質高分子太陽能電池........................................25
3.2.5層疊有機異質高分子太陽能電池............................................26
3.3高分子材料性質...............................................................................28
3.3.1 PCBM分子結構與光電特性....................................................28
3.3.2 P3HT分子結構與光電特性......................................................29
3.3.3 PEDOT:PSS分子結構與光電特性...........................................33
3.3.4 奈米碳管分子結構與光電特性...............................................35
第4章田口法原理......................................................................................38
4.1品質損失函數定義...........................................................................40
4.2品質特性(目標函數值)的種類.........................................................42
4.3直交表...............................................................................................43
4.4田口法分析程序...............................................................................44
4.4.1定義目標函數............................................................................44
4.4.2定義設計參數與水準................................................................44
4.4.3選擇直交表................................................................................45
4.4.4平均數分析(ANOM)..................................................................45
4.4.5變異數分析(ANOVA)................................................................46
第5章有機高分子太陽能電池製程穩健設計..........................................50
5.1靜態最佳化設計...............................................................................50
5.1.1定義目標函數............................................................................50
5.1.2定義設計參數水準與直交表....................................................50
5.2實驗儀器與材料...............................................................................53
5.2.1試片規格...........................................….………………………53
5.2.2實驗材料.....................................................................………...54
5.2.3實驗設備及儀器....................................................................... 57
5.3試片製作...........................................................................................60
5.3.1奈米碳管改質............................................................................61
5.3.2有機高分子層調配....................................................................62
5.3.3 PEDOT:PSS調配.......................................................................62
5.3.4試片製作....................................................................................62
5.4光電性能量測...................................................................................64
5.5平均數分析.......................................................................................67
5.6變異數分析.......................................................................................69
5.6.1最佳參數水準組合的預測S/N值………………………….…70
5.7掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)分析.........................................................70
第6章結論與建議......................................................................................73
6.1高分子太陽能電池製程穩健設計方面...........................................73
6.2檢討與建議.......................................................................................75
6.3未來發展...........................................................................................75
參考文獻.....................................................................................................77
作者簡介.....................................................................................................83




表目錄
表1-1 世界各地太陽能平均年日照量.....................................................3
表2-1 各種不同的太陽能電池發展現況.................................................7
表2-2 矽基太陽能電池比較圖...............................................................10
表2-3 DSSC特性.....................................................................................14
表4-1 常見的品質特性...........................................................................43
表5-1 控制因子與水準數.......................................................................52
表5-2 選用的直交表...............................................................................53
表5-3 量測轉換效率實驗數據...............................................................65
表5-4 各因子水準的平均S/N比............................................................68
表5-5 控制因子對S/N比的變異數分析................................................69
表5-6 實驗最佳參數組與預測最佳參數S/N……………...……….....70
表5-7 各轉速下退火前後的膜厚...........................................................72





圖目錄
圖2-1 太陽能電池...................................................................................6
圖2-2 單晶矽...........................................................................................8
圖2-3 多晶矽...........................................................................................8
圖2-4 非晶矽...........................................................................................9
圖2-5 染料敏化太陽能電池結構.........................................................13
圖2-6 有機高分子太陽能電池結構圖.................................................16
圖3-1 運作原理示意圖.........................................................................19
圖3-2 大氣質量示意圖.........................................................................20
圖3-3 太陽能電池I-V曲線圖...............................................................21
圖3-4 有機高分子太陽能發電示意圖.................................................23
圖3-5 染料敏化二氧化鈦太陽能電池的光轉換原理示意圖............ 24
圖3-6 (a)單層 (b)雙層 (c)混合層 (d)層疊有機高分子太陽能電池 結構示圖....................................................................................27
圖3-7 本文有機高分子太陽能電池材料能隙圖.................................27
圖3-8 C60與其衍生物PCBM..............................................................29
圖3-9 P3HT結構圖...............................................................................31
圖3-10 regioregular P3HT.......................................................................31
圖3-11 場效載子遷移率和HT 比例的關係..........................................32
圖3-12 PEDOT:PSS分子結構圖............................................................33
圖3-13 PEDOT和PSS分子結構圖........................................................34
圖3-14 奈米碳管結構圖.........................................................................36
圖4-1 田口法靜態最佳化設計之分析流程圖.....................................39
圖4-2 傳統品質損失函數.....................................................................41
圖4-3 品質損失函數(二次品質損失函數) .........................................42
圖5-1 控制因子魚骨圖.........................................................................51
圖5-2 有機高分子太陽能電池尺寸概略圖.........................................54
圖5-3 ITO玻璃……..............................................................................55
圖5-4 PEDOT:PSS.……........................................................................55
圖5-5 P3HT............................................................................................55
圖5-6 PCBM…………..........................................................................56
圖5-7 MWCNT…………......................................................................56
圖5-8 氯苯.............................................................................................56
圖5-9 丙酮………..................................... …………………………...56
圖5-10 Triton X-100................................................................................56
圖5-11 硫酸.............................................................................................56
圖5-12 硝酸……….................................................................................56
圖5-13 隱形膠帶…….............................................................................56
圖5-14 導電銅膠帶.................................................................................56
圖5-15 濺鍍用檔板.................................................................................57
圖5-16 電子天秤.....................................................................................58
圖5-17 Bath超音波振盪器.....................................................................58
圖5-18 Tip 超音波激振器......................................................................58
圖5-19 零件測量儀.................................................................................58
圖5-20 旋轉塗佈機.................................................................................59
圖5-21 真空烘箱.....................................................................................59
圖5-22 無塵室程式熱風循環烘箱.........................................................59
圖5-23 金屬濺鍍機.................................................................................59
圖5-24 太陽光模擬器與IV量測系統....................................................59
圖5-25 掃描式電子顯微鏡.....................................................................60
圖5-26 真空手套箱.................................................................................60
圖5-27 試片製作流程圖.........................................................................61
圖5-28 膠帶黏貼示意圖.........................................................................64
圖5-29 試片成品.....................................................................................65
圖5-30 第1組…………..........................................................................66
圖5-31 第2組…………..........................................................................66
圖5-32 第3組..........................................................................................66
圖5-33 第4組………..............................................................................66
圖5-34 第5組…………..........................................................................66
圖5-35 第6組..........................................................................................66
圖5-36 第7組..........................................................................................66
圖5-37 第8組..........................................................................................66
圖5-38 第9組..........................................................................................66
圖5-39 第10組........................................................................................67
圖5-40 第11組........................................................................................67
圖5-41 第12組........................................................................................67
圖5-42 第13組........................................................................................67
圖5-43 第14組........................................................................................67
圖5-44 第15組........................................................................................67
圖5-45 第16組........................................................................................67
圖5-46 第17組........................................................................................67
圖5-47 第18組........................................................................................67
圖5-48 控制因子S/N回應圖..................................................................68
圖5-49 PEDOT:PSS 膜厚與表面...........................................................71
圖5-50 Active layer 表面碳管...............................................................71
圖5-51 4 krpm主動層退火前.................................................................71
圖5-52 4 krpm主動層退火後.................................................................71
圖5-53 4.5 krpm 主動層退火前.............................................................71
圖5-54 4.5 krpm主動層退火後..............................................................71
圖5-55 5.5 krpm主動層退火前..............................................................72
圖5-56 5.5 krpm主動層退火後..............................................................72
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