(3.238.7.202) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/02 00:43
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:李家德
研究生(外文):Jia-De Lee
論文名稱:屏東地區母乳中p,p’-DDT 與p,p’-DDE殘量之分析研究
論文名稱(外文):Residual levels of p,p’-DDT and p,p’-DDE in breast milk from Pingtung area
指導教授:趙浩然趙浩然引用關係
指導教授(外文):How-Ran Chao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:滴滴梯滴滴依滴滴梯及其衍生物母乳屏東
外文關鍵詞:DDTDDEDDTsbreast milkPingtung
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:325
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:50
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究目的探討母乳中p,p’-DDT和p,p’-DDE的殘餘量及其相關因子之探討。此外,也以飲食問卷來獲取每位受試者飲食的習慣。最後藉由統計方法分析,來分析母乳中DDTs的含量與嬰幼兒及母親生理特徵、生活習慣以及飲食習慣的關聯性。本研究DDE/DDT比值58.5高。由此可知,在台灣生活的居民,其體內之DDT大部分已轉換為主要的代謝產物 DDE,而且沒有持續的受到嚴重且特別的污染。並且與已開發國家相當遠低於開發中國家,母親的月經週期與DDTs的殘留量呈負相關(r=-0.470, p=0.024),嬰兒的出生參數與母乳DDTs殘留量無關,有機蔬菜的食用與DDTs的殘留量呈現正相關(r=0.387, p=0.024)。是否常吃有機蔬菜與母乳中DDTs的濃度有逐步線性迴歸關係,y=22.2x+34.8,校正後的解釋係數是0.255,顯著性是0.007。新生兒頭圍與母乳中DDTs有三次迴歸關係,y=-0.0000147x3+0.003x2-0.145x+ 35.031,解釋係數為0.381,顯著性是0.041。在目前台灣地區哺乳人口數及意願相當低,依此研究數值顯如所示,在台灣DDTs母乳中之殘留值,遠低於世衛建議值。結論中,發現孕齡婦女在懷孕時期,若有較高的有機食材攝取量,可能會提高媽媽體內的DDTs值。研究顯示台灣地區的母乳有較低的DDTs含量,對於鼓勵哺育母乳的政策,同時也為了下一代的健康,應持續進行監測及分析。
The aim of the present study was to determine residues of DDTs (p,p’-DDT and p,p’-DDE) in breast milk investigated in Pingtung area between March 2007 and November 2007. Breast milk was collected within the first month after delivery. Residues of DDT and DDE were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometer (GC/MS) with electron impact mode for 24 breast milk samples. Our participants with healthy outcome were randomly selected from two hospitals in Pingtung and were answered the detailed questionnaire. The questionnaire is including women’s age, socioeconomic states, occupational and non-occupational exposure, reproductive history, reproduction, life styles, smoking and dietary habits, alcohol consumption, and medical and pregnancy history. The measurements of women’s demographic parameters included height, pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI), and infants’ birth outcomes (birth length, birth weight, gestational week). The correlations and differences of DDTs in breast milk and associated factors were examined by the statistical tests with SPSS 12.0 software.
A mean level of DDTs was 84.4 ng/g lipid with a standard deviation of 24.4 ng/g lipid. Residues of DDTs in breast milk from Pingtung area were comparable to those described in the developed countries, and significantly lower compared to the developing countries. Time trends of decline in DDTs from Taiwanese mothers were found between 1983 and 2007. Maternal menstrual cycle was negatively correlated with DDTs residues (r=-0.470, p=0.024). Birth outcomes of the offspring had no significant correlations with milk levels of DDTs. The consumption of organic vegetation was significantly associated with increased DDTs in brest milk (r=0.387, p=0.024). The consumption of organic vegetation could predict DDTs levels in breast milk by stepwise linear regression (y=22.2x+34.8, adjusted R2=0.255, p=0.007). The relationship between infants’ head circumference and DDTs in breast milk had a cubic regression model (y=-0.0000147x3+0.003x2-0.145x+35.031), R2=0.381, p=0.041). Based on our present results to show low levels of DDTs in breast milk in Taiwan, Department of Health should continuously encourage the policy of breastfeeding for the next generation.

目錄
摘要.......................................................I
Abstract..................................................II
謝誌......................................................IV
目錄......................................................IV
表目錄...................................................VII
圖目錄....................................................IX
第1章 前言..................................................1
1.1 源起...................................................1
1.2 研究動機................................................1
1.3 研究目的................................................2
第2章 文獻探討..............................................4
2.1 有機氯農藥的性質.........................................4
2.1.1 有機氯農藥之物理化學性質................................4
2.1.2 有機氯農藥之毒性.......................................4
2.2 有機氯農藥之介紹........................................11
2.2.1 有機氯農藥之沿革......................................11
2.2.2 有機氯農藥之分類......................................11
2.2.3 台灣地區有機氯農藥之法源依據與主管機關分工...............12
2.2.4 台灣地區環境中有機氯農藥之分佈.........................14
2.2.5 世界各國以及台灣母乳中有機氯農藥之殘留量.................26
2.2.6 台灣地區有機氯農藥與飲食習慣之相關性....................32
2.3 有機氯農藥對人體的之影響.................................34
2.3.1 荷爾蒙干擾...........................................35
2.3.2 致癌性..............................................35
2.3.3 生殖毒性.............................................37
第3章 實驗方法與步驟........................................39
3.1 研究對象之收集.........................................39
3.1.1 研究對象之收集.......................................39
3.1.2 樣品之收集與保存......................................41
3.2 材料與設備.............................................41
3.2.1 藥品與試劑...........................................41
3.2.2 儀器設備.............................................44
3.3 樣本前處理方法.........................................44
3.3.1 脂含量之測定.........................................44
3.3.2 DDTs分析之前處理.....................................46
3.4 儀器分析及程序.........................................46
3.4.1 儀器分析.............................................46
3.4.2 分析程序.............................................46
3.5 數據之統計與整理........................................49
3.5.1 統計分析.............................................49
3.5.2 低於偵測極限樣品之處置................................49
3.6 實驗之品質管理與保證....................................49
3.6.1 儀器偵測極限.........................................49
3.6.2 再現性試驗...........................................50
3.6.3 建立標準品之檢量線....................................50
3.6.4 方法偵測極限.........................................53
3.6.5 有機氯農藥於分析儀器之滯留時間.........................53
第4章 結果與討論...........................................56
4.1 研究對象之基本特徵描述..................................56
4.2 母乳中DDTs之殘留量.....................................56
4.3 母乳中DDTs其相關因子探討................................64
第5章 結論與建議...........................................69
5.1 結論..................................................69
5.2.建議..................................................70
參考文獻...................................................71
附錄 二十種有機氯農藥之檢量線(GC/MS).........................77
作者簡介...................................................87


表目錄
表2-1 DDT、DDE及DDD之IUPAC命名與化學結構.....................5
表2-2 有機氯農藥之基本物化性質................................6
表2-3 台灣農藥毒性分類.......................................9
表2-4 有機氯農藥之毒性(Kent et al., 1998)...................10
表2-5 有機氯農藥公約列管物質之台灣管理現況彙整.................13
表2-6 底泥中有機氯農藥之殘留濃度(μg/g TOC)...................17
表2-7 台灣蛋類、畜肉、乳製品中殘留持久性有機氯劑殘留容許量......19
表2-8 台灣地區魚類中有機氯農藥的殘留量........................20
表2-9 台灣地區蛋類及畜肉中有機氯劑殘留調查....................22
表2-10 台灣地區乳製品及嬰兒食品中有機氯劑殘留調查..............23
表2-11 食物中有機氯農藥之殘留濃度(ng/g wet wt )..............25
表2-12 世界各國母乳中有機氯農藥之濃度 (ng/g-lipid)............27
表2-13 台灣地區1981年母乳中有機氯農藥殘留量 (ng/g-lipid)......28
表2-14 比較不同飲食習慣族群與母乳中有機氯農藥濃度值............36
表2-15 有機氯農藥之致癌性分類................................38
表3-1 20種有機氯農藥標準品之純度與分析前後的濃度...............42
表3-2 操作條件.............................................48
表3-3 儀器偵測極限.........................................51
表3-4 再現性試驗結果........................................52
表3-5 GC/MS之方法偵測極限(MDL)..............................54
表3-6 20種OCPs於GC/MS之滯留時間(min)、平均值及標準差..........55
表4-1 懷孕婦女及其嬰幼兒之基本特徵(N=24).....................57
表4-2 台灣地區婦女有機氯農藥DDT與DDE於母乳中的分布情形.........59
表4-3 世界各國其母乳中p,p’-DDE和p,p’-DDT濃度的比較..........60
表4-4 台灣和亞洲國家地區母乳內p,p’-DDE與 p,p’-DDT濃度比較....62
表4-6 嬰幼兒身體參數與DDTs之關係.............................66
表4-7 利用斯皮爾曼相關來探討DDTs與飲食習慣之相關性.............68
表4-8食用有機食材與DDTs之關係...............................68


圖目錄
圖2-1 1962-1974年台灣有機氯殺蟲劑銷售量......................16
圖2-2 比較台灣地區有機氯農藥1981到2000的削減率................31
圖2-2 母親餵食嬰幼兒每日母乳意願值...........................33
圖3-1 研究架構.............................................40
圖3-2 脂含量測定...........................................45
圖3-3 母乳前處理流程........................................47
圖4-1 母親平均月經週期與DDTs之二次、三次迴歸曲線...............65
圖4-2 新生兒頭圍與DDTs之三次迴歸曲線.........................66




王仁澤、王健行,1998,環境與工業毒物學,高立圖書有限公司。
王正雄、柳家瑞,2000,台灣歷年環境中有機氯殺蟲劑殘留趨勢分析。藥物食品分析,8 (3) : 149-158。
徐聖煦,1981,農藥化學,正中,台北 。
周珮如、林怡萍、張碧秋、蘇淑珠、周薰修,2005,台灣地區乳製品及嬰幼兒食品中有機氯劑殘留量調查,藥物食品檢驗局調查研究年報,23 : 260-283。
周珮如、羅怡文、蘇淑珠、張碧秋、周薰修,2006,台灣地區蛋類及畜肉中有機氯劑殘留量調查,藥物食品檢驗局調查研究年報,24 : 357-374。
陳永仁,2001,「環境荷爾蒙管制」,孫運璿學術基金會,台北。
陳建行,2007,台灣地區母乳中有機氯農藥的殘留量與飲食習慣的相關性,碩士論文,國立屏東科技大學,環境工程與科學系,屏東。
廖龍盛,2005,實用農藥,得力興業股份有限公司,研發部。
翁愫慎,1996,農藥與生活,行政院農業委員會農業藥物毒物試驗所。
鄭森雄、孫藍天,1976,台灣養殖魚貝類之有機氯劑農藥含量,科學月刊雜誌,0079期。
鄭智文,2006,市售農產品中農藥殘留之研究,碩士論文,國立屏東科技大學,食品科學研究所,屏東。
鄭森雄、孫藍天,1976,台灣養殖魚貝類之有機氯劑農藥含量,科學月刊雜誌,0079期。
楊小平,2001,守衛綠色:農藥與人類的生存,曉園,台北。
莊姁慧,2004,台中地區產婦母乳中有機氯農藥之評估研究,碩 士 論 文,國立成功大學,環境工程學系,台南。
Carson, R. , 1962, Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
Colborn T, Dumanoski D, Myers JP., 1996, Our Stolen Future. Dutton, New York.
Charlier, C., A . Albert, P. Herman, E. Hamoir, U. Gaspard, M . Meurisse, Plomteux G., 2003, Breast cancer and serum organochlorine residues. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 60: 348-351.
Carlsen, E., A. Giwercman, N. Keiding, N. E. Skakkebaek.﹐1992, Evidence for decreasing quality of semen during past 50 years. British Medical Journal 305: 609-613.
Cok, I., Bilgili, A., Ozdemir, M., Ozbek, H., Bilgili, N., Burgaz, S., 1997. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk from agricultural regions of Turkey, 1995-1996. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 59, 577–582.
Doong RA, Lee CY, Sun YC., 1999, Dietary intake and residues of organochlorine pesticides in foods from Hsinchu, Taiwan. Journal of AOAC International 82: 677-682.
Doong, R.A., C. K. Peng, Y. C. Sun, P. L. Liao﹐2002a, Composition and distribution of organochlorine pesticide residues in surface sediments from the Wu-Shi River estuary, Taiwan. Marine Pollution Bulletin 45: 246-253.
Doong, R.A., Y. C. Sun, P. L. Liao, C. K. Peng, S. H. Wu﹐2002b , Distribution and fate of organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from the selected rivers in Taiwan. Chemosphere 48: 237-246.
Epstein, S.S.﹐1994, Environmental and occupational pollutants are avoidable causes of breast cancer. International Journal of Health Services 24: 145-150.
Falck, F. Jr., A .Jr. Ricci, M. S. Wolff, J. Godbold, P. Deckers., 1992, Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human breast lipids and their relation to breast cancer. Archives of Environmental Health 47: 143-146.
Fry, D.M., C. K. Toone, S. M. Speich, R. J. Peard., 1987, Sex ratio skew and breeding patterns of gulls: demographic and toxicological considerations. Studies in Avian Biology 10: 26-43.
Guillette, L.J. Jr, T. S. Gross, G. R. Masson, J. M. Matter, H. F. Percival, A.R.,1994, Woodward, Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida. Environmental Health Perspectives 102: 680-688.
Guillette, L.J.Jr., 2000, Organochlorine pesticides as endocrine disruptors in wildlife. Cent Eur J Public Health 8: 34-35.
Gladen, B.C., S.C. Monaghan, E.M. Lukyanova, O.P. Hulchiy O.P., Z.A. Shkyryak-Nyzhnyk Z.A., Sericano, R.E. Little .,1999, Organochlorines in breast milk from two cities in Ukraine. Environmental Health Perspectives 107: 459-462.
Harris, C.A., S. O’Hagan, G. H. J. Merson., 1999, Organochlorine pesticide residues in human milk in the United Kingdom 1997-8. Human & Experimental Toxicology 18: 602-606.
Han BC, Jeng WL, Hung TC, Ling YC, Shieh MJ, Chien LC., 2000, Estimation of metal and organochlorine pesticide exposures and potential health threat by consumption of oysters in Taiwan. Environmental Pollution 109: 147- 156.
How-Ran Chao, Chien-Hsing Chen, Su-Li Wang., 2006,Levels of organochlorine pesticides in breast milk from central Taiwan and their relations to infant thyroid hormone and children development。The 4th Conference Environmental Hormones and POPs,D2:P.162-165,Taiwan.
Hoffmann, W., 1996, Organochlorine compounds: risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and breast cancer? Archives of Environmental Health 51: 189-192.
Johansen, R.H., Becher, G., Polder, A., Skaare, J.U., 1994. Congener-specific determination of PCBs and OCPs in human milk from Norwegian mothers living in Oslo. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 42, 157-171.
Jensen AA, Slorach SA., 1991, Chemical contaminants in human milk. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Karmaus W, Wolf N., 1995, Reduced birthweight and length in the offspring of females exposed to PCDFs, PCP, and lindane. Environmental Health Perspectives 103: 1120-1125.
Kubiak, T.J., H. J. Harris, L. M. Smith, T. R. Schwartz, D. L. Stalling, J. A. Trick, L. Sileo, D. E. Docherty, T.C. Erdman , 1989, Microcontaminants and reproductive impairment of the Forster's tern on Green Bay, Lake Michigan--1983. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 18: 706-727.
Konishi, Y., Kuwabara, K., Hori, S., 2001. Continuous surveillance of organochlorine compounds in human breast milk from 1972 to 1998 in Osaka, Japan. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 40, 571-578.
Kunisue, T., Someya, M., Kayama, F., Jin, Y., Tanabe, S., 2004. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk collected from primipare in Dalian and Shenyang, China. Environ. Pollut. 131, 381-392.
Kent, C., 1998, Basics of Toxicology. John Wiley & Sons, Canada.
Lu, F.C., 1996, Basic Toxicology, 3rd Edition. Taylor & Francis, Washington DC.
Li, G.C., L. J. Wu, M. Flanagan, 1983. The survey of ogranochlorine pesticide residues in breast milk from Taiwan. Plant Prot. Bull. 25, 191-203 (in Chinese).
Liou, E. M. L., L. P. Chen, F. F .Lei, Y.C. Liu, S.W.Chen, Y.C. Ling, 2001, Levels of organochlorine pesticides in market fishery products sold in Hsichu, Taiwan. POPs in food Special session 7.
Longnecker, M.P., M. A. Klebanoff, H. Zhou, J.W. Brock, 2001, Association between maternal serum concentration of the DDT metabolite DDE and pre-term and small-for-gestational-age babies at birth. The Lancet 358: 110-114.
Norén, K., D. Meironyté, 2000, Certain organochlorine and organobromine contaminants in Swedish human milk in perspective of past 20-30 years. Chemosphere 40: 1111-1123.
Porta, M., N. Malats, M. Jariod, J. O. Grimalt, J. Rifà, A .Carrato, L. Guarner, A .Salas, M. Santiago-Silva, J.M. Corominas, M .Andreu, F.X. Real, 1999, Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and K-ras mutations in exocrine pancreatic cancer. The Lancet 354: 2125-2129.
Quinsey, P.M., D.C. Donohue, J. T. Ahokas, 1995, Persistence of organochlorines in breast milk of women in Victoria, Australia. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33: 49-56.
Rogan WJ, Ragan NB., 1994, Chemical contaminants, pharmacokinetics, and the lactating mother. Environmental Health Perspectives 102: 89-95.
Stuetz, W., Prapamontol, T., Erhardt, J.G., Classen, H.G., 2001. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human milk of a Hmong hill tribe living in Northern Thailand. Sci. Total Environ. 273, 53-60.
Sudaryanto, A., Kunisue, T., Iwata, H., Tanabe, S., Niida, M., Hashim, H., 2005. Persistent Organochlorines in Human Breast Milk from Malaysia. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 49, 429-437.
Schade, G., Heinzow, B., 1998. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk of mothers living in northern Germany: current extent of contamination, time trend from 1986 to 1997 and factors that influence the levels of contamination. Sci. Total Environ. 215, 31-39.
Tsydenova, O.V., Sudaryanto, A., Kajiwara, N., Kunisue, T., Batoev, V.B., Tanabe, S., 2006. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from Republic of Buryatia. Russ. Environ. Pollut. 146, 225-232.
Yu, H., Zhu, Z., Zhao, X., Zhang, X., Wang, D., 2003. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in Beijing human milk, 1998. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 70, 193-197.
Waliszewski, S.M., Aguirre, A.A., Infanzon, R.M., Benitez, A., Rivera, J., 1999. Comparison of organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue and human milk of mothers living in Veracruz, Mexico. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 62, 685-690
Wang, C.H. , C. Liu, 2000, Dissipation of organochlorine insecticide residues in the environment of Taiwan, 1973- 1999. J Food and Drug Analysis 8(3): 149-157.
Wolff MS., 1995, Pesticides--how research has succeeded and failed in informing policy: DDT and the link with breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 103: 87-91.
Wong, C.K., Leung, K.M., Poon, B.H., Lan, C.Y., Wong, M.H., 2002. Organochlorine hydrocarbons in human breast milk collected in Hong Kong and Guangzhou. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 43, 364-372.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔