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研究生:蔡易霖
研究生(外文):Tsai,Yi-Lin
論文名稱:感應加熱技術熱解纖維料狼尾草之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Pyrolysis for Cellulosic Napiergrass by Induction Heating Technology
指導教授:林曉洪林曉洪引用關係蔡文田蔡文田引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai,Wen-TienLin,Sheau-Horng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:木材科學與設計系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:狼尾草快速熱裂解感應加熱生質焦油再生能源
外文關鍵詞:NapiergrassFast pyrolysisInduction heatingBio-oilRenewable energy
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狼尾草亦稱為象草,屬於熱帶C4型、多年生、具有高產量潛力之牧草,也是台灣主要牧草之ㄧ。國內將狼尾草轉化為生質焦油之研究則相當有限。熱裂解為一種熱化學程序,可有效地將生質物於缺氧及適當溫度條件下,轉化為生質焦油、焦碳及非凝結性氣體。
本研究探討藉感應加熱快速熱裂解技術轉化國內大宗能源作物狼尾草為生質焦油之可行性;藉由控制快速熱裂解反應爐的熱裂解溫度、升溫速率、持溫時間、樣品粒徑大小四個主要操作條件,再輔以氮氣流量及冷凝收集溫度的試驗條件,來求取生質焦油的最佳產率。研究結果顯示,操作條件對於生質焦油產率皆有所影響;狼尾草最佳的生質焦油產率為36.77 %。
對冷凝收集的生質焦油產物做其物理/化學特性分析,包括熱值、主要元素、pH值、傅利葉紅外線光譜及氣相層析質譜,顯示所得之產物熱值偏低、呈現酸性、含氧量偏高,若要實際運用所得產物,則須進一步提昇。倒是經快速熱裂解後的焦碳產物,因其熱值可高達5555 kcal/kg,可成為好的固態燃料外,也可進一步活化製造出活性碳。
Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum), also known as elephantgrass, is one of the highest yielding tropical (C4) perennial grasses. It is one of major forage crops grown for livestock in Taiwan. With respect to the domestic studies on the biomass fuel production from napiergrass, the published information is limited. Pyrolysis, a promising route for biomass utilization, is the thermochemical process that converts biomass into liquid (bio-oil), charcoal and non-condensable gases by heating the biomass at intermediate temperature in the absence of air.
The objective of the research is to study the feasibility of using fast pyrolysis technology with induction heating for manufacturing the bio-fuel from the napiergrass. Under the conditions of controlling holding temperature, heating rate, hold time, inert gas flowrate, sample particle size and condensation temperature, the optimal yield of bio-oil was approached in the present study. The experimental results showed that these operating parameters, exclusive of inert gas flowrate, had significant effect on the yield of bio-oil, which could be obtained at the percentages of 36.77 for napiergrass.
The physical and chemical characterizations of bio-oil collected from the cryogenic condensation were further conducted, including heating value, elemental analysis, pH value, Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The characteristics of bio-oil showed to be low heating value, acidic, high content of oxygenated components. Therefore, the bio-oil must be further upgraded while it was practically used. Another product charcoal after fast pyrolysis can become a solid fuel due to its high heating value (about 5555 kcal/g), or be further activated to produce activated carbon.
摘 要…………………………………………………………………………I
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………II
謝 誌 ……………………………………………………………………IV
目 錄 ……………………………………………………………………VI
圖表目錄 …………………………………………………………………IX
壹、前言 ……………………………………………………………………1
貳、文獻回顧 ………………………………………………………………3
一、生質能源……………………………………………………………3
  二、生質能效益與限制 ………………………………………………4
    (一)主要優點/效益 ………………………………………………4
    (二)主要缺點/限制 ………………………………………………4
  三、生質能轉化技術 …………………………………………………5
    (ㄧ)直接燃燒技術 ………………………………………………6
    (二)物理前處理技術………………………………………………7
    (三)熱化學轉換技術………………………………………………7
    (四)化學/生物轉換技術…………………………………………7
  四、感應加熱技術相關文獻回顧…………………………………12
  五、感應加熱系統……………………………………………………14
    (一)感應加熱的原理 ……………………………………………14
    (二)感應加熱的特性 ……………………………………………14
    (三)感應加熱的優點 ……………………………………………14
  六、能源作物 …………………………………………………………15
七、狼尾草之介紹 ……………………………………………………16
  八、狼尾草生產生質能之初步優勢分析 ……………………………18
参、研究方法及實驗設備 …………………………………………………21
  一、研究架構 …………………………………………………………22
  二、實驗材料 …………………………………………………………23
    (一)材料來源 ………………………………………………23
    (二)材料前處理 …………………………………………………23
(三)其他相關材料 ………………………………………………23
  三、分析儀器 …………………………………………………………24
    (ㄧ)樣品本質特性分析 …………………………………………24
(二)物性分析 ……………………………………………………24
    (三)化性分析 ……………………………………………………25
  四、實驗設備 …………………………………………………………28
    (一)熱裂解實驗系統 …………………………………………28
  五、實驗步驟 …………………………………………………………31
    (一)熱裂解實驗步驟 …………………………………………31
肆、結果與討論 ……………………………………………………………34
  一、狼尾草本質分析 …………………………………………………34
    (一)近似分析 ……………………………………………………34
    (二)元素分析及化學組成分分析 ………………………………35
    (三)熱值分析 ……………………………………………………37
    (四)微量元素分析 ………………………………………………37
    (五)熱重量變化分析 ……………………………………………38
  二、熱裂解實驗 …………………………………………………46
    (ㄧ)控制不同樣品粒徑大小 ……………………………………46
    (二)控制不同熱裂解溫度 ………………………………………47
    (三)控制不同升溫速率 …………………………………………49
    (四)控制不同持溫時間 …………………………………………50
  三、生質焦油物理性質分析 …………………………………………51
    (ㄧ)外觀與氣味 …………………………………………………51
    (二)熱值分析 ……………………………………………………51
  四、生質焦油化學性質分析 …………………………………………53
    (ㄧ)傅立葉紅外線分析 …………………………………………53
    (二)元素分析 ……………………………………………………57
    (三)氣相層析質譜分析 …………………………………………58
  五、pH值分析…………………………………………………………86
  六、固體焦碳分析 ……………………………………………………87
    (ㄧ)不同操作條件下之焦碳產率 ………………………………87
    (二)固體焦碳元素分析 …………………………………………90
伍、結論與建議……………………………………………………………92
一、結論………………………………………………………………92
  二、建議………………………………………………………………93
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………94
附錄……………………………………………………………………99
作者簡介…………………………………………………………………105
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