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研究生(外文):Ya-chen Lin
論文名稱(外文):Space in Anita Desai’s Clear Light of Day
指導教授(外文):TEE Kim Tong
外文關鍵詞:diasporahomogeneitymemorytraumaspaceAnita DesaiClear Light of Day
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阿妮妲•德賽《白日悠光》將近代印度呈現為民族國家、殖民地、和第三世界國家。本文探討其中空間再現的議題。列婓柏荷(Henri Lefebvre)主張空間具有生產之過程與成品兩個層面。抽象空間有同質化的傾向;空間計劃的執行卻往往受到其他意識形態的干擾。小說中意識形態的流動具現化為宅院、現代城市、以及旅遊敘事中的印度。第一章援引克如斯(Cathy Caruth)的創傷理論說明宅院如何成為印度民族主義主流論述之象徵。達斯一家的分崩離析被視為國家分裂的寓言。達斯一家每每在憶及傷痛的過去時,因各人處境、想法的歧異而面臨認同危機。印度民族主義論述因長駐宅院而握有發言權。藉由排除歧異,權威論述推動建設印度為民族國家。其次,英屬殖民政府塑造新德里為現代化首都。此舉反應其同化殖民地的計劃。第二章採用傅柯(Michel Foucault)的權力與空間理論分析英屬政府將新都建設為同質空間的統治策略;與之抗衡的則是由地方文化的多樣性衍生出的勢力。最終,新德里成其為兼備西方現代性與地方傳統的都市。第三章討論離散的印度知識份子面臨文化認同的困境。周蕾指出第三世界知識分子為弱勢族群發聲,卻無法為弱勢族群中的弱勢階級發聲的窘境。小說中的外交官巴谷為了滿足第一世界的異國想像,對外宣傳印度的傲人成就卻拒談社會政治方面的難題。此時,印度的真實面已從外交言論中抹除。進而言之,第三世界研究底下潛藏的歐陸中心論述使得對印度的認知不斷擺盪:在離散情境下,印度究竟是家鄉抑或一處旅遊勝地。
This thesis examines the spatial representations of India as respectively a nation-state, a colony, and a member of the third-world countries in modern history in Anita Desai’s Clear Light of Day. According to Henri Lefebvre, space is simultaneously a part in the production and a product. An abstract space has a goal in homogeneity; however, the realization of spatial plan is usually interfered by different ideologies. The flow of the entangling ideologies embedded in the novel is embodied in the family house, the modern city, and the imagination of India as a tourist attraction. Chapter One applies Cathy Caruth’s traumatic theory to demonstrate the family house as a symbol of the dominating Hindu nationalist discourse. The separation of the Das family is taken as an allegorical representation of the Partition. Recollecting the traumatic past, the Das encounters repetitively the crisis of identity caused by the separation and the diversity of discourses. The Hindu nationalist discourse has occupied the family house as the position of articulation. The authoritative discourse promotes the establishment of India as a nation-state through excluding the elements of difference. In addition, the colonial design of establishing New Delhi as a modernist capital reflects the British government’s plan to assimilate Indian colony. Chapter Two applies Michel Foucault’s theories of power and space to analyze first British governmentality in making the new capital a homogeneous space and, secondly, the potential resistance generated from the variety of local cultures. Eventually, New Delhi exhibits itself a synthesis of the modern and the tradition, of the western and the local. Chapter Three explores Indian intellectuals’ dilemma of cultural identity in diaspora. As Rey Chow indicates, the third-world intellectuals articulate for the marginalized; however, the minor of the minor has still been left in the dark. While the diplomat Bakul decides to tell the foreigners only the glory of India exclusive of the socio-political calamities, the local reality is estimated as dispensable for the first-world imagination. Furthermore, the Eurocentric grand narrative embedded in the third-world studies locates the diasporic’s recognition of India oscillating between homeland and tourist attraction.
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………1
Chapter One The Family House: Monument of Traumatic Past ………………19
Chapter Two Dual Cities: Colonial Design and Local Reality …………………41
Chapter Three “Eternal India” in Diaspora: The Dislocation of Culture ………61
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………84
Works Cited ………………………………………………………………………88
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