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研究生:蔡若琳
研究生(外文):Ruo-lin Tsai
論文名稱:氨氧化細菌的特性及新式生物脫氮技術之探討
論文名稱(外文):Investigation of the characteristics of ammonia-oxidation bacteria and novel nitrogen removal technologies
指導教授:劉仲康劉仲康引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liu , Jong-Kang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:生物脫氮厭氧氨氧化ANAMMOX
外文關鍵詞:anaerobic ammonium oxidationANAMMOXbiodenitrification
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利用硝化、脫硝細菌進行生物除氮程序,因具有高效率、低費用等優點,故長久以來被廣泛應用在移除廢水中的高濃度氨氮。然而硝化細菌世代繁殖緩慢,而且在硝化過程中必須供應充足的氧氣,才能進行更有效率的生物脫氮程序,而脫硝過程亦需要添加適度碳源,以避免溫室效應氣體產生,除此之外,反應後產生的污泥也是一大問題,因此對於硝化細菌的特性、硝化途徑,以及脫硝的過程研究有其重要性。以往文獻多著重在好氧自營菌的探討,直到荷蘭Mulder於1995年發現氨氧化反應(ANAMMOX),並隨後Van de Graaf等人以實驗證明厭氧反應的存在後,愈來越多的研究顯示,以合併好氧與厭氧氨氧化移除氨氮的程序,和傳統硝化和脫硝方式比較,總移除率有很大的進步。自營性厭氧氨氧化菌是屬於Planctomycete細菌的一群,以NO2-做為電子接受者,將NH4+和NO2-轉化而產生N2氣,在氨氮的移除上比傳統硝化過程有更多的優點;例如不需要額外添加碳源、氧氣,也不會有N2O和NO釋出問題和反應後污泥產生,顯示ANAMMOX程序不僅能降低廢水處理費用,也能避免對環境造成衝擊。在氨氮廢水污染日益嚴重的當下,各國學者莫不紛紛投入心力研究,希望能在生物脫氮的領域上有重大突破。本研究報告對於好氧和厭氧的氨氧化細菌種類、分佈以及生理生化特性做一綜合性探討,並比較幾種新式的氨氮廢水處理程序,分析系統中好氧與厭氧的最佳條件控制,以期盼對於氨氮污水處理系統中菌相的穩定有所貢獻,進而提高生物脫氮的效率,使得廢水處理系統更具經濟效益。
Use of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria to remove ammonia from waste water had been studied for a long time due to their high efficiency and low cost. Nitrifying bacteria not only grow slowly but also require high concentration of oxygen to facilitate the nitrifying process. Moreover, the followed denitrifying process needs the supply of adequate carbon sources for denitrifying bacteria to avoid greenhouse gas emission from the system. It shows the operational control to remove ammonia from waste water would be very difficult. Therefore, it is important to study the physiological and biochemical characteristics of those nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria closely. In 1995, Mulder discovered the disappearance of ammonium at the expense of nitrate and nitrogen production from their denitrifying pilot plant in the Netherlands, then van de Graaf verified an ANAMMOX reaction in the laboratory. Further studies that have revealed the combination of aerobic nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation is more efficient to remove ammonia than most conventional methods. The ANAMMOX process is performed by a group of Planctomycete which involves the oxidation of ammonia anaerobically with nitrite as the final electron acceptor to yield gaseous nitrogen. Since this process is no need of supply external carbon source and oxygen, the ANAMMOX system can offer the advantages of less cost, less microbial contamination and less N2O and NO emission to the environment. This study is to summarize the bacterial species diversity, distribution in nature, their physiological characteristics, and potential biochemical pathways of those nitrogen converting microorganisms. In addition, several novel nitrogen removal technologies are also discussed for further understanding of the process optimization under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
圖目錄 I
表目錄 II
第一章 前言 1
1.1 含氮污染物來源與影響 1
1.2 參與代謝脫氮之微生物 3
第二章 硝化菌特性之探討 5
2.1 硝化菌的種類、特性和分佈 5
2.2 硝化和脫硝作用 10
2.3 影響硝化作用的因素 12
第三章 厭氧氨氧化菌脫氮原理 15
3.1 厭氧氨氧化菌的種類與分佈 15
3.2 厭氧氨氧化菌的生理和生化途徑 23
3.3 影響厭氧氨氧化反應的因素 32
第四章 生物除氮新技術介紹 38
4.1 傳統生物除氮程序 38
4.2 新式生物除氮程序 40
4.3 生物除氮程序的比較 48
第五章 結論與未來展望 49
參考文獻 53
中文文獻
李宜映、殷正華,探索我國水產養殖生技之現況與未來,農業生技產業季刊,2007年,取自http://agbio.coa.gov.tw。
柯清水,硝化細菌與水產養殖問答集,養魚世界雜誌社,台北,2002年。
馮宇柔,利用通氣式薄膜生物反應槽與厭氧氨氧化程序進行廢水除氮之研究,台灣大學環境工程學研究所博士論文,2008年。
彭明琛,海洋環境中氨氧化氮之研究,中山大學海洋資源研究所碩士論文,2002年。
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