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研究生:張鎮維
研究生(外文):Chen-wei Chang
論文名稱:壽山地區台灣獼猴的相遇行為
論文名稱(外文):Intergroup Encounters inFormosan Macaques (Macaca cyclopis)at Mt. Longevity, Taiwan
指導教授:徐芝敏徐芝敏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Minna J. Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:台灣獼猴相遇分群攻擊資源防禦交配防禦
外文關鍵詞:Intergroup encountersMate defenseAggressionResource defenseMacaca cyclopisFission
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本研究探討台灣獼猴社群間的相遇行為、雌雄猴參與社群相遇與影響社群間優勢位階的因素。探討靈長類社群相遇時雌雄的策略共有四個假說,包括雌性食物資源防禦假說、雄性交配防禦假說、雄性食物資源防禦假說及雄性殺嬰吸引交配假說。野外觀察自2008年3月到2009年3月,在臺灣獼猴社群間相遇時,以掃描取樣與焦點取樣來記錄社群個體的性別、年齡層、位階及行為,並記錄相遇持續時間及社群間距離 。
台灣獼猴社群間互動的勝率與社群成猴加亞成雄猴數量呈顯著線性關係(P<0.001),且社群成猴加亞成雄猴數量超過30隻的社群勝率都高於50%。台灣獼猴主群與旁支群加權勝率雖然亦與社群成猴加亞成雄猴數量呈顯著顯性關係(P<0. 01, n=24),但有些社群其成猴加亞成雄猴數量介於20到30隻間的社群勝率仍超過90%。社群大小類型分別與各社群個體所展現8類行為中靠近、列隊、取代與被取代關聯顯著,大社群展現出較高的取代(65%)、列隊(6%)及靠近(28%)行為,而小社群則容易被較大的社群取代(60%)。季節則與攻擊行為關聯顯著,交配季社群相遇時社群成員展現攻擊行為(70%)顯著高於非交配季(41%)。台灣獼猴主群與新近分出的旁支群間存在優勢位序關係,而較早分出的旁支群與主群則不一定存在優勢位序關係,此可能與主群與旁支群間母系位階的高低、社群成猴加亞成雄猴數量的改變及核心雄猴的表現有關。台灣獼猴社群在與不同類型社群(社群、雄單群)相遇時,八類行為中靠近(33%)與取代(93%)行為在與雄單群相遇時顯著高於與社群相遇。
台灣獼猴雌雄猴在社群相遇時採取不同的策略。台灣獼猴成年雌猴在參與與食物資源相關相遇時,展現顯著較參與食物資源無關相遇高的平均參與率(8.62%, n=8)以及平均攻擊參與率(3.66%, n=8),支持雌性食物資源防禦假說。因為台灣獼猴成年雄猴平均攻擊參與率(7.92%, n=23)顯著高於其他性別年齡層,在社群相遇時,成年雄猴攻擊其他社群成年雄猴的比例亦顯著高於攻擊成年雌猴,且在交配季成年雄猴與亞成雄猴的攻擊參與率顯著高於非交配季,所以亦支持雄性交配防禦假說。而台灣獼猴成年雄猴在社群相遇同時採取非直接的防禦食物資源及直接防禦其他社群雄猴交配的策略,故支持雄性資源防禦假說。另外,社群相遇時低位階成年雄猴之參與頻度與參與攻擊頻度皆高於高位階成年雄猴,以換取與成年雌猴交配的機會。
Formosan macaques were observed to collect data on intergroup encounters, the strategies of male and female and the factors which influence inter-group dominance relationships. Four hypotheses exist to explain the strategies of male and female in inter-group encounter, including female resource defense, male mate defense, male resource defense and male mate attraction via infanticide. Behavioral observations were recorded from March 2008 to March 2009. Data collections included scan sampling and focal sampling of troop members which participated in encounter, containing their sex, age, rank and behavior. Duration of inter-group interaction and distances between two troops were also recorded.
There is a significant positive relationship between chance of winning and troop number (AM+AF+SAM), and this chance of winning is higher than 50% when troop size exceeded 30. There is also a significant linear regression between weight win(main group and branch group)and troop number , but chance of weight win in some troops is higher than 90% when troop size is only between 20 to 30. Approach, line-up, displace and be-displaced have significant correlation with troop size type. Large troops displayed higher displace (65%), line-up (6%) and approach (28%) than other type of troops, and small troop were easily displaced by other type of troops (60%). Aggressive behavior also has significant correlation with mating season significantly; troops of Formosan macaques display more aggressive behavior in mating season (70%) than in non-mating season (41%). Troops of Formosan macaques display higher approach(33%) and displace (93%) when troops encounter with all male troop than with bisexual troop. Inter-group dominance relationships exist among main group and branch group which newly split of Formosan macaques. But there is uncertain inter-group dominance relationships between main group and branch group which split early for the difference of maternal dominance hierarchies, variation of troop numbers, and the character of central males.
Adult male and female Formosan macaques adopt different strategy in inter-group encounter. Adult female Formosan macaques participated (8.62%, n=8) and displayed aggressive behavior (3.66%, n=8) in more food-related encounter than in non-food-related encounter, so female resource defense hypothesis is supported. Adult male Formosan macaques display higher aggressive behavior (7.92%, n=23) significantly than adult female and sub-adult male in inter-group encounter, and the target of aggression is higher for males than for females. Adult and sub-adult male Formosan macaques display higher aggressive behavior in mating season significantly than in non-mating season. So male mate defense hypothesis is also supported. This study provides support for the male resource defense hypothesis. Adult male Formosan macaques would defend food resource directly and indirectly. Besides, frequencies of participation and aggression in low ranking adult male Formosan macaques are higher than high ranking ones to exchange mating opportunity.
目錄
誌謝 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iv
目錄 vi
前言 1
材料與方法 5
一、研究地點: 5
二、觀察對象: 5
三、觀察方法: 5
四、資料分析: 8
結果 13
一、影響社群間相遇勝率的因素 13
二、相遇行為 14
三、性別年齡層參與率及攻擊參與率 19
四、社群間相遇時的其他行為 23
討論 24
參考文獻 34
圖 40
表 48
附錄 56
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