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研究生(外文):Mu-Yun Wang
論文名稱(外文):Exploring the jumping spider mimicry of Eugauria albidentata (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Musotiminae) through ethological and visual ecological approaches
指導教授(外文):Yen, Shen-Horn
外文關鍵詞:UV signalspredator mimicrydisplay behaviour
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掠食者擬態是貝氏擬態中一個特殊且少被研究的例子。掠食者擬態意味著獵物藉由模擬掠食者的形態、行為或展示的訊息以增加獵物逃脫的機會。在小鱗翅類中有許多的例子顯示可能具跳蛛之掠食者擬態。在沒有親緣關係的蛾類中,有許\多種類顯示與跳蛛相似的斑紋或行為,顯示其可能涉入與跳蛛所形成的擬態關係。在本研究中我們將探討以下問題: (1)在小蛾類中,何種翅紋、體色及展示行為參與此種跳蛛擬態﹖(2)雌雄跳蛛不同捕食壓力及展示行為是否反映在小蛾的跳蛛擬態上﹖(3)跳蛛是否將小蛾看成另一隻跳蛛而不展現補食?跳蛛的不捕食是否可能源於其他因素? (4)是否有某些特殊的視覺訊號對跳蛛擬態是重要的﹖研究的結果顯示擬態的小蛾被跳蛛捕食的機率顯著低於對照組,且跳蛛會對小蛾展示跳蛛間特殊的溝通行為。但不是所有我們推測可能為擬態的種類都具有降低跳蛛捕食的功能。在雌雄跳蛛間的比較中,雌跳蛛對擬態小蛾的捕食率顯著高於雄跳蛛,且雄跳蛛較常對蛾展示行為,顯示此種擬態對雄跳蛛可能較有用。在雄跳蛛行為的比較中,我們發現雄跳蛛對擬態蛾展示的行為較接近同種或異種的雌跳蛛,而顯著異於對照組的蛾類,顯示雌跳蛛較可能是蛾類擬態的對象。因先前的研究顯示紫外線及螢光訊號在跳蛛間的求偶行為是很重要的,因此我們將擬態蛾反射紫外光的翅紋塗上紫外線吸收劑並進行捕食試驗,發現蛾類被跳蛛捕食的機率顯著上升,顯示紫外光在此種擬態可能是重要的。但仍有部分跳蛛對蛾類展示行為,固紫外線並非唯一的擬態訊號。
Predator mimicry refers to a peculiar and rarely investigated example of Batesian mimicry in nature. This mimicry scenario exists between predator and prey in which prey resembles the form, behaviour or signals exhibited by the predator to avoid or reduce risk of predation. In the Lepidoptera, there are many micromoth taxa that are phylogenetically unrelated and geographically widespread exhibiting colour patterns that are putatively involved in jumping spider mimicry. In the present study, we aimed to answer the following questions: (1) what kinds of colour pattern and display behaviour could really allow the moths to participate in jumping spider mimicry? (2) does the moth receive different predation pressure from male and female spiders? (3) why is the mimetic moth not immediately taken by the spider? Is it really because the spider sees the moth as another spider? (4) Is there any evidence justifying any visual signal displayed by the moth participated in the jumping spider mimicry? The experimental results showed that the predation rates on mimetic moths of jumping spider were significantly lower than the non-mimetic moths, and spiders exhibited specific behaviour that was displayed for conspecific communication. But not all the presuming mimicking moths can decrease predation from the spiders. Female spiders show significantly higher predation rate to the mimicking moths, while male spiders tend to display more frequently to the moth. In behaviour comparison test in male jumping spiders, we found the behaviour displayed toward mimicking moths are closer to conspecific or heterospecific female spiders, suggesting that female spiders are more likely to be the model of the mimicry systems. Previous studies have shown that UV and fluorescent signals are important in courting behaviour of jumping spider, so we block the UV reflectance signals on the wing pattern of the mimetic moths. The results show that the predation rate of moths without the UV signals is significantly higher than control group which blocked the non-ultraviolet patterns. However, there were still several jumping spiders displayed to the UV-blocking moth, suggesting the UV signals are not the only feature participate in the jumping spider mimicry system.
English Abstract……7
Chapter 1. Introduction……9
Chapter 2. Predator mimicry in two moth groups (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae, Crambidae) mimicking jumping spider……13
2.1 Abstract……13
2.2 Introduction……13
2.3 Material and Methods……17
2.4 Results……21
2.5 Discussion……22
Chapter 3. Sexual dimorphism in foraging behaviour of Ptocasius strupifer jumping spider toward a jumping spider-mimicking crambid moth Eugauria albidentata……24
3.1 Abstract……24
3.2 Introduction……24
3.3 Material and Methods……26
3.4 Results……27
3.5 Discussion……29
Chapter 4. Mimicking micromoth suffers much less predation from jumping spider because the male spider sees the moth as female spider?......31
4.1 Abstract……31
4.2 Introduction……32
4.3 Material and Methods……34
4.4 Results……35
4.5 Discussion……40
Chapter 5. Jumping spider is perceived by the UV cue of the mimetic pattern of micromoth?......41
5.1 Abstract……41
5.2 Introduction……41
5.3 Material and Methods……43
5.4 Results……45
5.5 Discussion......46
Chapter 6. Conclusion & Future Context......48
6.1 Conclusion......48
6.2 Future Context……49
Chapter 7. References……50
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