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研究生:黃敬哲
研究生(外文):Ching-Che Huang
論文名稱:矽化鈷奈米點埋入於高介電係數介電質下非揮發性記憶體元件之製作與研究
論文名稱(外文):Fabrication and characteristics of nonvolatile memory with CoSi2 nanocrystals embedded in high-k dielectrics structure
指導教授:黃文堯黃文堯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Yao Huan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:光電工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:穿隧氧化層矽化鈷
外文關鍵詞:CoSihigh-ktunnel oxide
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非揮發性記憶體(NVM)目前在元件尺寸持續微縮下的需求為高密度記憶單元、低功率損耗、快速讀寫操作、以及良好的可靠度(Reliability)。傳統浮動閘極(floating gate)記憶體在操作過程中如果穿隧氧化層產生漏電路徑會造成所有儲存電荷流失回到矽基板,所以在資料保存時間(Retention)和耐操度(Endurance)的考量下,很難微繼續縮穿隧氧化層的厚度。非揮發性奈米點記憶體被提出希望可取代傳統浮動閘極記憶體,由於奈米點可視為電荷儲存層中彼此分離的儲存點,可以有效改善小尺寸記憶體元件多次操作下的資料儲存能力。近年來發展了許多方法來形成奈米點,一般而言,大多數的方法都需要長時間高溫的熱製程,這個步驟會影響現階段半導體製程中的熱預算和產能。
在本文中,主要提出三種不同結構的高介電係數穿隧氧化層(Al2O3, HfO2/Al2O3/HfO2, Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3)來克服傳統非揮發性記憶體在微縮過程中會遭遇到的困難,我們首先利用單純的氧化鋁當作穿隧氧化層,並且在記憶體特性沒有減少太多的情況下,成功降低穿隧氧化層之等效厚度;接著利用凸狀能帶結構之穿隧氧化層(HfO2/Al2O3/HfO2)成功改善電子與電洞注入特性,提升其電荷儲存能力,並且減少穿隧氧化層之有效厚度;最後,利用凹狀能帶結構之穿隧氧化層(Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3)成功在不影響電子與電洞注入特性情況化,使電荷儲存能力再度提升,並且減少穿隧氧化層厚度。我們所提出的奈米點結構與製造技術都可以應用於非揮性奈米點記憶體的製程技術同時也適用於現階段積體電路製程。
Current requirements of nonvolatile memory (NVM) are the high density cells, low-power consumption, high-speed operation and good reliability for the scaling down devices. However, all of the charges stored in the floating gate will leak into the substrate if the tunnel oxide has a leakage path in the conventional NVM during endurance test. Therefore, the tunnel oxide thickness is difficult to scale down in terms of charge retention and endurance characteristics. The nonvolatile nanocrystal memories are one of promising candidates to substitute for conventional floating gate memory, because the discrete storage nodes as the charge storage media have been effectively improve data retention under endurance test for the scaling down device. Many methods have been developed recently for the formation of nanocrystal. Generally, most methods need thermal treatment with high temperature and long duration. This procedure will influence thermal budget and throughput in current manufacture technology of semiconductor industry.
In this thesis, we used the three kind of high-k dielectric structure as the tunnel oxide (Al2O3, HfO2/Al2O3/HfO2, Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3) to overcome the limitation of conventional NVMs during the scaling down process. First, we used Al2O3 as tunnel oxide. It observed that device of Al2O3 as tunnel oxide reduce equivalent thickness without lost retention too much. Then, we used HfO2/Al2O3/HfO2 as tunnel oxide. It observed the device of HfO2/Al2O3/HfO2 as tunnel oxide which had bigger window than the device used thermal oxide as tunnel oxide. Moreover it had better retention characteristics than the device used thermal oxide as tunnel oxide with a small charge lose rate. And it reduced equivalent thickness of SiO2.Final, we used Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 as tunnel oxide. It observed the device of Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 as tunnel oxide which had better retention characteristics than the device used HfO2/Al2O3/HfO2 as tunnel oxide without decrease the electron and hole injection. And we reduce equivalent thickness of SiO2 .
Contents
Chinese Abstract……………………………………………………..Ⅰ
English Abstract………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
Acknowledgement…………………………………………...V
Contents……………………………………………………....ⅤI
Table Captions……………………………………………………....IX
Figure Captions……………………………………………………....Ⅹ
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Overview of Nonvolatile Memory……………………………........1
1.1.1 SONOS Nonvolatile Memory Devices…………………………............4
1.1.2 Nanocrystal Nonvolatile Memory Devices……………................................7
1.2 Organization of This Thesis……………………….................13
Chapter 2 Basic Principle of Nonvolatile Memory
2.1Introduction.........................................................................................................................................16
2.2Basic Program/Erase Mechanisms..........................................17
2.2.1 Energy band diagram during program and erase operation……........................................17
2.2.2 Carrier injection mechanisms.........................................19
2.3 Basic Reliability of Nonvolatile Memory....................................................25
2.3.1Retention………………………………………………....25
2.3.2Endurance………………………………………..............26
2.4Basic Physical Characteristic of Nanocrystal NVM.......................27
2.4.1 Quantum Confinement Effect………………………………......27
2.4.2 Coulomb Blockade Effect......................................................28
Chapter 3 Memory characteristics of CoSi2 nanocrystals memory device with Al2O3 as tunnel oxide.
3.1Motivation………………………………………………....39
3.2CoSi2 nanocrystals memory device with Al2O3 as tunnel oxide.................40
3.2.1Experimental Procedures…...............................40
3.2.2Results and Discussions…………………………………………...41
3.2.3 Summary I……………………………….............43
Chapter 4 Memory characteristics of CoSi2 nanocrystals memory device with high-k structure as tunnel oxide.
4.1.Motivation...................................................................................................50
4.2.CoSi2 nanocrystals memory device with HfO2/Al2O3/HfO2 as tunnel oxide..................................50
4.2.1Experimental Procedures.......................................50
4.2.2Results and Discussion.........................................52
4.2.3Summary II.................................................................53
4.3.CoSi2 nanocrystals memory device with Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3as tunnel oxide.................................54
4.3.1 Experimental Procedures......................................54
4.3.2 Results and Discussion........................................54
4.3.3 Summary III...............................................................56
Chapter 5 Conclusion
5.1Conclusions.................................................................66

References.........................................................................68
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Chapter 4
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[4.2] Jongwan Jung* and Won-Ju Cho**, JOURNAL OF SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, VOL.8, NO.1, MARCH, 32-39 2008
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