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研究生:林方正
研究生(外文):Fang-Zheng Lin
論文名稱:橫向錐形內縮式主動波導光模轉換器與高速電致光吸收調變器之整合
論文名稱(外文):Monolithic Integration of Optical Spot-Size Converter and High-Speed Electroabsorption Modulator using Laterally Tapered Undercut Waveguide
指導教授:邱逸仁邱逸仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Jen Chiu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:光電工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:155
中文關鍵詞:電致光吸收調變器光模轉換器
外文關鍵詞:Electroabsorption ModulatorSpot-Size Converter
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  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:155
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在本篇論文中,我們提出一新穎的結構來製作光模轉換器與高速電致光吸收調變器之積體化元件。此光模轉換器的設計原理主要是靠光在非對稱性光波導(高折射率、小尺寸的主動波導與低折射率、大尺寸的被動波導)間的耦合效應,當主動波導的寬度逐漸變細時,主動波導光模態的有效折射率變低,因此可與被動波導光模態的有效折射率達到匹配,光便能有效率地從一波導耦合至另一波導中來完成光模場的轉換,而逐漸變細的錐型主動光波導,在此我們利用一種選擇性內縮蝕刻主動層的製程方式來製作一所謂的橫向錐形內縮式主動光波導,由於此橫向錐形內縮式主動光波導可經由一較大的錐形脊狀波導透過即時監控內縮蝕刻的深度來形成,因此可以避免掉因製作錐形光波導所需之次微米曝光顯影所產生的困難度,而且此結構也不會牽涉到其他複雜的製程,如選擇區域長晶、選擇區域蝕刻與製程後長晶等技術。經由積體整合電致光吸收調變器與光模轉換器,電致光吸收調變器的本質層寬度可以進一步縮小以提高電致光吸收調變器的操作頻寬,然而透過光模轉換器,元件與單模光纖間的耦合損耗並不會因本質層寬度縮小而增加。
  而於完成元件的特性上,光模轉換器與單模光纖間的1-dB對準誤差可達±2.9微米(水平方向)與±2.2微米(垂直方向),而電致光吸收調變器與單模光纖間的-1 dB對準誤差僅±1.9微米(水平方向)與±1.6微米(垂直方向);光模轉換器的遠場發散角為6.0 (水平方向)與9.3 (垂直方向),電致光吸收調變器的遠場發散角則為11 (水平方向)與20 (垂直方向);光模轉換器的轉換損耗可低到-1.6 dB。而所有量測的結果與理論計算的結果相當吻合,充份驗證此橫向錐形內縮式主動光波導可用來完成光模轉換器的製作。元件電致光吸收調變器部分的波導寬度為2.5微米,造就元件的-3-dB頻寬可達40 GHz。在此研究中,我們成功地開發以橫向錐形內縮式主動光波導製程技術,完成製作高效率光模轉換器與高速電致光吸收調變器積體化元件,說明此技術在高速光電元件製作領域上,具有相當大的應用發展潛力。
This thesis proposes a novel structure to realize the monolithic integra-tion of optical spot-size converter (SSC) and high-speed electroabsorption modulator (EAM). The SSC is based on a scheme of coupled asymmetric waveguide fabricated by tapered undercut waveguide. Using a selectively undercut-etching-active-region (UEAR), the laterally tapered undercut ac-tive waveguide (LTUAWG) can be processed from a wide tapered ridge waveguide using in situ control to avoid submicron photolithography as well as complex processing, such as selective area growth, selective area etching and re-growth. By monolithically integrating EAM and SSC, the EAM waveguide width can be beneficial from scaling down the waveguide size for enhancing the EAM bandwidth, while the optical coupling loss from single mode fiber can still be kept low.
In this finished SSC-integrated EAM, a 1-dB misalignment tolerance of ±2.9μm (horizontal) and ±2.2 μm (vertical) is obtained from SSC side, which is better than the results, ±1.9μm (horizontal) and ±1.6μm (vertical), from EAM side. The measured far-field angles for SSC and EAM are 6.0 (horizontal) ∗ 9.3 (vertical) and 11 (horizontal) ∗ 20 (vertical) respectively. As low as mode transfer loss of -1.6 dB is obtained in such SSC. All the simulation results are quite fitted with the experiment results, realizing the function of SSC by LTUAWG. The fabricated EAM waveguide width is 2.5 μm, leading to over 40 GHz of -3-dB electrical-to-optical (EO) response. The high efficient SSC integrated with high-speed EAM suggests that the LTUAWG technique can have potential for applications in high-speed optoelectronic fields.
1. Introduction 1
1.1 SPOT-SIZE CONVERTERS FOR III-V OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES 1
1.2 PROPOSED SSC STRUCTURE 5
1.3 BENEFITS FROM INTEGRATION OF EAM 7
1.4 THESIS OUTLINE 9
Reference 10

2. Spot-Size Converter Design 15
2.1 WAVEGUIDE DESIGN 17
2.1.1 Active Waveguide 17
2.1.2 Passive Waveguide 19
2.1.3 Mode Transfer Efficiency 22
2.2 VERTICAL WAVEGUIDE DIRECTIONAL COUPLER
WITH LATERALLY TAPERED UNDERCUT ACTIVE
WAVEGUIDE 25
2.3 PASSIVE WAVEGUIDE DESIGN TO MAKE TRANSFER EFFICIENCY INSENSITIVE TO AWG VARIATIONS 28
2.4 SUMMARY 31
Reference 31

3. Material Characteristics for Optical Waveguide 32
3.1 QUANTUM CONFINED STARK EFFECT 32
3.1.1 Material Bandgaps 33
3.1.2 Quantum Well Band Structure 37
3.1.3 Quantum Confined Stark Effect 40
3.2 OPTICAL ABSORPTION IN QUANTUM WELL 44
3.2.1 Stimulated Absorption Rate 45
3.2.2 Absorption Coefficients without Exciton Effect 50
3.2.3 Absorption Coefficients with Exciton Effect 51
3.3 POLARIZATION SENSITIVITY OF QUANTUM WELL 55
3.4 MATERIAL REFRACTIVE INDEX 60
3.5 SUMMARY 62
Reference 63


4. High-Speed Characteristics of Electroabsorption Modulator 67
4.1 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL FOR
TRAVELING-WAVE ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATOR 68
4.2 FREQUENCY RESPONSE 77
4.2.1 Electrical-to-Electrical Response 77
4.2.2 Electrical-to-Optical Response 81
4.3 CASCADED TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN FOR HIGH-SPEED OPERATION 87
4.4 SUMMARY 89
Reference 90

5. Fabrication and Measurements 91
5.1 LAYER STRUCTURE 91
5.2 DEVICE FABRICATION (SSC) 92
5.3 DEVICE MEASUREMENTS (SSC) 96
5.4 DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY (SSC) 103
5.5 DEVICE FABRICATION AND MEASUREMENTS (CI) 109
5.6 DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY (CI) 115

6. Summary and Future Work 117
6.1 SUMMARY 117
6.2 FUTURE WORK 119
6.2.1 SSC 119
6.2.2 CI 122
6.3 OUTLOOK 123
6.4 Reference 124

A Coupled Mode Theory 125
B Variational Method for Exciton Problem 130
C Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) Circuit 134
D Microwave Transmission Matrix Calculation 139
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Chapter4:
[1]K. S. Giboney, M. J. W. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Traveling-wave photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1363-1365, 1992.
[2]Y. J. Chiu, V. Kaman, S. Z. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Distributed effects model for cascaded traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 791-793, 2001.
[3]S. Z. Zhang, “Traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators,” University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, Ph.D. Dissertation, 1999.
[4]D. M. Pozar, Microwave engineering, 3rd Ed., New York: Wiley, 2004.
[5]G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator–design and analysis,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1177-1183, 1999.
[6]T. Y. Chang, “Design optimization of low-impedance high-speed optical modulators for digital performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. Vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 4321-4331, 2005.
[7]R. Lewén, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylén, and U. Eriksson, “Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 172-179, 2004.
[8]R. K. Hoffmann, Handbook of Microwave Integrated Circuits. Boston: Artech House, Inc., 1987.


Chapter5:
N/A

Chapter6:
[1]M. K. Chin and C. W. Lee, “Polarization-independent vertical coupler for photonics integration,” Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 117-123, 2004.
[2]L. P. Hou, H. L. Zhu, F. Zhou, L. F. Wang, J. Bian, and W. Wang, “Monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier and electroabsorption modulator with dual-waveguide spot-size converter input and output,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 912-916, 2005.
[3]D. Delprat, A. Ramdance, L. Silvestre, A. Ougazzaden, F. Delorme, and S. Slempes, “20 Gb/s integrated DBR laser-EA modulator by selective area growth for 1.55 mm WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 898-900, 1997.
[4]P. I. Kuindersma, P. P. G. Moles, G. L. A. V. D. Hosfad, G. Guypers, M. Temesen, T. V. Dongen, and J. J. M. Binsma, “Packged, integrated DFB/EA-MOD for repeaterless transmission of 10 Gbit/s over 107 km standard fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 1876-1878, 1993.
[5]A. McKee, C. J. McLean, G. Lullo, A. C. Bryce, R. M. D. L. Rue, J. H. Marsh, and C. C. Button, “Monolithic integration in InGaAs-InGaAsP multiple-quantum-well structures using laser intermixing,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 45-55, 1997.
[6]V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, J. Beerens, D. Morris, H. S. Lim, and B. S. Ooi, “Low-energy ion-implantation-induced quantum-well intermixing,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., Vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 870-879, 2002.

Appendix A:
[1]S. L. Chuang, Physics of optoelectronic devices. New York: Wiley, 1995.

Appendix B:
[1]S. L. Chuang, Physics of optoelectronic devices. New York: Wiley, 1995.
[2]D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 1043-1060, 1985.
[3]D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 53, no. 22, pp. 2173-2176, 1984.
[4]P. J. Mares and S. L. Chuang, “Modeling of self-electrooptic-effect devices,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 1388-1397, 1993.

Appendix C:
[1]G. Ghione and C. Naldi, “Analytical formulas for coplanar lines in hybrid and monolithic MICs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 179-181, 1984.
[2]R. K. Hoffmann, Handbook of Microwave Integrated Circuits. Boston: Artech House, Inc., 1987.μ
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