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研究生:鍾蕙先
研究生(外文):Huey-shian Chung
論文名稱:國際環境多邊談判聯盟構成要素之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Factors Contributing to the Formation of Coalitions in International Multilateral Environmental Negotiations
指導教授:胡念祖胡念祖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nien-Tsu Alfred Hu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:政治學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:205
中文關鍵詞:生物安全議定書談判聯盟魚群協定生物多樣性公約京都議定書氣候變化綱要公約國際環境法
外文關鍵詞:Fish Stocks AgreementUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Changenegotiation coalitionsBiosafty ProtocolUnited Nations Convention on Biological DiversityInternational environmental conventions
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:748
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:130
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
全球性環境公約或議定書之制定多經由多邊談判之過程,在此過程中,吾人可觀察到參與國家間形成不同談判聯盟之現象。但,何種要素會促成談判聯盟之建構,以及促成談判聯盟之組成在談判進程中期時的變化,既有之學術文獻或研究則少有系統地檢視。
本研究挑選數款具代表性、且散佈在不同國際環境領域的全球性國際環境條約之制訂會議,經由針對其談判過程之研究,用以找出促使談判聯盟構成的核心要素(core elements)與次要要素。
本研究發現,各個談判聯盟的成員組成具變動性。談判聯盟重組的時間點則落在由原則議題進入實質議題談判階段之際。換言之,談判議題涉及對國家產生法律約束力之實質承諾時,談判聯盟即會出現重組之情況。
本研究亦發現,談判聯盟確實存在共同之構成要素。在條約談判過程中,核心要素為「威脅來源」與「提升國家影響力」,此兩項要素不受議題變化而影響。另外兩項次要要素分別為:在原則議題談判階段,談判聯盟構成要素為「相同國際組織參與經驗」;在實質議題談判階段,談判聯盟構成要素則為「國內經濟結構」。
During negotiating process of drawing up global environmental conventions or protocols, negotiating parties to form different negotiation coalitions can be observed. However, few existing academic literature or studies have taken a systematic approach to explore the elements that contribute to the formation of these coalitions and to the changes of coalitions in the middle stage of negotiating process.
Through examining the negotiating process of several selected conferences for the establishment of global environmental treaties which are representative in nature and from different international environmental domains, this study is to find the core elements and sub-elements which contribute to the formation of negotiation coalitions.
This study shows that the composition of negotiation coalitions is dynamic. The timing of reorganizing the negotiating coalitions falls on the stage in which negotiation proceeds from principle issues to substantive ones. In other words, when the issues under negotiation begin to involve legally binding substantive commitments to State parties, the reorganization of negotiation coalitions emerges.
Furthermore, this study also finds that common elements do exist in the formation of negotiation coalitions. The core elements are “the source of threat” and “enhanceing the influence of a State”; they are not affected by the change of negotiating issues. The other two sub-elements are: “the same experience of participating in the same international organizations”, the factor for forming negotiation coalitions during the stage of negotiation on principle issues, and “domestic economic structure” during the stage of substantive issues negotiation for the formation of negotiation coalitions.
謝辭 i
中文摘要 iii
目次 iv
表目次 vii
圖目次 viii
縮寫詞彙對照表 ix
第一篇 緒論 1
第一章 前言 3
第一節 研究動機 3
第二節 研究目的與預期成果 8
第三節 文獻回顧 8
第四節 研究途徑、方法與流程 9
第五節 章節安排 16
第六節 研究範圍與限制 19
第二章 文獻中現有聯盟理論之評估 21
第一節 「談判聯盟」之定義 22
第二節 傳統聯盟理論之聯盟構成要素文獻 26
第三節 現有之國際環境聯盟理論評估 31
第四節 聯盟構成要素之假設 35
第二篇 案例研究 43
第三章 大氣領域之談判聯盟構成要素 45
第一節「氣候變化綱要公約」制訂會議之談判背景 46
第二節「氣候變化綱要公約」制訂會議之談判過程 49
第三節「氣候變化綱要公約」談判聯盟構成要素之分析 63
第四節 小結 82
第四章 生物領域之談判聯盟構成要素 87
第一節「生物多樣性公約」制訂會議之談判背景 89
第二節「生物多樣性公約」制訂會議之談判過程 93
第三節「生物多樣性公約」談判聯盟構成要素之分析 101
第四節 小結 116
第五節 國際環境多邊談判聯盟形成要素之初步探究 119
第三篇 論證 123
第五章 從海洋領域檢視談判聯盟之構成要素 125
第一節「聯合國魚群協定」制訂會議之談判背景 126
第二節「聯合國魚群協定」制訂會議之談判過程 132
第三節「聯合國魚群協定」談判聯盟構成要素之分析 140
第四節 小結 157
第六章 結論 159
第一節 國際環境多邊談判聯盟構成要素與談判進程階段間之變化 159
第二節 國際環境多邊談判聯盟構成要素與傳統聯盟構成要素之對話 163
參考文獻 169
附錄 187
表目次
表3-1 「氣候變化綱要公約」制約發展之階段表 46
表3-2 氣候談判初期之兩大談判聯盟立場一覽表 65
表3-3 氣候談判中期以後之各談判聯盟立場一覽表 69
表3-4 「氣候變化綱要公約」及議定書之各談判聯盟成因一覽表 81
表4-1 「生物多樣性公約」制約發展之階段表 88
表4-2 生物談判初期之兩大談判聯盟立場一覽表 103
表4-3 生物談判中期以後之各談判聯盟立場一覽表 106
表4-4 「生物多樣性公約」及其議定書之各談判聯盟構成要素一覽表 115
表5-1 「魚群協定」制約發展之階段表 125
表5-2 「協定」談判初期之談判聯盟立場一覽表 142
表5-3 「協定」談判中期以後之談判聯盟立場一覽表 143
表5-4 「魚群協定」各談判聯盟之形成要素一覽表 157

圖目次
圖1-1 全文研究流程圖 15
圖1-2 案例分析流程圖 16
圖2-1 文化地圖 41
圖3-1 各談判聯盟成員在GDP中每一美元之經濟結構比例圖 80
圖3-2 大氣領域談判之談判聯盟變化圖 82
圖4-1 各談判聯盟成員在農產品進出口產值占國內生產毛額比例圖 114
圖4-2 生物領域談判之談判聯盟變化圖 116
圖4-3 國際環境多邊談判聯盟與談判進程間之變化之初步探究圖 120
圖5-1世界漁獲產量圖(單位/百萬噸) 130
圖5-2 遠洋漁捕國家在鄰近海域及非鄰近海域漁捕量佔總漁捕量之比例圖 151
圖5-3 遠洋魚捕國家在鄰近海域及非鄰近海域魚捕量及其比例圖 156
圖5-4 海洋領域談判之談判聯盟變化圖 158
圖6-1 國際環境多邊談判聯盟與談判進程階段間之變化圖 159
圖6-2 「公約-議定書」之條約的談判聯盟重組時間圖 160
圖6-3 「單一條約」之條約的談判聯盟重組時間圖 161
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http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/a/15_1.pdf.
Report of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate on the work of its first session held at Geneva from 21 to 25 August 1995, UN Doc. FCCC/AGBM/1995/2, Sep. 1995, 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/1995/agbm/02.pdf.
Report of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate on the work of its third session, held at Geneva from 5 to 8 March 1996, UN Doc. FCCC/AGBM/1996/5, April 1996, 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/1996/agbm/05.pdf.
Report of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate on the work of its fourth session, Geneva, 11-16 July 1996, UN Doc. FCCC/AGBM/1996/8, October 1996, 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/1996/agbm/08.pdf.
Report of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate on the work of its fifth session, Geneva, 9-12 December 1996, UN Doc. FCCC/AGBM/1996/11, February 1997, 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/1996/agbm/11.pdf.
Report of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate on the work of its sixth session, Bonn, 3-7 March 1997, UN Doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/3, April 1997, 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/1997/agbm/03.pdf.
Report of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate on the work of its sixth session, Bonn, 3-7 March 1997. Addendum. Proposals for a protocol or another legal instrument. Negotiating text by the Chairman, UN Doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/3/Add.1, April 1997, 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/1997/agbm/03a01.pdf.
Report of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate on the work of its seventh session, Bonn, 31 July - 7 August 199, UN Doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/5, September 1997, 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站 http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/1997/agbm/05.pdf.
Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Second Session, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/1996/15, Annex III, October 1996, p. 46, 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/cop2/15.pdf.
Report of the Conference of the Parties on its second session, held at Geneva from 8 to 19 July 1996. Addendum. Part two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its second session, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/1996/15/Add.1, Octorber 1996, 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/cop2/15.pdf.
Reports by the chairmen of the informal consultations conducted at the seventh session of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate. Note by the secretariat, UN Doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/INF.1, September 1997, 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/1997/agbm/inf01.pdf.
Report of the First Part of 5th Session of the INC/FCCC, UN Doc. A/AC.237/18 (Part II), 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/a/18p2.pdf.
Report of the Conference of the Parties on its First Session, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/1995/7, 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站
http://unfccc.int/cop4/resource/docs/cop1/07.pdf.
Synthesis of proposals by Parties. Note by the Chairman, UN Doc. FCCC/AGBM/1996/10, Dec. 1996, 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約官方網站:http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/1996/agbm/10.pdf.

第四章
「生物多樣性公約」(Convention on Biological Diversity),聯合國生物多樣性公約官方網站
http://www.cbd.int/convention/articles.shtml?a=cbd-02.
「生物多樣性公約」COP 1 Decision I/9,聯合國生物多樣性公約官方網站
http://www.cbd.int/decisions/cop-01.shtml?m=COP-01&id=7069&lg=0.
「受威脅物種紅色名錄」IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/stats.
「經濟宣言」(Economic Declaration)
http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/1991london/communique/environment.html.
Agenda 21 Chapter16, 聯合國官方網站http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/agenda21/english/agenda21chapter16.htm.
Compilation of the Views of Governments on the Contents of the Future Protocol, UNEP/CBD/BSWG/2/2, 聯合國生物多樣性公約官方網站
http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/bs/bswg-02/official/bswg-02-02-en.pdf.
COP4/CBD Decision IV/3, 聯合國生物多樣性公約官方網站
http://www.cbd.int/decisions/?m=COP-04&id=7126&lg=0.
Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and Beyond, General Assembly Res. A/RES/42/186, 聯合國官方網站
http://www.un-documents.net/a42r186.htm.
Infoplease.com
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107678.html.
Report of the fifth session of the ad hoc working group on biosafty, IISD:
http://www.iisd.ca/download/pdf/enb09108e.pdf.
Report of the 3rd Meeting of the Open-Ended ad hoc Working Group on Biosafety, UNEP/CBD/BSWG/3/6, 聯合國生物多樣性公約官方網站
http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/bs/bswg-03/official/bswg-03-06-en.pdf.
Report of the 4th Meeting of the Open-Ended ad hoc Working Group on Biosafety, UNEP/CBD/BSWG/4/2, 聯合國生物多樣性公約官方網站
http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/bs/bswg-04/official/bswg-04-02-en.pdf.
Report of the 6th Meeting of the Open-Ended ad hoc Working Group on Biosafety,
UNEP/CBD/BSWG/6/2, 聯合國生物多樣性公約官方網站
http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/bs/bswg-06/official/bswg-06-02-en.pdf.
Report of the Extraordinary Meeting of the Conference of the Parties for the Adoption of the Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, UNEP/CBD/ExCOP/1/3, 聯合國生物多樣性公約官方網站
http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/cop/excop-01/official/excop-01-03-en.pdf.
Report of the Extraordinary Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, UNEP/CBD/EXCOP/1/3, 聯合國生物多樣性公約官方網站
http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/cop/excop-01/official/excop-01-03-en.pdf.
Report of the Informal Consultations on Biosafety Protocol, UNEP/CBD/ExCOP/1/INF/3, 聯合國生物多樣性公約官方網站
http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/cop/excop-01/information/excop-01-inf-03-en.pdf

第五章
2007年漁業年報,行政院農委會漁業署
http://iris.cs.ntou.edu.tw/faweb/fa/chn/statistics_publish/statistics/year_book/2007c/96tab7.pdf.
「坎昆宣言」(Declaration of Cancun )
http://www.intfish.net/treaties/cancun.htm.
「國務院批轉農業部關於進一步加快農業發展意見的通知」,中國國務院,1997/01/27
http://www.chinaorg.cn/zcfg/zcfg/2007-12/27/content_5159843.htm.
「聯合國魚群協定」(United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement)全文,聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N95/274/67/PDF/N9527467.pdf?OpenElement.
「聯合國魚群協定協定」締約國名單,聯合國官方網站
http://www.un.org/Depts/los/reference_files/status2008.pdf.
「關於進一步加快漁業發展的意見」,中國農業部,1996/12/29
http://www.sxny.net/html/xcx/zcfgView/200603141681.html.
Comments on Issues before the Conference Submitted by the Delegation of Australia, A/CONF.164/L.9, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N93/383/31/PDF/N9338331.pdf?OpenElement.
Consequences of Unscientific Fishing for Alaska Pollack in the Enclave of the sea of Okhotsk, A/CONF.164/L.21, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N93/411/92/PDF/N9341192.pdf?OpenElement.
Comments on Precautionary Management of Fisheries, A/CONF.164/L.22, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N93/412/00/PDF/N9341200.pdf?OpenElement.
Conservation and Management of Ecologically Related Species in Fisheries for Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, A/CONF.164/L.23, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N93/413/46/PDF/N9341346.pdf?OpenElement.
Comments on Compatibility and Coherence between National and International Conservation Measures for the Same Stock, A/CONF.164/ L.28, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N93/421/93/PDF/N9342193.pdf?OpenElement.
Conservation and Rational Utilization of Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Species, A/ CONF.164/L.40, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N94/136/50/PDF/N9413650.pdf?OpenElement.
Draft Convention on the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks on the High Seas, A/CONF.164/L.11, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N93/395/67/PDF/N9339567.pdf?OpenElement.
Elements of and International Agreement on the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks on the High Sea, A/CONF.164/L.14, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N93/403/09/PDF/N9340309.pdf?OpenElement.
Elements of a Draft Instrument on Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Migratory Fish Stocks Compatible with Sustainable Development, A/CONF.164/L.39, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N94/133/92/PDF/N9413392.pdf?OpenElement.
FAO官方網站
http://www.fao.org/fishery/topic/3380.
Fisheries Jurisdiction (Spain v. Canada)案例,聯合國國際法庭官方網站http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?p1=3&p2=3&k=ac&case=96&code=ec&p3=0.
Large-scale pelagic drift-net fishing and its impact on the living marine resources of the world''s oceans and seas, UN General Assembly Res. A/RES/46/215, 聯合國官方網站
http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/46/a46r215.htm.
Letter Dated 28 May 1993 From the Chairman of the Delegation of Canada to the Conference Addressed to the Chairman of the Conference, A/CONF.164/L.5, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccess-ods.un.org/TMP/4060982.html.
Letter Dated 28 March 1994 From the Chairman of the Delegation of the Russian Federation Addresed to the Chairman the Conference, A/CONF.164/L.45, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N94/155/24/PDF/N9415524.pdf?OpenElement.
Negotiating Text, A/CONF.164/13*,聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N93/702/41/IMG/N9370241.pdf?OpenElement.
Reference Points for Fisheries Management: Their Potential Application to Straddling and Highly Migratory Resources, A/CONF.164/INF/9, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N94/047/08/IMG/N9404708.pdf?OpenElement.
Report on the Sixth Session of the United Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, A/CONF.164/36, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N95/761/17/PDF/N9576117.pdf?OpenElement.
Revised Negotiating Text, A/CONF.164/13/Rev.1, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N94/158/63/IMG/N9415863.pdf?OpenElement.
Rule of Procedure, A/Conf.164/6, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N93/249/63/PDF/N9324963.pdf?OpenElement.
Statement Made by the Chairman of the Conference at the Opening of the Sixth Session, A/CONF.164/30, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N95/228/91/PDF/N9522891.pdf?OpenElement.
Special Requirements of Developing Countries in Relation to Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, A/CONF.164/L.2, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N93/419/38/PDF/N9341938.pdf?OpenElement.
The Precautionary Approach to Fisheries with Reference to Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, A/CONF/.164/INF/8, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N94/047/02/PDF/N9404702.pdf?OpenElement.
UN General Assembly Res. A/RES/48/194, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N94/030/21/PDF/N9403021.pdf?OpenElement.
United Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, UN General Assembly Res. A/RES/49/121, 聯合國官方網站
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N95/761/17/PDF/N9576117.pdf?OpenElement.
United Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, UN General Assembly Res. A/RES/47/192, 聯合國官方網站
http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/47/a47r192.htm.
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