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研究生:陳彥宗
研究生(外文):Yan-zong Chen
論文名稱:高雄港近岸海域生物體中有機錫含量分析之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Contents of Organotins in Benthic Organisms around Costal Areas of Kaohsiung
指導教授:王維賢
指導教授(外文):Wei-Hsien Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物科技暨資源學系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:三丁基錫有機錫單丁基錫
外文關鍵詞:organotinsMBTTBT
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高雄港貨櫃裝卸量曾經排名全球第三,雖然近年來已經下降到第六名,但仍然是台灣第一大港,由於來自世界各地的貨櫃船往來頻繁,且港內有數個造船廠、修船場和漁港,港內有機錫污染是十分嚴重的,但不曉得港內有機錫物污染是否會影響港外近岸海域的生態環境。本研究針對港外近岸海域底質及底棲生物體內有機錫含量進行分析,以了解高雄港近岸海域底質及底棲生物有機錫之分布及其污染程度,並找出適合作為有機錫污染的指標生物。高雄港近岸海域四季採樣中得到之底棲生物種類共約有145種,魚類有58種,蝦類有10種,蟹類有33種,螺貝類有26種,其他(含棘皮動物、軟體動物及刺細胞動物等)約18種,為了要了解季節上之變化,各測站之間能做比較,且適合作為有機錫分析的種類,在全部的生物樣品中選出兩種螺類 (毛扭法螺及球織紋螺)、一種蝦類 (婆羅門赤對蝦)、兩種蟹類 (銀光梭子蟹及矛形梭子蟹)。
於高雄第一與第二港口之間依等深線設立10個測站採樣,水深約10 m (2個),20 m (3個),30m (2個),40 m (3個)。高雄港近岸海域各測站底質均未檢測出有機錫化合物。參考國外相關文獻發現,高雄港近岸海域底質有機錫含量低於葡萄牙與西班牙主要港口的近岸底質,相較起來高雄港近岸海域污染並不嚴重。球織紋螺單位濕重總丁基錫含量有隨著體重增加而有減少的趨勢。毛扭法螺與球織紋螺於各測站均有檢測出丁基錫化合物,主要累積單丁基錫(MBT),含量介於6.2∼1030.5 ng/g as tin ,而三丁基錫 (TBT)含量最高為7.0 ng/g as tin 。從環境、攝食來源及代謝能力三方面探討推測,兩種螺類會將TBT 代謝成DBT 及MBT 累積於體內,使得丁基錫主要組成為MBT。三種甲殼類生物體內累積有機錫化合物的含量較兩種螺類低的,其中銀光梭子蟹及矛形梭子蟹均未檢測出TBT ,婆羅門赤對蝦體內TBT 含量介於ND∼3.4 ng/g as tin 。五種主要調查物種體內TBT 均低於10 ng/g as tin ,有機錫含量無顯著季節變化,各測站間有機錫含量也無顯著變化。
五種主要調查生物物種經過數量、分布情形與體內有機錫含量評估,兩種螺類與三種甲殼類生物比較,前者移動性低,不易有外來族群加入,且各測站均檢測出有機錫化合物;後者移動性高,容易有外來族群加入,且各測站有機錫化合物未檢出居多,所以兩種螺類較適合作為此區域有機錫污染的指標生物,其中球織紋螺數量較多,主要分布於30公尺以淺的測站,而毛扭法螺數量較少,主要分布於深度超過30公尺的測站。
The port of Kaohsiung which was the third largest harbor in the world previously is still the biggest one in Taiwan at present. Because of shipping coming from all over the world persistently and there are several shipyards and fishing ports in harbor, the harbor area is seriously polluted by organotin compound. Nevertheless, it is not understood whether the pollution of organotin affect the marine ecosystem around coastal areas out of harbor. The first goal of this study concerns about organotin contamination and distribution of the sediments and major benthic organisms around coastal areas out of harbor. The second one is to find the adequate indicator organism which fits for organotin contamination. Five major benthic organisms including Distorsio reticularis, Niotha conoidalis, Metapenaeopsis palmensis, Portunus argentatus and Portunus hastatoides were collected and investigated in this study.
The organotin concentration of sediments in all stations was not detected totally. The organotin accumulations in Metapenaeopsis palmensis, Portunus argentatus and Portunus hastatoide are not obvious. In Portunus argentatus and Portunus hastatoide, both the contents of tributyltin (TBT) were not detected. In Metapenaeopsis palmensis, the concentration of TBT is between ND∼3.4 ng/g as tin. In Distorsio reticularis and Niotha conoidalis, organotin is measured in all station; monobutyltin (MBT) is the main composition of butyltins; TBT is less than 10 ng/g as tin. The concentration of butyltins in Niotha conoidalis decreased with the increased wet weight. There was no significant variation for organotin concentrations in Niotha conoidalis collected from each stations and seasons.
According to this study, the content of organotins in sediment around coastal areas out of harbor is obviously less than other coastal areas of large-scale harbors (Lisbon, Sines, Sagres, Huelva, Cadiz and Trafalgar). The organotin contamination around coastal areas out of harbor is not serious. Base on amounts, distributions and contents of organotin in organisms, Distorsio reticularis and Niotha conoidalis are better bethic indicator organisms than Metapenaeopsis palmensis, Portunus argentatus and Portunus hastatoides. Niotha conoidalis distributes over the depth less than 30 m, and therefore is a good indicator organism for this area. The facts that Distorsio reticularis distributes over the depth more than 30 m, suggest that it is a proper indicator organism for this area although lesser in population.
中文摘要……………………………………………… I
英文摘要……………………………………………… III
目錄…………………………………………………… V
表目錄………………………………………………… VII
圖目錄………………………………………………… VIII

壹、前言……………………………………………… 1
一、有機錫化合物之理化特性、用途與使用情形… 1
二、有機錫化合物對環境的污染和影響…………… 6
三、有機錫化合物對生物的影響…………………… 14
(一)有機錫化合物對生物的毒性…………………… 14
(二)有機錫化合物的生化毒性機制………………… 16
(三)有機錫化合物TBT的生物累積與代謝現象………… 17
四、世界各國對有機錫的管制情形…………………… 19
五、研究目的…………………………………………… 21

貳、材料與方法………………………………………… 22
一、藥品與溶液製備…………………………………… 22
(一)藥品部分…………………………………………… 22
(二)試劑水……………………………………………… 23
(三)試藥配製…………………………………………… 23
二、儀器設備與實驗器材……………………………… 25
三、採樣方法…………………………………………… 26
四、分析方法…………………………………………… 29
(一)樣品處理…………………………………………… 29
(二)沉積物中有機錫化合物的分析方法……………… 30
(三)生物體內有機錫化合物的分析方法……………… 30
(四)檢量線製作………………………………………… 33
(五)方法偵測極限……………………………………… 33
(六)回收率……………………………………………… 34

參、結果……………………………………………… 35
一、有機錫的分析…………………………………… 35
(一)生物體濕重與乾重的關係……………………… 35
(二)層析圖譜………………………………………… 35
(三)檢量線的製作…………………………………… 38
(四)數據處理………………………………………… 43
(五)方法偵測極限…………………………………… 45
(六)回收率…………………………………………… 47
二、沉積物部份…………………………………… 49
三、生物體部份…………………………………… 49
(一)毛扭法螺……………………………………… 52
(二)球織紋螺……………………………………… 55
(三)婆羅門赤對蝦………………………………… 65
(四)銀光梭子蟹…………………………………… 69
(五)矛形梭子蟹…………………………………… 72

肆、討論………………………………………… 75
一、實驗分析方法……………………………… 75
二、沉積物部份………………………………… 76
三、生物體部份………………………………… 79
(一)有機錫含量與球織紋螺濕重的關係………… 79
(二)有機錫含量與測站及季節的關係…………… 80
(三)主要調查物種體內丁基錫含量組成………… 82
(四)主要調查物種作為指標生物之評估………… 84

伍、結論…………………………………………… 86
陸、參考文獻……………………………………… 87

附錄一、高雄港適合分析有機錫之物種基本資料與圖片… 93
附錄二、原始數值………………………………… 99
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