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研究生:林紋如
研究生(外文):Wen-ju Lin
論文名稱:黑皮海綿(Terpioshoshinota)在綠島及蘭嶼的分布與生長
論文名稱(外文):Distribution and growth of Terpios hoshinota at Green Island and Orchid Island
指導教授:宋克義宋克義引用關係
指導教授(外文):Keryea Soong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:分布黑皮海綿生長光線營養鹽模擬
外文關鍵詞:Terpios hoshinotasimulationnutrientlightgrowthdistribution
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本研究的目的為探討Terpios hoshinota這種造成珊瑚黑病的黑皮海綿在綠島及蘭嶼周圍海域的分布、生長情形及速度,包括光線、深度、營養鹽對其生長的影響,也嘗試預測黑皮海綿未來在綠島的覆蓋情形。經調查後發現,多數黑皮海綿集中在2-3 m左右的深度,多 (0-62 ind./100 m2) 且大 (4-341 cm ﹥4-175 cm,5 m) ,隨深度有密度遞減的現象 (0-5 ind./100 m2,10 m) 。綠島除了北岸,東岸的海綿密度也很高,明顯高於西岸;但在蘭嶼三個海岸的海綿密度沒有發現差異。海綿的大小分布主要可能由幾個獨立的因子:入添之數目及之後生長時間與速率所影響。在黑皮海綿的大小頻度分析中,發現以小的海綿居多,隨大小有數量遞減的趨勢,這支持黑皮海綿的入添在時間上是連續的,推測海綿的新感染可能多半是當地產生的幼苗所造成。將黑皮海綿的最長徑取對數轉換後的頻度分布呈現常態分布,較符合指數型入添模式,實測的海綿生長天數及經對數轉換後的頻度分布都與模擬的結果相似。不同大小海綿的生長速度沒有發現不同,且根據所有生長實驗的對照組,黑皮海綿在綠島的平均生長速度為0.18 cm/天,所以綠島的最大海綿 (340 cm) 估計已經有2-4年的連續生長。兩個獨立的營養實驗均未能發現營養鹽添加對黑皮海綿的生長速度有影響;不同海域間的海綿密度及當地房屋數之比較,也未發現和岸上人口聚落之間的關係;而同一時間黑皮海綿在綠島不同地點的生長速率沒有發現差異,三個證據都不支持營養鹽和珊瑚黑病在綠島的分布差異之間有簡單因果關係的假說。各地的海綿密度與當地石珊瑚覆蓋率沒有明顯關係,但若黑病發生後,黑皮海綿就能在高密度珊瑚覆蓋面積的地區快速擴展。黑皮海綿對光線有基本需求,遮光實驗的結果顯示暗處理下海綿無法正常生長,但野外研究中未發現海綿在不同深度 (3 m及8 m) 的生長速度有明顯差異;將黑皮海綿移植到不同深度的實驗也不支持生長速度與深度有相關性,而移植到深水域的海綿多數有組織退縮的情形發生,不過如果海綿可以生長,其生長速率可能會與淺水域的海綿差不多。黑皮海綿在4-7月間的生長速度有逐漸降低的趨勢。在非活珊瑚之硬底質上面的生長速度明顯較慢,平均只有在活珊瑚上的55 %。黑皮海綿在人工光滑基質,如玻璃、防污油漆處理過的表面上都能生長;另外也發現其能在石珊瑚以外的物種上面生長。利用黑皮海綿的生長速度、石珊瑚覆蓋面積及黑皮海綿大小與密度,模擬預測海綿未來1-5年的覆蓋率,結果顯示黑病在未來3-5年內就能將綠島週遭的多數淺海域完全覆蓋 (67-100 %) ,綠島公館2007-2008年的海綿實際增加速率支持了我們以上的預測。
The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution and growth of the Black-Disease-causing Terpios hoshinota, including the effects of light, depth and nutrient on their growth at Green Island and Orchid Island. We also simulated the future coverage of black disease based on present data. Most T. hoshinota colonies were distributed at 2-3 meters (0-62 ind./100 m2) and the densities decrease with depth (0-5 ind./100 m2, at 10 m). The BD density at north and east coast were higher than that at west coast at Green Island, but no such difference occurred at Orchid Island. There were many small sponges and the number decrease with size. The frequency distribution of log-transformed lengths displayed a normal distribution. In comparing various recruitment models, i.e., normal, uniform, exponential and seasonal, we found that the actual size distribution is only compatible with the exponential temporal pattern. Thus more and more recruits may be entering the population continuously. The average growth rate of T. hoshinota is 0.18 cm/day, therefore the largest sponge at Green Island might have grown for only 2-4 years (340 cm).Two independent nutrient experiments did not detect the effects of nutrient addition on growth rates of the sponge. Comparison of BD densities and house numbers near the reef failed to reveal correlation. Most sponge colonies could not grow normally when shaded. The sponges transported to deeper water (15-20 m) might suffer tissue loss, but if they survived, they grew as fast as those controls at shallow waters (5-10 m). Growth rates of T. hoshinota differed by seasons within our testing period from April to July, 2008. The sponge expanded slower on non-coral substrate, at about 55% the rate, than those on corals. T. hoshinota grow on artificial substrate like glass, antifouling coatings, soft corals and other sponges. Using BD densities, sizes, growth rates and coral coverage, we simulated the BD colony distribution to predict its future coverage. We found that the sponge has the potential to cover the shallow reefs in 3-5 years at Green Island. The actual rate of increase at Gon-guan reef between 2007 and 2008 supports the above prediction.
壹、前言..........................1
貳、材料及方法..............7
参、結果........................14
肆、討論........................19
參考文獻........................32
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