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研究生:陳怡君
研究生(外文):Yi-chun Chen
論文名稱:台灣民眾飲食性汞攝入與髮汞之相關性研究
論文名稱(外文):The relationship of mercury intake from food consumption and hair mercury level of Taiwan population
指導教授:陳孟仙陳孟仙引用關係
指導教授(外文):Meng-Hsien Chen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物科技暨資源學系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:133
中文關鍵詞:飲食性汞攝入健康風險食用安全髮汞總汞飲食頻率問卷總飲食飲食型態
外文關鍵詞:Dietary mercuryTotal dietTotal mercuryFood safetyDietary patternFood Frequency QuestionnaireHazard indexHair mercury
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汞原本就存在環境中,可藉由食物鏈傳遞至人體,對中樞神經造成傷害。本研究為台灣首次分析民眾飲食中各類食物的汞濃度,主要目的在分析台灣民眾總飲食中汞攝入量的狀況與健康風險,並以髮汞評估人體內在汞負荷狀況。
研究中汞的測定是採用熱解式金汞齊汞分析法,食物樣本是在2004-2006年分批於台灣的拍賣市場採集,包含魚類、非魚類海鮮、肉類、豆製品、蛋類、乳製品、蔬菜、水果與穀類共九大類,共採集118項 574個樣品。研究以半定量飲食頻率問卷蒐集民眾的飲食資料,共訪視素食飲食者、都會區居民、漁村居民、離島居民與漁業工作者五個族群 446位民眾,同時取得飲食問卷與頭髮樣本採集的民眾有 355位。九大類食物的總汞平均濃度在 0.5-82.9 ng/g wet weight間,存在顯著的類別間差異 (p < 0.05),汞濃度由高到低依序為魚類>非魚類海鮮>蛋>肉、豆製品、蔬菜、穀類、乳製品與水果。食物平均汞濃度均在台灣衛生署、世界衛生組織 (WHO) 與歐 (European Commission)的限值內。
飲食性總汞攝入量在素食者、都會區居民、漁村居民、離島居民與漁業工作者分別為 0.16、0.89、1.22、1.66和 3.50 μg/kg/week,總汞攝入量在族群間有顯著差異 (p < 0.05),以漁業工作者的總汞攝入量最高,但五個族群的平均汞攝入量均在世界衛生組織的每日容許攝取量 (provisional tolerable weekly intake, PTWI)範圍內 (3-76%),而魚類在九大類食物是台灣民眾飲食性總汞攝入的最大來源 (42-77%)。
髮汞平均濃度在素食者、都會區居民、漁村居民、離島居民與漁業工作者分別為 0.5±0.5、2.4±1.8、4.4±3.3、4.6±7.4和 9.1±13.6 mg/kg,髮汞濃度在五個族群間存在顯著差異 (p < 0.05),以漁業工作者的髮汞濃度最高,有2.3%的民眾髮汞濃度高於中毒濃度 20 mg/kg,且均為漁業工作者與離島居民。九大類食物飲食型態,魚類攝取頻率對都會區居民、漁村居民與漁業工作者的髮汞濃度具有顯著的相關性,而民眾的年齡與所食用魚種也是影響民眾髮汞濃度高低的重要因子。
綜合考量汞攝入健康風險與飲食均衡概念,建議民眾攝取魚類以汞濃度在 50 ng/g的中小型魚類為主,對於攝取魚類時僅以大型掠食性魚類為來源的民眾,建議每週攝取量維持在150 g以下。
Mercury is a naturally existing element. It could be transported into human body through food chain, and harm the central nervous system. This is the first study to analyze the concentrations of mercury in different kinds of food in Taiwan. The purpose of the study was to assess the mercury intake of total diet and the health risk. Moreover, the concentration of hair mercury was used to evaluate the body burden.
The mercury concentrations in foods were determined by furnace-gold amalgation mercury analyzer. Nine kinds of foods, fish, nonfish seafood, meats, soybean products, eggs, dairy products, vegetables, fruits and cereals were included in the sample. A total of 118 food composites with 574 samples were collected from three largest cities in Taiwan during 2004 to 2006. Dietary information of 446 Taiwanese was collected by using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Meanwhile, both diet information and hair sample of 355 Taiwanese that were collected.
The mean mercury concentrations of nine kinds of food were significantly different (p < 0.05), ranging from 0.5 to 82.9 ng/g wet wt. The mean mercury concentrations was highest in fish, and sequentially decreased in nonfish seafood, eggs, meats, soybean products, vegetables, cereals, dairy products and fruit. All the mean mercury concentrations of foods were below the standard limits of Department of Health in Taiwan, FAO/WHO and European Commission.
The dietary mercury intakes for vegetarian, general population lived in the city, fishing village, outlying islands and fishing workers were 0.16, 0.89, 1.22, 1.66 and 3.50 μg/kg/week, respectively. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) among the five groups mentioned above. The highest mercury intake was found in the fishing workers. However, the mean mercury intakes for those five groups were still within the PTWI safe limit suggested by FAO/WHO, corresponding to 3 to 76% of PTWI. Fishes were the major source of mercury intake among nine kinds of foods for Taiwan population, corresponding to 42 to 77% of mean mercury intake.
Mean concentrations of hair mercury of vegetarian, general population lived in the city, fishing village, outlying islands and fishing workers were 0.5±0.5、2.4±1.8、4.4±3.3、4.6±7.4 and 9.1±13.6 mg/kg respectively. Significant differences were found among the five groups (p < 0.05). The highest mercury concentration of hair was also found in the fishing workers corresponding to the result of diet intake. 2.3% of Taiwan population with hair mercury higher than the toxic level, 20 mg/kg, proposed by FAO/WHO. They were all fishing workers and outlying islanders. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the concentrations of hair mercury were significantly correlated with the frequency of fish consumption for the population lived in the city, fishing village, and fishing workers. The mercury concentrations of hair was also related with the age of people and the fish species.
Aspects of nutrient balance and the health risk, consumption of small and medium-sized fish with mercury lower than 50 ng/g was recommended. No more than 150 g per week was acceptable for the people like to eat large-sized predatory fishes.
目 錄
致謝
中文摘要………………………………………………..............……..I
英文摘要……………………………………….…………………..….III
目錄…………………………………………………………...…….….VI
表目錄………………………………………………………………….IX
圖目錄……………………………………………………………….....XI
第一章 緒論
一、環境中的汞循環….……………………………………………..…1
二、汞的毒性………….…………………………………………..……1
三、人體汞暴露來源…………………………………………………...2
四、飲食性汞攝入研究…………………………………………….…..3
五、台灣民眾飲食特性………………………………………………...4
六、研究構想…………………………………………………………...5
七、研究目的..………………………………………………………….6
第二章 台灣民眾飲食性汞攝入量之評估
一、前言..………………………………………………………….……10
二、材料與方法
2.1樣本採集……………………………………………………...……..11
2.2汞濃度分析…………………………………………………...……..12
2.3品管與品保……………………………………………...…………..12
2.4飲食性汞攝入量估算………………………………………...……..13
2.5統計分析………………………………………………...…………..14
三、結果與討論
3.1九大類食物的汞含量……………………………………...………..14
3.2飲食性汞攝入量……………………………………...…………..…19
四、結論……………………………………………..…………………..22
第三章 台灣民眾飲食型態與汞攝入風險評估
一、前言
1.1飲食性汞攝入的來源……………………………………………….31
1.2飲食性汞攝入的評估方法…….……………………………………32
1.3汞攝入量風險評估………………………………………………….33
二、材料與方法
2.1研究對象…………………………………………………………….34
2.2飲食型態調查……………………………………………………….35
2.3食物攝取量的檢核………………………………………….………36
2.4食物汞濃度分析…………………………………………………….36
2.5汞攝入量評估……………………………………………………….36
2.6汞攝入風險評估…………………………………………………….37
2.7統計分析…………………………………………………………….38
三、結果與討論
3.1基本資料…………………………………………………………….38
3.2台灣民眾飲食型態………………………………………………….39
3.3台灣民眾飲食性汞攝入…………………………………………….42
3.4台灣民眾飲食性汞暴露風險評估…………………………...……..45
3.5魚類攝取與汞攝入量….………...…………………………...……..47
四、結論………………………………………………………………...49
第四章 台灣民眾頭髮汞濃度與飲食型態之相關性
一、前言
1.1汞在人體的分佈………………………………………………….....66
1.2人體內在汞劑量偵測方法……………………………………….....66
1.3人體內在汞劑量評估……………………………………….............68
二、材料與方法
2.1樣本收集……………………………………….................................68
2.2髮汞分析方法之建立…………………………………….................69
2.3髮汞分析方法……………………………………….........................71
2.4髮汞分析技術之品管與品保………………………………….........71
2.5飲食型態……………………………………….................................72
2.6統計分析……………………………………….................................72
三、結果與討論
3.1髮汞分析方法之建立……………………………………….............72
3.2髮汞分析………………………………………………….................73
3.3髮汞與飲食型態的相關分析…………………………………….....75
3.4風險評估…………………………………………….........................78
四、結論……………………………………….......................................78
第五章 總論………………………………………..............................96
參考文獻………………………………………………………………...99
附錄一 飲食問卷…………………..……………………………..….....108
附錄二 個人著作…………………………………………………….…112
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