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研究生:鐘瑋琳
研究生(外文):Wei-Lin Chung
論文名稱:中國西南部晚第四紀環境變遷-貴州荔波縣石筍碳氧同位素紀錄
論文名稱(外文):The Late Quaternary Climate and Environmental Changes of the Southwest China:Stalagmite Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Records From Libo, Guizhou
指導教授:林慧玲林慧玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):hui-lin lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋地質及化學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:貴州荔波縣碳氧同位素石筍
外文關鍵詞:oxygenisotopestalagmitecarbon
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本研究石筍樣品採集於中國貴州省南方荔波縣金獅洞與龍泉洞,金獅洞石筍JSD01、JSD02全長約14cm,龍泉洞石筍L12全長約7.1cm,將石筍JSD01V、JSD02與石筍L12垂直剖面沿中心生長軸,從石筍頂部依序取樣品粉末,JSD01H則是沿水平生長軸取樣品粉末,進行碳氧同位素分析,並利用釷鈾定年法測得石筍所形成的時期,由定年結果顯示金獅洞石筍JSD01年齡約在93,700-95,200年,石筍JSD02年齡約在87,900-88,200年,紀錄更新世晚期的氣候,龍泉洞石筍L12年齡約在750-9,560年,紀錄全新世時期的氣候。
金獅洞石筍紀錄相當於海洋氧同位素第五階(MIS 5),其中石筍JSD 01約與MIS 5c同時期;JSD 02則相當於MIS 5b時期。石筍JSD 01V在MIS 5c時期的δ18O 值介於-6.58‰至-5.17 ‰;δ13C值介於-9.19 ‰至-6.84 ‰,水平軸JSD 01H的δ18O值介於-8.11‰至-5.7 ‰;δ13C值介於-9.67 ‰至-2.46 ‰。石筍JSD 02V在MIS 5b時期的δ18O 值介於-8.15‰至-7.12 ‰;δ13C值介於-9.09 ‰至-5.19 ‰。由金獅洞實驗結果顯示MIS 5c進入MIS5b時期,夏季季風強度增強雨量增多,氣候逐漸轉為暖濕的氣候型態,金獅洞地表植被發育相當良好,而從JSD 01H的實驗結果顯示石筍水平軸的紀錄年代可能比垂直軸JSD 01V更年輕。
由石筍L12定年結果及碳氧同位素的數值,可分成2個部分來做探討︰(1)由頂部算起至35mm處介於750-2,400年前之間,紀錄全新世早期的環境變化,δ18O值介於-8.23‰至-7.07 ‰;δ13C值介於-11.61‰至-3.06‰;(2)距頂部35mm至71mm處介於9,000-9,600年前之間,紀錄全新世晚期的環境變化,δ18O值介於-10.52‰至-7.54‰,δ13C值介於-10.75‰至-6.98‰。由L12實驗結果顯示在9,000-9,600年期間溫暖和潮濕的氣候盛行,由δ18O值變輕反映出有強烈的夏季季風出現。從δ18O值變重的趨勢在對照定年的結果推測,強烈的夏季季風大約發生在9,000年前左右,在9,000年之後氣候突然的轉變,使得洞穴上地表土壤貧瘠植物減少,進而造成石筍停止生長。大約在2,400年前,石筍又開始恢復生長狀態。從δ13C值較輕與δ18O值較重的數據看來,全新世晚期的氣候是屬於較涼爽與乾燥的氣候型態。而在1,000年前至今,δ13C值由輕變重趨勢相當明顯,顯示地表植被急劇退化,由δ18O紀錄判斷其變化不是氣候所造成的,又由歷史資料記載在明朝時大量漢人進入貴州中西部,導致人口大量增加,砍伐植被修建房屋,開墾土地耕種等活動,造成嚴重的植被退化現象,推斷此時可能是因人類活動大量砍伐森林,造成植被驟減,因此可知貴州地區石漠化早在1,000年前就已經發生。
Three stalagmites, JSD 01, JSD 02, and L12, were collected from Libo county in the southern Guizhou provence. JSD 01 and JSD 02 are 14cm long stalagmites from Golden Lion Cave and L12 is a 7.1cm long stalagmite from Dragon Spring Cave. Subsamples were drilled along the central axis for JSD 01V while subsamples of JSD 01H were obtained along the horizontal axis. Subsamples were analyzed for carbon and oxygen stable isotopes. The age determination for stalagmites were done by U-Th dating. The JSD 01 dates range from 93,700 to 95,200 yr B.P.; the JSD 02 dates are from 87,900 to 88,200 yr B.P.. The L12 dates are from 750 to 9,560 yr B.P..
The stalagmite record from Golden Lion Cave is correspondent to the marine isotope stage 5 (MIS 5) in age. The δ18O values of stalagmite JSD 01 record in MIS 5c are ranging from -6.58‰ to -5.17‰ ; δ13C values are from -9.19‰ to -6.84‰. Stalagmite JSD 01H records are ranging from -8.11‰ to -5.7‰ for δ18O and from -9.67‰ to -2.46‰ for δ13C. The δ18O values for stalagmite JSD 02 record in MIS 5c are from -8.15‰ to -7.12 ‰ and are from -9.09‰ to -5.19‰ for δ13C. The results indicate a warm and wet climate prevailing during MIS 5c and MIS 5b in Guizhou. An intensification of summer mosoon would increase in precipitation and vegetation above the cave. Result from JSD record shows data obtained from the horizontal axis may be younger in age than vertical axis in terms of sampling direction.
The stalagmite L12 contains two sections: (1) Dates range from 700 to 2,400 yr B.P. between top and 35mm: the δ18O values are ranging from
-8.23‰ to -7.07‰ while δ13C values are ranging from -11.61‰ to -6.98 ‰; (2) The δ18O values are ranging from -10.52‰ to -7.54‰ and δ13C values are from -10.75‰ to -6.98‰ between 35mm and 71mm. Results suggest a warm and wet climate prevailing during 9,000-9,600, with lighter δ18O values reflecting a strong summer monsoon. A decline of summer monsoon occurred around 9,000 yr B.P. as shown by a sharp increase in the δ18O. This sudden climatic change might lead to a decrease in vegetation and soil loss above the cave, resulting in the cease growth of the stalagmite. Around 2,400 yr B.P. the growth of stalagmite was resumed. The lighter δ13C values and heavier δ18O values represent a cooler and drier climate in late Holocene. After ~1,000 yr BP, a deforestation event occurred in the area probably which was induced by human activity.
致謝Ⅰ
中文摘要Ⅲ
英文摘要Ⅴ
目錄Ⅶ
圖目錄Ⅸ
表目錄XI
第一章 前言1
1-1 研究背景1
1-2 洞穴岩的形成與同位素機制3
1-3 研究區域10
1-4 前人研究12
第二章 材料與方法14
2-1 研究流程14
2-2 研究材料14
2-3 研究方法16
2-3-1釷鈾定年前處理步驟18
第三章 實驗結果20
3-1 石筍生長剖面描述20
3-2 石筍碳氧同位素分析結果20
3-3 釷鈾定年結果分析28
第四章 討論38
4-1 石筍生長現象之探討38
4-2 石筍碳氧同位素結果之探討39
4-3 更新世晚期氣候環境之探討41
4-4 全新世氣候環境之探討50
第五章 結論56
參考文獻58
中文部份58
英文部分60
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