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研究生:曾啟清
研究生(外文):Chii-ching Tseng
論文名稱:光合菌及菌根菌對植物修復技術處理土壤中重金屬(鎘、銅、鉛及鋅)影響性之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Photosynthetic Bacteria and Mycorrhizae on Phytoremediation for Soils Contaminated by Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn)
指導教授:楊磊楊磊引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lei Yang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋環境及工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:242
中文關鍵詞:植物修復菌根菌季節性影響重金屬累積重金屬光合細菌
外文關鍵詞:Metal uptakeAM fungiHeavy metalsPhotosynthetic bacteria
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重金屬是重要的環境污染物之一。最近幾年,針對不同總類生物(例如:真菌、細菌及植物)吸收重金屬的低成本處理方法已廣泛研究,但對於細菌與植物對吸收重金屬之交互作用及相互影響性之研究較少。本研究進行細菌對植物修復受重金屬污染土壤之影響性,研究主要分為三個部份,第一部份進行植物修復的盆栽實驗,其目的有:(1)評估三種植物(培地茅(Vetiveria zizanioide)、鳳尾蕨 (Pteris multifida) 及長梗滿天星 (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.)))對鎘污染土壤之降解能力,以及(2)加入光合細菌後,評估三種植物對鎘之降解能力。實驗結果顯示,長梗滿天星是三種植物中累積鎘濃度最高的物種,而且植體內鎘濃度會隨著土壤中鎘濃度增高而增高。在種植八星期後,其地下部最高植體內鎘濃度可達164.9 mg kg-1。然而,就植體內總量而言,培地茅是累積最高總量的植物,其每秼植物可累積547.5μg,因此在土壤中鎘濃度的降解量最高。在第一部份實驗中,培地茅是三種植物中較佳的植物修復物種。此外,鳳尾蕨植體內鎘濃度會因加入光合細菌而明顯增加,但是八星期後會因無法承受過高的鎘濃度而死亡。從實驗結果顯示:添加光合細菌並僅促進鳳尾蕨,增加其吸收土壤中鎘的能力,然而對其餘兩種植物種卻無作用。
第二部份進行盆栽及現地實驗,其主要目標為:(1)評估現地植物(大花咸豐草及毛西番蓮)感染菌根菌時,其累積重金屬(銅、鉛及鋅)能力;(2)比較本實驗於現地及盆栽進行之差異性。實驗結果顯示:感染菌根菌之大花咸豐草,其地上部及地下部銅濃度明顯高於未感染菌根菌者。感染菌根菌之毛西番蓮,其地下部之銅及鉛濃度明顯高於未感染菌根菌者。至於毛西番蓮根部的乾重,其感染菌根菌後明顯增高,與未感染菌根菌之毛西番蓮比較,其根部之銅、鉛及鋅含量高約9-14倍。因此推論,菌根菌可促進植物生長,並可增進植物累積重金屬能力。針對此二種植物評估,在盆栽及現地實驗中,其將重金屬由地下部傳送至地上部之能力依序為鋅>銅>鉛。由此研究結果顯示,實験於盆栽與現地中進行的結果的確不同,在盆栽中進行實驗的植物,其植體內重金屬濃度通常高於在現地進行實驗的植物。
第三部份的實驗係利用生長於污染場址之現地植物,於受污染及未受污染土壤中進行現場之植物修復實驗。此部份的實驗目的為:(1)以五種植物(構樹、毛西番蓮、甘蔗、大花咸豐草及美洲含羞草)在受污染及未受污染農地進行現地實驗,評估其累積銅、鉛及鋅之能力;(2)調查季節性的變化,對五種植物累積重金屬的影響;(3)比較於現地與盆栽之條件下,進行本實驗之差異性。實驗結果顯示,在此實驗現場場址之鉛、銅及鋅污染濃度分別為3020、232及1012 mg kg-1。經收割後,五種植物地上部植體內的銅、鉛及鋅污染濃度範圍分別為 0.7~17.3、2.29~81.65及12.84~192.85 mg kg-1。構樹、毛西番蓮及甘蔗於夏季種植期間,其植體內地上部鋅濃度明顯高於在冬季種植者。就植體內銅濃度而言,大花咸豐草及美洲含羞草在夏季生長期間之累積濃度較高。然而,甘蔗於冬季種植期間,其植體內地上部鉛濃度卻明顯高於夏季種植者。就銅及鋅總累積量而言,大花咸豐草是五種植物中,累積量最高的者。就鉛總累積量而言,美洲含羞草是五種植物中累積最多者。大花咸豐草與毛西番蓮種植於現地與種植於盆栽中,其地上部之累積濃度明顯不同。
Heavy metals are one of the most important environmental pollutants. In recent years, many low cost stretages of bioremediation for contaminated sites by heavy metals, such as fungi, bacteria and plants have been investigated for their biosorption capacity towards heavy metals. The uses of plant species for remediate contaminated sites by heavy metals are so called phytoremediation. The purpose of the first parts of this study are to (1) evaluate bioavailability of Cadmium (Cd) in contaminated soil and phytoremediation potential by three plant species, Vetiveria zizanioides, Pteris multifida, and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.), and (2) realized the influence of photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) on the uptake of Cd in the three species. The results showed that the Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) could accumulate the highest concentration of Cd among the three species, in which the Cd concentration of plant tissue increased with the concentration in soil. The highest concentration of Cd (164.9 mg kg-1) was found in the below-ground parts of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) at the 8th week of culturing period. However, the species of Vetiveria zizanioides could accumulate the largest total Cd, up to 547.5 μg/ plant, which thus extracted the greatest amounts of Cd from the soil. Therefore, in the first part of this study the species of Vetiveria zizanioides was concluded to be the best accumulator among the three plant species. In addition, the concentration of Cd in the species of Pteris multifida was found significantly increased after PSB was added into the soil, but the plants died later due to Cd stress. The experimental results also showed that PSB seemed to be not suitable for each species used in this study to accumulate Cd from Cd-contaminated soil.
In the second part of this research, both pot and field experiments were conducted to (1) evaluate bioavailability of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in contaminated soil and phytoremediation potential by domesticated plants, Bidens pilosa and Passiflora foetida inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and to (2) compare the results of pot and field experiments. The plant species of Bidens pilosa inoculated with AM fungi had significantly higher Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots than non-inoculated plants. The plant species of Passiflora foetida inoculated with AM fungi also had significantly higher Cu and Pb concentrations in the roots than non-inoculated plants. When we found that the root dry weight of Passiflora foetida inoculated with AM fungi dramatically increased, the concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in the root of the plant species increased by 9-14 times, comparing with the plants without inoculation of AM fungi. The AM fungi have potential either to promot plant growth or to increase heavy metal accumulation. The values of element translocation proportion from root to shoot was Zn>Cu>Pb for the plant species in both pot and field experiments. For both experiments, the results of pot test and field test were significantly different. The concentrations of pot tests were found higher than the field tests, and some values of pot tests were even found significantly greater than those in the field tests.
In the third part of this study, the field experiments were conducted to test the feasibility of using domesticated vegetations for phytoremediation of the contaminated farmland. The objectives of this study were (1) to acquire information about the ability of five plant species growing wild in the polluted area to accumulate Cu, Pb and Zn, (2) to investigate the season effects on phytoremediaton of five plant species and evaluate the total uptake of heavy metal, and (3) to run both pot tests and a field trial of phytotremediation to compare their differences. The experimental results showed that three maximum toxic elements in a pot were 3020 mg kg-1 Pb, 232 mg kg-1 Cu and 1012 mg kg-1 Zn respectively. The Cu concentrations of the five plant species collected from the polluted plots ranged from 0.7 to 17.43 mg kg-1. The range of variation of Pb in plant tissues was measured varied from 2.29 to 81.65 mg kg−1, while a wide range of Zn concentrations was found from 12.84 to 192.85 mg kg-1 among the plants collected at the contaminated plots. In comparison to winter season, the Zn concentrations in Broussonetia papyrifera, Passiflora foetida and Saccharum sinensis collected in summer season was significantly higher. The higher Cu concentrations were obtained in both plant species of Bidens pilosa and Mimosa diplotricha in summer season. However, Pb concentrations in Saccharum sinensis collected in winter were significantly higher than those in the same plant species collected in summer. Bidens pilosa was also found having the highest total amount of Cu and Zn. The highest total amount of Pb was found in Mimosa diplotricha. For both plant species, both of the pot and field tests were different.
謝誌 I
摘要 II
ABSTRACT V
Table of Contents IX
List of Tables XV
List of Figures XVII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Objectives 3
Chapter 2 Literature Review 5
2.1 Usage of the Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) 5
2.2 Contamination of the Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) 6
2.3 Toxicity and Health Effects of the Heavy Metals 7
2.4 Soil Pollution grade and Control Standards in Taiwan 9
2.5 Remediation Techniques of Heavy Metal Contaminated Sites 10
2.6 Phytoremediaton of Heavy Metals 15
2.6.1 Plants Selection 16
2.6.2 Relationship between Rhizosphere Bacteria and Phytoremediation 17
2.6.3 Relationship between Photosynthetic Bacteria and Phytoremediation 18
2.6.4 Relationship between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Phytoremediation 19
2.6.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Phytoremediation 22
Chapter 3 Cadmium Accumulation in Three Plant Species and the Effect of Photosynthetic Bacteria Application on Phytoremediation 26
Abstract 26
3.1 Introduction 27
3.2 Materials and Methods 31
3.2.1 Preparation and Analysis of Soil 31
3.2.2 Cadmium Resistance Tests 34
3.2.2.1 Feasibility of Plant Resistance to Cadmium 34
3.2.2.2 Statistical Analysis 34
3.2.3 Cadmium Accumulation Tests 35
3.2.3.1 Feasibility of Cadmium Accumulation in Plants 35
3.2.3.2 Effect of Photosynthetic Bacteria 35
3.2.4 Analyses of Plant Tissues and Soil Heavy Metal Contents 36
3.3 Results 37
3.3.1 Cadmium Resistance Tests 37
3.3.1.1 Growth of Two Plant Species 37
3.3.1.2 Cadmium Concentration in Plants and Soil 37
3.3.2 Cadmium Accumulation Tests 42
3.3.2.1 Growth of Three Plant Species 42
3.3.2.2 Cadmium Concentration and Distribution in Plants 42
3.3.2.3 Concentration of Cadmium in Soil in Pot Experiment 46
3.3.2.4 Effects of Adding Photosynthetic Bacteria 46
3.3.3 Discussions 50
Chapter 4 Accumulation of Copper, Lead and Zinc by Domesticated Plants Inoculated with AM Fungi in Multi-contaminated Soil 54
Abstract 54
4.1 Introduction 55
4.2 Materials and Methods 56
4.2.1 Pot Experiment 56
4.2.2 Field Experiment 61
4.2.3 Soil and Plant Analysis 61
4.2.4 Statistical Analysis 62
4.3 Results 64
4.3.1 Effects of Inoculation on Plant Growth 64
4.3.2 Effects of Inoculation on Cu, Pb and Zn Concentration in Both Species 66
4.3.2.1 Pot experiment 66
4.3.2.2 Field experiment 67
4.3.3 Pot Experiment Compared to Field Experiment 75
4.4 Discussions 75
4.4.1 Cu, Pb and Zn Accumulation by Plants 75
4.4.2 Effect of AM Fungi on Plant Growth and Cu, Pb and Zn Accumulation 77
4.4.3 Comprison between Pot and Field Experiments 80
Chapter 5 Use of Domesticated Vegetation for Phytoremediation of Metal-contaminated Soils 81
Abstract 81
5.1 Introduction 82
5.2 Materials and Methods 84
5.2.1 Site Preparation 84
5.2.2 Pot and Field Experiment 90
5.2.3 Soil and Plant Analysis 90
5.2.4 Data Analysis 92
5.3 Results and Discussions 92
5.3.1 Soil 92
5.3.2 Heavy Metal Contents in Plant Tissues 95
5.3.2.1 Cu 95
5.3.2.2 Pb 101
5.3.2.3 Zn 102
5.3.3 Plant in Summer Compared to Winter Season 103
5.3.4 Total uptake of Heavy Metal by Plants 106
5.3.5 Comparison between Pot and Field Experiment 110
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Suggestions 116
6.1 Conclusions 116
6.2 Suggestions 119
References 121
Appendix A 132
Appendix B 218
Appendix C 223
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