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研究生:湯志成
研究生(外文):Chih-Cheng Tang
論文名稱:高屏峽谷與鄰近海域岩心中多氯聯苯含量分析之研究
論文名稱(外文):Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores of Gaoping submarine canyon and its adjacent area
指導教授:李宗霖李宗霖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chon-Lin Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋環境及工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:多氯聯苯岩心沉積物高屏峽谷
外文關鍵詞:Polychlorinated biphenylsGaoping submarine canyoncoresediment
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本研究主要分析高屏峽谷及其南北兩側陸棚岩心中多氯聯苯濃度隨時間分布情形,藉以回溯該研究區域多氯聯苯污染史、污染來源及傳輸途徑。
研究結果顯示高屏峽谷中總多氯聯苯濃度最高值為2.28 ng/g dry wt.與其南部陸棚濃度最高值2.93 ng/g dry wt.相近,但較北陸棚所測得最高濃度21.0 ng/g dry wt.低約10倍,而最高濃度值所分布的年代約是1980年初。相較於國內文獻,發現本研究區域表層沉積物中所含總多氯聯苯濃度低於臺灣北部及東部沿海地區,但高於臺灣中部台西、七股、布袋等沿海區域。在現有文獻中,全球目前測得近岸海域岩心中總多氯聯苯濃度最高值為840 ng/g dry wt.,分布在美國Narragansett Bay,高於本研究區域最高值約40倍。整體而言,本研究區域內,除高屏峽谷北邊陸棚上L27岩心2-10公分內所分析的總多氯聯苯濃度超過Förstner(1993)建議濃度6 ng/g及加拿大安大略省訂定的NEL值(10ng/g),代表此區域沉積物已經有明顯污染,不宜再擾動;其餘各地區所測得岩心內總多氯聯苯濃度均低於國外專家學者所建議的沉積物品質參考準則(SQGs)。
以同族物含量分析得知本研究區域在1990-2005年及1930-1950年兩時期間多氯聯苯污染以三氯的同族物為主,1950-1990年以二氯的同族物為主。而1990-2005年以三氯的同族物為主要多氯聯苯汙染物,但二、四、五、六、七、八氯等同族物所佔百分比與三氯的同族物百分比相近,因此為混合性污染來源。另以群集分析發現高屏峽谷及其南側近岸海域多氯聯苯污染源以Aroclor 1016、Aroclor 1242及Aroclor 1260為主,而北側近岸海域多氯聯苯污染亦是如此,且L27岩心表層內所測得總多氯聯苯最高值,主要汙染源為Aroclor 1260。
在高屏峽谷及其南北兩側陸棚岩心中,總多氯聯苯濃度隨年代分布趨勢上,最高值約是分布在1980~1995年間,而1929年到1980年間呈現上升趨勢;1980年到2006年間呈現急遽下降趨勢,與全球文獻資料相近,顯見污染程度係因高屏地區工業化及都市化的過程,大量使用該類化合物,造成污染程度逐年增加,而我國在1980年明令停止多氯聯苯進口並公告禁用於食品加工設備後,確實讓污染程度逐年降低。高屏峽谷北陸棚岩心所含多氯聯苯化合物濃度比南陸棚及峽谷內各測站岩心高,推測源自於1970年代末期政府開始積極推動林園、大發工業區發展石化等重工業,所產生的工業廢水排放至高屏海域,並受到該海域的流場所影響而將多氯聯苯輸送至北陸棚沉積所致。
This study presents the first reconstruction of pollution history of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Taiwan coast. Six sediment cores were collected from Gaoping submarine canyon and its adjacent area to investigate the distribution and source recognition of PCBs.
The concentrations of PCBs in the cores from Gaoping canyon ranged 0.155--2.281 ng/g dry wt, whereas the maximum concentrations of PCBs reached 21.0 and 2.93 ng/g dry wt, respectively, in the cores from the northern and sourthern continental shelf of Gaoping canyon. The toxicological effects assessed by sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), show that only 2-10cm in core L27 exceeded the guideline value suggested by Förstner (6 ng/g), which indicated the sediment in this area had been polluted seriously and should not be disturbed. Overall, compared with studies in the world, the sediment PCB concentrations in Kao-Ping coastal areas were relatively low.
Hierarchical Cluster Analysis identified the source of PCBs in the study area was a mixture of Aroclor 1016, Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1260. Similarity in vertical variations of total concentrations of PCBs among the six cores was observed and the trend is consistent with the history of the PCB usage in Taiwan. The drastic decrease in PCB concentrations around the late 1980s, clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the ban of PCBs use in 1980 in Taiwan.
摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
目錄 I
表目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 持久性有機污染物 3
2-2 多氯聯苯的化學結構 4
2-3 多氯聯苯的物理、化學及生物特性 4
2-3-1 物理特性 4
2-3-2 化學特性 5
2-3-3 生物特性 5
2-4 多氯聯苯的來源 5
2-5 多氯聯苯的毒性 6
2-6 多氯聯苯之重大危害事件 7
2-7 多氯聯苯在環境中的現況 8
2-8 多氯聯苯在台灣的使用狀況 9
2-9 岩心定年 9
2-10 研究區域-高屏峽谷及其南北兩側陸棚 10
2-10-1 高屏溪 10
2-10-2 高屏峽谷 11
2-10-3 高屏峽谷南北兩側陸棚 11
2-10-4 高屏峽谷及其南北兩側陸棚之流場 12
2-11 海域沉積物品質參考準則 12
第三章 研究方法 21
3-1 材料與儀器 21
3-1-1 材料 21
3-1-2 儀器設備 22
3-2 試藥及器具前處理 22
3-3 採樣地點、時間與保存 23
3-4 樣品前處理 23
3-5 多氯聯苯分析 23
3-5-1 沉積物樣品之萃取 23
3-5-2 沉積物樣品之淨化 24
3-5-3 GC-ECD設定操作條件 24
3-5-4 定量方法-內標準法 25
3-6 品管及品保(QA/QC) 25
3-6-1 方法回收率 25
3-6-2 重複分析 26
3-6-3 標準查核樣品分析 26
3-6-4 方法偵測極限 26
3-7 總多氯聯苯沉降通量 26
3-8 群集分析(Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA) 27
第四章 結果與討論 37
4-1 沉積物特性 37
4-2 總多氯聯苯濃度隨深度之變化趨勢 37
4-3 岩心表層總多氯聯苯濃度與全球檢測結果比較 40
4-4 岩心總多氯聯苯濃度與全球檢測結果比較 41
4-5 沉積物品質參考準則(sediment quality guidelines, SQGs) 42
4-6 多氯聯苯化合物之沉降通量(fluxes) 42
4-7 多氯聯苯化合物同族物含量分析 43
4-8 多氯聯苯化合物同族物群集分析(HCA) 44
4-9 多氯聯苯化合物污染史探討 45
第五章 結論與建議 71
5-1 結論 71
5-2 建議 73
參考文獻 74
附 錄 89
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