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研究生:黃廣順
研究生(外文):Kong-Soon NG
論文名稱:電池電源模組之架構與運轉
論文名稱(外文):Configuration and Operation of Battery Power Modules
指導教授:莫清賢莫清賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Sien Moo
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:電池電量間歇式放電庫侖累計電池健康狀態電池電源模組電池
外文關鍵詞:coulomb countingstate-of-health (SOH)state-of-charge (SOC)intermittent dischargingbattery power module (BPM)Battery
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本文提出一以多個電池電源模組所建立的電池電源系統。每一電池電源模組係由單一電池搭配一直流轉換器,具備放電調節與電量平衡控制的功能。多個模組串聯運轉可供高壓負載使用,而並聯運轉則可滿足負載所需的功率及續航力。同時並聯及串聯多個模組所形成的電池電源模組陣列可應付較大的負載需求。陣列式電池電源系統中的每個電源模組,雖彼此連接,相互支援,但實際上卻可獨立運轉,易於維護及汰換。
電池電源模組之並聯及串聯運轉依理論及實驗結果進行分析。電池的獨立運轉可避免過度充電及過度放電,提升電池使用壽命。各種不同電池放電態樣之實現可提昇電池的使用效率。此外,藉由某些電池可以選擇性休息及從系統中隔離,運轉時得以實現各種開路量測,有助於估測個別電池之電量及健康狀態。
本電池電源架構中各模組的電池能以間歇式電流態樣放電,經實驗證實電池的放電主要受平均電流所影響。本文藉由電池開路時的電壓量測及考慮開路前的電流及放電深度,提出動態開路電壓電量估測法,可於較短的時間估測電池的電池電量,估測誤差在可接受範圍之內。另一方面,增強型庫侖電量累計法利用放電完畢及充滿時的最大釋出電量及充入電量,評估電池健康狀態,提升傳統庫侖電量累計法的準確度。本研究透過實驗測試,針對鋰離子電池及鉛酸電池模擬實際操作狀況,驗證所提出之電量估測方法的準確度。
A novel battery power system configured by the battery power modules (BPMs) is proposed. Each BPM consists of a single battery pack or a battery bank equipped with an associated DC/DC converter. The output ports of BPMs can be connected in series for the high voltage applications, or in parallel to cope with a higher power or energy. For a large scale battery power system, a number of BPMs can be arrayed with combination of series and parallel connections to meet the load requirements. These all configurations allow the BPMs be operated individually. Consequently, the discharging currents of the batteries can be independently controlled, but coordinated to provide a full amount of the load current.
The performances of BPMs connected in both parallel and series at outputs are analyzed theoretically and discussed from the experimental results. Batteries operating independently do not suffer from charge imbalance, and thus can avoid being over-charged or over-discharged, so that the life cycle can be prolonged. Furthermore, sophisticated discharging profiles such as intermittent currents can be realized to equalize the charges and thus to efficiently utilize the available stored energy in batteries. During the operation period, some of the batteries may take rest or be isolated from the system for the open-circuit measurement, facilitating the estimation of the state-of-charge (SOC) and the evaluation of the state-of-health (SOH).
With the benefit of independent operation, the BPMs can be discharged with a scheduled current profile, such as intermittent discharging. The investigation results show that the average current plays the most important role in current discharging. By detecting the battery voltage at the break time, an SOC estimation method based on the dynamically changed open-circuit voltage exhibits an acceptable accuracy in a shorter time with considerations of the previous charging/discharging currents and the depth-of- discharge (DOD). In addition, the coulomb counting method can be enhanced by evaluating the SOH at the exhausted and fully charged states, which can be intended on the independently operated BPMs. Through the experiments that emulate practical operations, the SOC estimation methods are verified on lead-acid batteries and lithium-ion batteries to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy.
Abstract I
Chinese Abstract II
Contents III
List of Figures V
List of Tables VII
List of Nomenclature VIII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1-1 Research Background and Motivations 1
1-2 Contributions 6
1-3 Content Arrangement 6
Chapter 2 Conventional Applications of Battery Power 8
2-1 Introductions to Batteries 8
2-2 Conventional Applications 9
2-3 Charge Imbalance of Series Batteries 11
2-4 Review of Charge Equalization Circuits 14
2-5 Related Definitions 17
Chapter 3 Battery Power Modules 20
3-1 Battery Power Modules 20
3-2 Parallel Configuration of Multiple Buck-typed BPMs 24
3-3 Series Configuration of Multiple Boost-Typed BPMs 32
3-4 Arrayed Battery Power Modules 41
3-5 Design Examples and Experiments 44
Chapter 4 Investigation on Intermittent Discharging for Lead-acid Batteries 48
4-1 Intermittent Current Discharging 48
4-1-1 Effect of Operation Frequency 52
4-1-2 Effect of Duty-Ratio 50
4-2 Intermittent Discharging at Different Stages 53
4-3 Two-Stage Current Discharging 57
4-4 Discharging under the Same Average Current 60
Chapter 5 SOC Estimation and SOH Evaluation 61
5-1 Introduction to SOC Estimation 61
5-2 Dynamic Open-Circuit Voltage SOC Estimation 63
5-2-1 Equivalent Circuit of VRLA Battery 63
5-2-2 Open-Circuit Characteristics 65
5-2-3 Dynamics Open-Circuit Voltage Method 70
5-2-4 Verification Experiments 72
5-3 Enhanced Coulomb Counting Method 74
5-4 Determination of Initial SOC 76
5-4-1 Lithium-ion Battery 76
5-4-2 VRLA Battery 80
5-5 Charging and Discharging Corrections 83
5-5-1 Lithium-ion Battery 83
5-5-2 VRLA Battery 85
5-6 Verification of Enhanced Coulomb Counting Method 88
5-6-1 Lithium-Ion Battery 89
5-6-2 VRLA Battery 90
Chapter 6 Conclusions 93
6-1 Conclusions 93
6-2 Discussions 94
6-3 Future Researches 95
References 97
Publication List 101
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