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研究生:劉宗鑫
研究生(外文):Tong-Xin Liu
論文名稱:軟性寬頻壓電式發電機之設計製作
論文名稱(外文):Design and fabrication of flexible piezo-microgenerator with broadband width
指導教授:潘正堂
指導教授(外文):C.T. Pan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:機械與機電工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:175
中文關鍵詞:穩健最佳化設計黃光壓印製程生能系統田口方法振動分析有限元素法氧化鋅寬頻軟性基板
外文關鍵詞:imprinting lithographyenergy harvesting systemrobust designTaguchfinite element methodsZnOmodal/harmonic analysisflexible substratebroad band width
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本論文提出多層軟性基板與壓電材料結合之生能研究與應用,由於壓電材料具有高的機電轉換特性,配合適當的機械能傳遞結構與控制電路,成為擷取環境機械能的重要方法;藉由軟性基板與塊狀結構的設計,將單一發電元件並聯組成為多層寬頻軟性壓電發電系統,當發電系統運作時,能依外在環境驅動力及頻率的不同,反應出最佳的發電效益。首先利用有限元素軟體(ANSYS)中建立具壓電轉換器懸臂樑之有限元素模型,對此結構進行各層之模態分析,求得各層之結構之自然頻率與振型,其次再進行簡諧響應分析,進而擷取壓電薄膜之電壓輸出;分析結構使用三維耦合場立體元素(Solid5),將壓電薄膜 (氧化鋅:ZnO) 與軟性基板的結構幾何模型耦合在ㄧ起。此外也利用田口品質工程法進行軟性多層壓電生能系統幾何結構之參數設計。由此根據模擬分析之穩健化生能系統幾何形狀,利用黃光製程與轉印之技術製作出不同幾何尺寸之軟性基板,藉此改變軟性生能系統之自然頻率與振型,再將多層壓電軟性生能系統並聯組成一起,以獲得寬頻振型之目的,探討生能之效應。結果發現含塊狀結構之設計可有效提升機電轉換效率,而單一壓電發電元件測得最大開路電壓為2.25V,發電功率0.276μW。寬頻發電系統適用頻寬可介於50~500Hz之間的低頻率振動環境。此外,選用E值相對低的軟性基板也可有效提升發電元件之輸出電壓。
In this study the relationship between the dynamic response of the flexible substrate and the power generation for energy harvesting system is proposed. High electro-mechanical transformation of piezoelectric materials, high efficient energy transfer of mechanical structure and controlled circuit make the piezoelectric generator a high performance. The devices of cantilevers with lump structures on the flexible substrate and piezoelectric film (ZnO) are designed. Then some individual layers of power generator are stocked in parallel to form a multi-layer system with a broad resonant band width. When the generator is operated in a wide frequency range vibration environment, the multi-layer piezoelectric films in the form of cantilever structures can induce current. First the finite element method for the piezoelectric cantilever beam is constructed by using ANSYS software. Both modal analysis and harmonic response analysis are performed to obtain the structural modal parameters and frequency response functions, respectively. Besides, the beam structure is modeled by 3D coupled field piezoelectric element. This research will apply Taguchi’s method to design including variations of dimensions and material properties for energy harvesting system. The flexible substrate is polymeric film (PET). Imprinting process is applied to transfer the simulated geometric configuration onto a flexible substrate to obtain a maximum power output. The results show the single devices can improve efficiently by using lump structures on the flexible substrate, the generator could achieve maximum OCV of 2.25V which is 0.276μW every centimeter squared when attached to a stable source of vibration. The multi-layer system can be used in 50~500Hz of low frequency environment. Furthermore, the output voltage (OCV) is upward when the flexible substrate with low Young’s modulus.
目錄 I
圖目錄 V
表目錄 XII
中文摘要 XIV
ABSTRACT XVI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.1.1 簡介: 1
1.1.2 研究動機與目的: 2
1.1.3 研究方法: 4
1.2 文獻回顧 5
1.2.1 研究背景: 5
1.2.2 壓電材料於微型發電機之應用: 6
1.2.3 其它類型微型發電機: 10
1.2.4 有限元素軟體應用於耦合場分析: 10
1.2.5 ZnO於微型壓電發電機之應用契機: 12
第二章 壓電原理及壓電材料 17
2.1 壓電原理 17
2.1.1 壓電效應: 17
2.1.2 正壓電效應 (direct piezoelectric effect): 17
2.1.3 逆壓電效應 (converse piezoelectric effect): 19
2.2 壓電材料的發展 21
2.2.1 壓電材料的相關應用: 22
第三章 壓電振動式發電機發電理論 29
3.1 機械能與電能之轉換 29
3.1.1 振動能量轉換模式: 29
3.1.2 線彈性壓電理論: 31
3.2 壓電參數 36
3.2.1 壓電參數之定義: 36
3.3 壓電理論解析 43
3.3.1 壓電薄材於d33模式之靜力作用: 44
3.3.2 壓電懸臂樑於d31模式之靜力作用: 46
第四章 軟性壓電式發電機之設計與有限元素分析 52
4.1 機電耦合結構之振動分析 52
4.1.1 耦合場之物理意義與有限元素分析之方法: 52
4.1.2 有限元素分析-機電耦合分析步驟: 53
4.1.3 壓電材料係數矩陣輸入順序設定: 55
4.1.4 ZnO壓電薄膜於d33模式之靜力分析: 56
4.1.5 無塊狀結構軟性壓電發電機於d31振動模式之模態分析: 61
4.1.6 含塊狀結構軟性壓電發電機於d31振動模式之簡諧分析: 64
4.2 田口法之穩健最佳化設計 70
4.2.1 田口法簡介: 70
4.2.2 軟性壓電式發電機之田口法設計分析: 71
4.2.3 含塊狀結構軟性壓電式發電機於d31振動模式之模態分析: 74
4.2.4 含塊狀結構軟性壓電式發電機於d33振動模式之簡諧分析: 77
4.2.5 模擬數據轉換S/N訊號雜音比及平均數: 89
4.2.6 變異數分析之穩健化參數組合: 90
4.2.7 穩健化參數配置之模擬驗證: 91
4.2.8 多層寬頻軟性壓電發電系統之結構配置: 96
第五章 軟性壓電式發電機之結構傳感性能分析 100
5.1 壓電複材結構傳感性能與發電量之關係 100
5.1.1 壓電複材結構內部應力分布與發電量之關係: 100
5.1.2 壓電複材結構內部應變分布與發電量之關係: 104
第六章 軟性壓電式發電機製作與發電性能量測 106
6.1 軟性壓電式發電機製作 106
6.1.1 軟性壓電式發電機複合結構製作: 106
6.1.2 含塊狀結構軟性壓電式發電機製作: 108
6.2. 軟性壓電式發電機之發電性能量測 112
6.2.1 軟性壓電式發電機於振動模式之發電性能量測: 112
6.2.2 軟性壓電式發電機於d31振動模式之發電性能量測: 114
第七章 結論與未來發展 140
7.1 結論 140
7.2 未來展望 142
參考文獻 144
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