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研究生:林玉庭
研究生(外文):Yu-Ting Lin
論文名稱:利用薄膜生物處理程序去除有機碳
論文名稱(外文):Removal of organic carbon by using a membrane bioreactor
指導教授:樓基中樓基中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jie-Chung Lou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:生物可利用有機碳活性碳薄膜生物反應器溶解性有機碳
外文關鍵詞:Assimilable organic carbonDissolved organic carbonActivated carbonMembrane bioreactor
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中南部經常見到淨水場處理後之清水含有過量的生物可利用有
機碳(Assimilable organic carbon, AOC),它會在配水管線內引起異營
性微生物繁殖,而使水質惡化。近年來,淨水場之淨水程序部分由傳
統提升為高級處理程序,過去研究指出台灣南部淨水場的高級淨水流
程超過濾(Ultrafiltration, UF) / 逆滲透(Reverse osmosis, RO),對於
AOC之去除成效不彰。主要原因為水中有機物所導致之薄膜生物阻
塞,而使薄膜反沖洗次數增加、減少薄膜壽命、成本增加等問題。
本研究以活性碳(Activated carbon) 結合薄膜生物處理程序
(Membrane bioreactor, MBR)探討在飲用水處理流程之效率。結果顯示
利用此處理程序能有效的降低水中的有機碳的量,實驗原水採自淨水
場經臭氧程序的出水,溶解性有機碳(Dissolved Organic Carbon, DOC)
值平均去除率約57%,AOC值去除率約36%;而延長水力停留時間,
DOC值去除率約81%,AOC去除率66%。
本研究程序對於AOC及DOC顯示出有中等的處理成效,是個可
參考的生物穩定性及有機質去除之處理程序,具較低成本建造及維修
費及高效能的要求。
The drinking water treated by water treatment plant (WTP) usually has an
excess of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in distribution systems in south Taiwan.
They will cause the growth of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and deterioration of
water quality in pipeline of distribution systems. Recently, part of traditional
purification processes were changed into advanced processes in WTP. The past
researches showed the combined advanced processes ultrafitration (UF) / reverse
osmosis (RO) in south WTP in Taiwan has the removal problems of AOC in above
UF / RO processes because the organic compounds in raw water caused a fouling
layer which was formed on the membranes surface. These problems made the
back-wash frequency increasing, short membrane life and raising cost.
The study combines activated carbon and membrane bioreactor (MBR) to
explore the removal efficiency of drinking water in laboratory. The system showed
the removal efficiencies of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and AOC were 57%
and 36%, respectively in average. More, the system showed the removal
efficiencies of DOC and AOC were 81% and 66%.
The results of this research showed good removal efficiency was found in
AOC and DOC. Good quality of biological stability, removal of organic compounds,
low cost in building and maintaining were reached.
目 錄
頁數
摘要......................................................................................................I
目錄......................................................................................................V
圖目錄..................................................................................................X
表目錄..................................................................................................XII
第一章 緒論........................................................................................1
1-1 研究緣起..................................................................................1
1-2 研究目的及內容......................................................................3
第二章 文獻回顧...............................................................................4
2-1 高級淨水處理程序...................................................................4
2-2 自然界水體中其有機物之分類及性質...................................8
2-3 生物穩定性問題.......................................................................9
2-3-1 微生物後生長之影響因子及控制方法............................11
2-3-2 生物可分解有機質之測定................................................13
2-3-3 AOC....................................................................................16
2-4 薄膜...........................................................................................22
2-4-1 薄膜的分類與材質特性....................................................23
2-4-2 薄膜的結構特性與選擇....................................................25
2-4-3 薄膜過濾機制....................................................................26
2-4-4 薄膜處理所面臨之問題....................................................28
2-4-5 薄膜於淨水場的應用.......................................................29
2-5 薄膜生物反應器起源...............................................................32
2-5-1 MBR 之種類......................................................................33
2-5-2 MBR 之優點......................................................................34
2-6 薄膜生物反應器與粉末型活性碳...........................................39
第三章 實驗方法...............................................................................42
3-1 研究流程之規劃.......................................................................42
3-2 AOC 分析..................................................................................43
3-2-1 純菌菌液的預先培養(Precultures)...................................44
3-2-1-1 前培養基、LLA 培養基及LLB 之配置..................44
3-2-1-2 菌種活化與培養........................................................47
3-2-2 菌種純種鑑定與特性分析................................................47
3-2-2-1 Oxidase reaction 之檢驗............................................48
3-2-2-2 氧化與發酵檢驗........................................................48
3-2-2-3 ADH 反應...................................................................49
3-2-2-4 Fluorescence on R2A-mediium ..................................50
3-2-3 AOC 器皿之清洗方式......................................................51
3-2-4 AOC 使用菌種其生長曲線與產率之求得......................52
3-2-3 水樣AOC 之檢測方式.....................................................55
3-3 非揮發性溶解性有機碳
(Non-Purgable Dissolved Organic Carbon, NPDOC)...............58
3-3-1 使用藥劑種類與配置方法................................................58
3-3-2 分析原理與方法................................................................59
3-4 實驗設計...................................................................................59
3-4-1 微生物馴養........................................................................60
3-4-2 分析藥品............................................................................61
3-4-3 分析儀器與設備................................................................61
3-5 水質項目與分析方法...............................................................62
第四章 結果與討論...........................................................................64
4-1 高級淨水處理程序之探討.......................................................64
4-1-1 基本水質參數....................................................................64
4-1-2 有機物................................................................................65
4-1-2-1 溶解性有機碳............................................................65
4-1-2-2 生物可利用有機碳....................................................66
4-2 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P17 及Spirillum species
strain NOX 菌種特性鑑定及產率(Yield)計算......................69
4-2-1 P17 及NOX 菌種鑑定特性..............................................69
4-2-2 P17 及NOX 之生長曲線及產率(Yield)值.......................70
4-3 批次式生物反應槽....................................................................77
4-3-1 研究動機............................................................................77
4-3-2 基本參數............................................................................77
4-3-3 實驗結果............................................................................78
4-4 連續式生物反應程序...............................................................80
4-4-1 生物反應程序之基本參數................................................80
4-4-2 生物反應程序之操作........................................................82
4-4-3 實驗結果............................................................................84
4-5 PAC 與薄膜生物反應處理成效的關係...................................87
4-6 AOC 值在淨水流程及水質分析上之意義..............................88
第五章 結論與建議...........................................................................91
5-1 結論...........................................................................................91
5-2 建議...........................................................................................92
參考文獻..............................................................................................94
圖目錄
頁數
圖2-1 DOC、BDOC、NBDOC (DOC-BDOC)及AOC 之關係14
圖2-2 各物種粒徑大小與各式薄膜孔徑之分佈圖...................25
圖2-3 過濾機制示意圖...............................................................27
圖2-4 薄膜過濾機制圖...............................................................29
圖2-5 側流式與沉浸式薄膜生物反應槽...................................34
圖2-6 薄膜單元取代之二級生物程序設施項目圖...................39
圖3-1 實驗流程圖.......................................................................42
圖3-2 AOC 分析之流程圖..........................................................43
圖3-3 AOC 檢量線分析流程圖..................................................54
圖3-4 AOC 水樣處理之流程圖..................................................57
圖3-5 裝置設備圖.......................................................................60
圖4-1 高級淨水處理流程...........................................................66
圖4-2 高級淨水流程DOC 變化圖.............................................66
圖4-3 高級淨水流程AOC 變化圖.............................................68
圖4-4 AOC 於高級淨水流程中組成比例圖.............................68
圖4-5 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P17 於各種acetate-C 濃度下
之生長曲線.......................................................................71
圖4-6 Spirillum species strain NOX 於各種acetate-C 濃度下之生長
曲線...................................................................................72
圖4-7 P17 菌株............................................................................73
圖4-8 NOX 菌株.........................................................................73
圖4-9 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P17 之最大菌落數與
acetate-C 之產率關係.....................................................75
圖4-10 Spirillum species strain NOX 之最大菌落數與
acetate-C 之產率關係.....................................................76
圖4-11 某淨水流程圖...................................................................77
圖4-12 微生物馴養PAC 濃度與DOC 相關圖...........................79
圖4-13 微生物馴養PAC 濃度與AOC 相關圖...........................79
圖4-14 連續式反應槽之溫度變化...............................................81
圖4-15 連續式生物活性碳薄膜反應HRT 與DOC 圖...............86
圖4-16 連續式生物活性碳薄膜反應HRT 與AOC 關係圖.......86
圖4-17 HRT 與AOC-NOX、AOC-P17 比例圖........................87
表2-1 P. fluorescens strain P17 及Spirillum sp. strain NOX 之特性
...........................................................................................17
表2-2 P. fluorescens strain P17 及Spirillum sp. strain NOX 菌屬利用
基質之差異性比較...........................................................17
表2-2 P. fluorescens strain P17 及Spirillum sp. strain NOX 菌屬利用
基質之差異性比較(續)....................................................18
表2-2 P. fluorescens strain P17 及Spirillum sp. strain NOX 菌屬利用
基質之差異性比較(續)....................................................19
表2-2 P. fluorescens strain P17 及Spirillum sp. strain NOX 菌屬利用
基質之差異性比較(續)....................................................20
表2-3 AOC 分析方法比較..........................................................21
表2-4 AOC-P17 及AOC-NOX 產率之比較..............................22
表2-5 薄膜之分類與功能............................................................24
表2-6 各式膜組件優缺點比較....................................................26
表3-1 Strain P17 及Strain NOX 之鑑定結果............................51
表3-2 Chemostat medium 培養基成分.......................................61
表3-3 水質分析方法彙整...........................................................63
表4-1 高級淨水流程之水質參數比較.......................................64
表4-2 P. fluorescens strain P17 及Spirillum sp.strain NOX 兩株純菌
之生化鑑定結果...............................................................70
表4-3 P17 與NOX 對基質利用率之相關研究比較.................74
表4-4 Chemostat medium 培養基成分.......................................78
表4-5 連續式薄膜反應程序進出流水質特性...........................81
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