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研究生:郭福麟
研究生(外文):Kuo, Fu-Lin
論文名稱:玉山金絲桃之族群遺傳研究
論文名稱(外文):tudy on population genetic structure of Hypericum nagasawae Hayata
指導教授:王震哲
指導教授(外文):Wang, Jenn-Che
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:生命科學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:玉山金絲桃族群遺傳
外文關鍵詞:Hypericum nagasawae Hayatapopulation genetics
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  玉山金絲桃(Hypericum nagasawae Hayata)與能高金絲桃(H. nokoense Ohwi)皆為台灣特有種,由於二者形態相似,常造成鑑定上之混淆。本研究以accD – psaI、trnE – trnT、rpl16 intron、trnV – trnM(包含trnV intron)4個葉綠體DNA非轉錄區段進行分析,結果支持Robson (1996) 之處理,將此類群區分為兩種,其中玉山金絲桃廣泛分佈於海拔2,300 m 以上山區,能高金絲桃侷限分佈在花蓮秀林鄉之石灰岩地質地區。

  另針對玉山金絲桃共採集10個族群150個樣本,以葉綠體DNA accD – psaI 及 trnE – trnT兩基因間片段探討族群遺傳結構,結果共得到10種單套型,其中4個主要單套型佔了所有樣本的90%,各侷限分佈於特定區域,族群間具有高度分化且基因交流有限(mean FST = 0.744, Nm = 0.09)。北大武山之單套型皆為該族群特有,且與其它單套型差距最遠,顯示受到長期地理隔離之影響,若不計北大武族群,則各族群間之遺傳距離與地理距離呈中度正相關。根據巢狀支序分析(NCA)推論過去在間冰期時曾發生育地碎裂化,使各區域僅保留少數甚至一種單套型,隨後因冰期氣溫下降,族群分佈至較低海拔而使各族群間有所接觸,發生有限之基因交流。

  綜合與前人研究之高山類群比較,台灣高山草本植物之遺傳多樣性中心在中央山脈北段,且許多類群皆有雪山地區與南湖大山特有之單套型,其分佈模式可能受到過去冰期及冰河作用而產生遺傳漂變。然而綜合中性假說測試與BEAST軟體分析其族群變動顯示,最近的一次冰期對於玉山金絲桃之族群大小未造成明顯影響。
Hypericum nagasawae Hayata and H. nokoense Ohwi are both endemic species in Taiwan. It is difficult to determine these two species since the closely morphological similarity between them. In this study, 4 chloroplast DNA non-coding regions, accD – psaI intergenic spacer, trnE – trnT IGS, rpl16 intron, and trnV – trnM (trnV intron included) IGS, were used to analyze their relationship. The results of molecular analysis are consistent with the taxonomic treatment of Robson (1996). Geographically, H. nagasawae is widely distributed in mountainous regions above 2,300 m in Taiwan, while H. nokoense is restrictively distributed in limestone regions in Shiu-Lin Township, Hualien.

In order to uncover the population genetic structure of H. nagasawae, a total of 150 samples were collected from 10 populations, and two chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers, accD – psaI and trnE – trnT, were analyzed. 10 haplotypes were detected with 4 main haplotypes limitedly distributed in specific regions. Genetic differentiation among populations was generally high (mean FST = 0.744, Nm = 0.09).

Both haplotypes in Mt Peitawu are endemic with the farthest genetic distance from other haplotypes. It suggested that the populations between Mt Peitawu and other regions have a long-term geographical isolation. The genetical distance and geographical distance (Isolation by distance test) have a moderate positive correlation when the population of Mt Peitawu was excluded. According to the result of Nested Clade Analysis, past fragmentation followed by range expansion had occurred.

By integrating the present result and previous studies for other alpine plants, Northern Central Ridge was the genetic diversity center of alpine herbs of Taiwan. Glaciation might have played an important role contributed to the distribution pattern of haplotypes. According to neutral theory test (Tajima’s D, Fu & Li’s test) and BEAST software, however, last Glacial Age did not significantly influence population size.
目   次
目  次...................................................Ⅰ
附表目次...................................................Ⅱ
附圖目次...................................................Ⅱ
中文摘要...................................................Ⅲ
英文摘要...................................................Ⅳ

壹、前言....................................................1
貳、材料與方法.............................................11
參、結果...................................................23
肆、討論...................................................41
伍、結論...................................................49
陸、參考文獻...............................................51
柒、附錄...................................................61

附表目次
表一、採樣地點之地理資訊及代號........................................11
表二、核ITS及葉綠體DNA引子序列資訊.................................15
表三、玉山金絲桃各單套型在各族群之數量. ..............................28
表四、玉山金絲桃各族群遺傳變異分析....................................31
表五、玉山金絲桃各族群間核苷酸置換之平均數............................32
表六、玉山金絲桃各族群遺傳分化及基因流傳..............................33
表七、玉山金絲桃分子變方分析..........................................34
表八、玉山金絲桃之葉綠體片段之NCA分析結果...........................39
表九、台灣歷來維管束植物之親緣地理研究之中性假說測試結果..............44
表十、比較不同類群在各地理區之單套型數量..............................48

附圖目次
圖一、玉山金絲桃、能高金絲桃、短柄金絲桃之採集地點....................12
圖二、利用葉綠體片段建構之MP樹型圖.................................. 24
圖三、利用葉綠體片段建構之NJ樹型圖.................................. 25
圖四、玉山金絲桃葉綠體DNA單套型之最小關連網狀圖.................... 27
圖五、玉山金絲桃各單套型在各族群數量之圓餅圖..........................28
圖六、玉山金絲桃地理距離與遺傳距離相關性測試圖........................36
圖七、玉山金絲桃葉綠體DNA建構之Bayesian skyline plot 圖................37
圖八、玉山金絲桃序列變異分佈測驗圖....................................38
圖九、玉山金絲桃葉綠體DNA之親緣網狀圖.............................. 38

附錄目次
附錄一、樣本採樣地點..................................................61
附錄二、用於親緣關係分析之樣本代號及對應單套型........................65
附錄三、玉山金絲桃及其相關類群各單套型變異位點........................66
附錄四、玉山金絲桃各單套型之長度及核苷酸比例..........................68
附錄五、玉山金絲桃各單套型變異位點組成................................68
附錄六、用於族群遺傳分析之玉山金絲桃代號及對應單套型..................69
附錄七、太魯閣國家公園特有植物名錄....................................70
附錄八、歷來有關台灣維管束植物的葉綠體DNA之遺傳特性比較............ 71
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