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研究生:劉翰庭
研究生(外文):Han-Ting Liu
論文名稱:英語學習中自律行為的量表建立及因果關係之探究
論文名稱(外文):Scale Development and Causal-Effect Studies of Self-Regulation in English Language Learning
指導教授:曾文鐽
指導教授(外文):Wen-Ta Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:英語學習自律能力量表建立因果關係探究
外文關鍵詞:English learningself-regulatory capacityscale developmentcausal-effect relationship studies
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研究顯示學生的自律能力(self-regulatory capacity)能引導其掌握自己的學習, 因此有關自律能力的探討儼然成為當今教育界的一熱門話題。本研究旨在建立一能測量學生在英語學習中自律能力的量表, 並依此量表結果提供教學上的應用。此外, 本研究亦欲探究學生的在英語學習中的自律能力以及其性別(gender), 年級(grade-level) , 期望價值動機程度(expectancy-value motivational strength), 和自覺英語能力(self-perceived English proficiency)之間的因果關係。
  本研究之初先行建立英語學習自律能力量表(SRClang)之題庫, 並邀請一百十九位高一學生參與預試。初步研究結果顯示自律能力在英語學習的領域中是為單一面向。 在主要研究的問卷中, 除了修正過的英語學習自律能力量表外, 並包括受試者的背景資料及期望價值動機量表, 研究對象為五百二十八位高一及高二的學生。
因素分析(factor analysis)的結果顯示修正過的英語學習自律能力量表具有相當的穩定性, 且再次確認預試時顯示自律能力在英語學習中為單一面向的結果。依此可推論, 在英語學習中, 主要操控學生自律能力的因子即為意志力(volition)。多元迴歸分析法(multiple regression)印證了學生的自律能力可正向地預測學生自覺英語能力, 也就是英語學習自律能力越高的學生, 越覺得自己的英語能力較好。三因子多變量變異數分析(3-way MANOVA)顯示, 學生的性別, 年級, 和期望價值動機程度對於自覺英語能力有顯著的主要效果, 而對於英語學習自律能力有顯著的交互效果。
  本研究期望隨著英語學習自律能力量表的建立, 以及因果關係探究之結果, 能幫助英語教師釐清如何幫助學生主控其學習表現, 而最終能夠使學生掌控自己的學習過程。
Self-regulation has become a widely-discussed subject in education for it facilitates learners’ ability to master their own learning. The study aims to develop a solid measurement scale for learners’ self-regulatory capacity in English language learning in order to investigate each individual learner’s self-regulatory capacity for pedagogical application; and to further explore the causal-effect relationships of learners’ self-regulatory capacity with gender, grade-level, expectancy-value motivational strength, and self-perceived English proficiency.
An item pool for the self-regulatory capacity in English learning scale (SRClang) was first developed, and 179 first-year high school students participated in the pilot study. The result of the pilot study showed that the construct of self-regulation in English language learning appeared to be unidimensional. The questionnaire adopted in the formal study included the participants’ background information, the revised SRClang scale, and the choice motivation measure. A total of 528 first-year and second-year high school students were recruited in the formal study. Factor analysis was adopted to explore the underlying traits of self-regulation in English learning; multiple regression was operated to investigate the predictability of self-regulation in self-perceived language proficiency; and a 3-way MANOVA was computed to inspect the causal-effect relationships among gender, grade-level, motivational strength, self-perceived language proficiency, and self-regulation.
The findings suggest that the underlying construct of self-regulation in English learning is unidimensional, which confirmed the result of the pilot study. The decisive factor of human’s volition solely commands his self-regulatory capacity in the domain of second language learning. Learners’ self-regulation was proven to positively predict their self-perceived language proficiency. Furthermore, all gender, grade-level, and motivational strength showed significant main effect with self-perceived language proficiency, and significant interaction effect with self-regulation.
With the development of the SRClang scale and the findings of the causal-effect studies, it is hoped that EFL teachers can have a clearer view on how to aid the learners to empower their learning performance, and eventually master their own learning.
CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………iii
ACKNOWLEGEMENTS…………………………………………………………v
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………vii
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………xi
LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………xii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION………………………………………………1
1.1 Theoretical Background…………………………………………1
1.2 Purpose of the Study and Research Questions…………4
1.3 Significance of the Study……………………………………5
1.4 Organization of the Thesis…………………………………7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………8
2.1 The Concept of Self-Regulation……………………………8
2.1.1 Theories of Self-Regulation…………………………9
2.1.1.1 Operant Theory on Self-Regulation…………10
2.1.1.2 Phenomenological Theory on Self-Regulation 11
2.1.1.3 Information Processing Theory on Self- Regulation…………………………………… 12
2.1.1.4 Social Cognitive Theory on Self-
Regulation……………………………………………13
2.1.1.5 Volitional Theory on Self-Regulation………15
2.1.1.6 Vygotskian Theory on Self-Regulation………16
2.1.1.7 Constructivist Theory on Self-Regulation…17
2.1.2 Volition as the Central Construct of Self-
Regulation……………………………………………19
2.2 Self-Regulated Learning Models……………………20
2.2.1 Zimmerman’s Social Cognitive Model of Self-
Regulation………………20
2.2.2 Winne’s Four-stage Model of Self-Regulated
Learning…………………22
2.2.3 Pintrich’s General Framework of Self-Regulated
Learning……………24
2.2.4 Valle’s Model of Self-Regulated Learning………26
2.3 Assessing Self-Regulatory Capacity in Learning……29
2.3.1 Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire
(MSLQ)………………30
2.3.2 Self-Regulating Capacity in Vocabulary Learning
Scale (SRCvoc)……32
2.4 Motivation in Learning…………………………………………34
2.4.1 Motivation in Second Language Acquisition……35
2.4.2 Expectancy-Value Learning Motivation……………37
2.4.3 Learners’ Self-Perception and Motivation………39
2.4.3.1 The Nature of Gender in Self-Perception………40
2.4.3.2 The Nature of Grade-Level in Self-Perception…41
2.5. Hypotheses of the Present Study…………………42
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY…………………………………………44
3.1 Participants……………………………………………………44
3.1.1 Pilot Study………………………………………………44
3.1.2 Formal Study……………………………………………………44
3.2 Instruments………………………………………………………45
3.2.1 Measurement Scale of Self-Regulatory Capacity in
Language Learning……………………………………46
3.2.2 Measurement Scale of Choice Motivation in Language
Learning………48
3.3 Procedures…………………………………………………………49
3.3.1 Pilot Study……………………………………………………49
3.3.1.1 Factor Analysis…………………………………………49
3.3.1.2 Reliability Analysis…………………………………51
3.3.2 Formal Study……………………………………………………51
3.3.2.1 Reliability Analysis…………………………………51
3.4 Data Analysis…………………………………………………52
3.4.1 Factor Analysis………………………………………52
3.4.2 Multiple Regression…………………………………53
3.4.3 Multivariate Analysis of Variance……………53
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS…………………………………………………55
4.1 The Construction of the Self-Regulatory Capacity in
Language Learning (SRClang) Scale………………………55
4.2 The Effects of Self-Regulatory Capacity on Self-
Perceived Language Achievement……………………………57
4.3 Causal-Effect Relationships among Gender, Grade-level,
Motivational Strength, Self-Perceived Language
Achievement and Self-Regulatory Capacity……58
4.3.1 Descriptive Analysis of the Effects of Gender, Grade-
Level, and Motivational Strength on Self-Perceived
Proficiency……………………60
4.3.2 Simple Interaction Effects among Gender, Grade-level,
and Motivational Strength on Self-Regulatory
Capacity……………………………….61
4.3.3 Simple Simple Main Effects among Gender, Grade-
level, and Motivational Strength on Self-
Regulatory Capacity……………………………………62
4.4 Summary of Chapter Four………………………………………64
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION……………………………………………65
5.1 Overview of the Study………………………………………65
5.2 The Measurement Scale of Self-Regulatory Capacity in
Language Learning(SRClang)………………66
5.3 The Predictability of Self-Regulation in Self-
Perceived Language Proficiency.…………………………68
5.4 Causal-Effect Studies of Self-Regulation…………69
5.4.1 The Effects of Gender, Grade-Level and
Motivational Strength on Self-Perceived Language
Proficiency…………………………………70
5.4.2 The Effects of Gender, Grade-Level and
Motivational Strength on Self-Regulation……73
5.5 Summary of Chapter Five……………………………………76
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION………………………………………………77
6.1 Summary of the Major Finding……………………………77
6.2 Pedagogical Implications…………………………………79
6.3 Limitations of the Study……………………………………80
6.4 Suggestions for Future Research…………………………81
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………82
APPENDIX A- The Item Pool of the Measure of Self-regulatory
Capacity in English Language Learning………96
APPENDIX B- Mandarin Version of the Pilot Study
Questionnaire……98
APPENDIX C- English Version of the Measure of Self-
Regulatory Capacity in English Language
Learning (Formal Study)……………………100
APPENDIX D- Mandarin Version of the Measure of Self-
Regulatory Capacity in English Language
Learning (Formal Study)…………………102
APPENDIX E- English Version of the Measure of L2 Choice
Motivation (Formal Study)………………104
APPENDIX F- Mandarin Version of the Measure of L2 Choice
Motivation (Formal Study)………………106
APPENDIX G- Extract of the MANOVA Syntax…………108
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