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研究生:耿尚瑜
研究生(外文):Shang-yu Keng
論文名稱:神話的改寫:恩史考特莫馬載<<遠古之子>>中的想像與認同
論文名稱(外文):Re-creating the Myths: Imagination and Native Identity in N. Scott Momaday's The Ancient Child
指導教授:梁一萍梁一萍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Iping Liang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:莫馬載<<遠古之子>>李維史陀傅雷神話理論原住民身分認同蛻變想像力
外文關鍵詞:MomadayThe Ancient ChildLévi-StraussNorthrop Fryemythologynative identitiestransformationimagination
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本論文探討神話在北美原住民身分認同中所扮演的重要角色,選用文本為恩‧史考特‧莫馬載的第二本小說《遠古之子》(1989)。小說中共有兩個主要的神話: 其一為今奧克拉荷馬州凱厄瓦族 (Kiowa)人變為熊的傳說,其二為美國西南部那瓦侯族 (Navajo)的變形女子 (the Changing Woman)。我認為莫馬載藉由想像力,不但改寫原住民部落的神話傳說,並且重新建構書中主人翁失落的身分認同。
本論文說明神話改寫的目的有三:(一) 闡揚原住民重視生命之周而復始的世界觀;(二) 藉由改寫及重新想像傳統部落神話,增加原住民文化信仰的流傳及更新;(三) 在重寫神話的過程中,作者試圖處理原住民雙重身分中的混雜認同。
本論文由四個章節組成。第一章介紹作者莫馬載,以及李維史陀 (Claude Lévi-Strauss) 與傅雷 (Northrop Frye) 的神話理論以作為論文的架構根基。第二章著眼於男主人翁洛克‧賽特蒙 (Locke Setman),我運用傅雷的神話理論去探討賽特蒙從人變成熊的變身過程。第三章的焦點轉向女主人翁葛瑞 (Grey),主要藉由美國西南部那瓦侯族 (Navajo) 神話中的變形女子原型,探討想像力在她的蛻變 (transformation) 過程中所扮演的角色,我認為葛瑞所扮演的角色不僅是賽特蒙的幫手,對他進行原住民傳統儀式的治療,更開啟了她自己從小孩變成巫師 (medicine woman)的蛻變旅程。我認為葛瑞的轉變與賽特蒙的變身極為相似,皆由四季循環呈現變形周而復始的過程。此外,本文也討論葛瑞對美國西部傳奇人物比利小子的迷戀,藉以說明原住民混雜的文化認同。第四章總結,重申文本中的三個孩童 (葛瑞、賽特蒙與比利小子) 如何融為一體,完成自我變身之旅,藉由三個神話傳說 (人變為熊、變形女子與比利小子),使原住民的身分認同如同三股編織合成的繩子般堅韌。
This thesis explores the significance of mythology and its relationship to the imagination of Native American identities in N. Scott Momaday’s second novel, The Ancient Child (1989). I will discuss two primary symbols of mythology in the novel: the non-human figure of the Kiowa bear myth, and the post-human figure of the Changing Woman in the southwestern Navajo tribe. I propose that by imagination Momaday not only re-creates the mythology, but also transforms Native American identities in the novel.
I contend that the purposes of Momaday’s re-creation of the mythology are threefold: first, it is relevant to Native worldviews, which highlights the cyclical nature of the universe. Secondly, by means of retelling and re-imagining the traditional mythology, Native cultural beliefs are passed down and revitalized. Lastly, through recreating the cultural mythology, the author aims to deal with the issue of mixed-blood heritage and the creation of hybrid Native identities.
The thesis consists of four chapters. Chapter one introduces Momaday and the theories of Claude Lévi-Strauss and Northrop Frye for a general theoretical background. Chapter two focuses on the male protagonist, Locke Setman, and his reincarnation of the ancient Kiowa myth of a boy turning to a bear. I borrow Frye’s theory of mythology as the theoretical framework to explore Set’s quest of self. Chapter three shifts the focus to the female protagonist, Grey, and I investigate the role imagination plays in her transformation, especially with regard to the southwestern mythological archetype of the Changing Woman. By providing textual evidence, I aim to identify Grey not only as a helper to Set, conducting native ceremonies to heal him, but as a transformer who embarks on an adventure of her own to change from a child into a medicine woman. By venturing into Navajo mythology, I argue that Grey’s transformation follows the archetype of the Changing Woman. Moreover, it is composed of a cycle of the four seasons, which is similar in movement to Set’s quest. In addition, I take into consideration Grey’s obsession with Billy the Kid, the legendary figure of the American Wild West, and argue for the hybridized nature of Native identities. Chapter four establishes my conclusions and recapitulates the main points of the thesis. I restate how the three “children” figures in the novel converge, integrating into one. When the journey of self-transformation is completed through the integration of the three mythological figures, the Native identities are interwoven firmly into three strands of one rope.
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
Acknowledgements iv
Table of Contents vi
Chapter One 1
1.1 N. Scott Momaday and Re-creating the Myths 1
1.2 Mythic Imaginations in The Ancient Child 4
1.3 Native Identities and Imagination 6
1.4 Theoretical Overviews of Myth 8
A. Claude Lévi-Strauss and the basic structure of myth 8
B. Northrop Frye’s mythos theory 10
1.5 Literary Review 13
1.6 Organization of the Thesis 15
Chapter Two 17
I. Northrop Frye’s mythos theory and Momaday’s artistic design of The Ancient Child: 18
2.1.1 Introduction to the archetypal myth 18
2.1.2 Three Phases of Literature: myth, romance, and realism 19
2.1.3 Four mythos of comedy, romance, tragedy and irony and the stages of the quest 21
2.1.4Momaday’s artistic design of the novel 24
II. Bear-myth and Set’s transformation: 29
2.2.1 Bear-child myth: agon from conflict to discovery 30
2.2.2 pathos and sparagmos: self-discovery in arts and paintings 33
2.2.3 Anagnorisis: self-discovery in imagination 40
Chapter Three 50
3.1.1 Mythology 53
A. Navajo Religion 53
B. Paula Gunn Allen’s The Sacred Hoop and native mythology 54
3.1.2 Literature Review 57
3.1.3 Cycle of Four Seasons in the Navajo Myth of Changing Woman 60
A. The Navajo Changing Woman 60
B. Grey’s Cycle of the four seasons and the Changing Woman 62
3.2.1. Northrop Frye on Imagination 65
A. Frye’s imagination theory 65
3.2.2 Vision and Imagination 67
3.2.3. Billy the Kid Legend 72
3.3. Emergence with the bear myth 78
3.3.1Identification to the land 79
3.3.2 Renunciation 82
3.3.3 Cultural duality 83
3.3.4 Emergence and Set’s transformation 85
Chapter Four 88
Works Cited 92
Works Cited

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