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研究生:賴星宇
研究生(外文):Hsin-Yu Lai
論文名稱:2008年晚春到初夏期間台灣周遭海域的二氧化碳交換通量與分佈
論文名稱(外文):Distribution and Air-Sea Exchange Flux of CO2 over the Marginal Seas surrounding Taiwan during Late Spring through Early Summer, 2008
指導教授:吳朝榮曾鈞懋曾鈞懋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chau-Ron WuChun-Mao Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:海洋環境科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:南海西菲律賓海台灣西部近岸東海fCO2
外文關鍵詞:South China SeaWest Philippine SeaWestern Taiwan CoastEast China Sea
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本研究主要是探討台灣周遭海域表水二氧化碳的分佈及其海氣交換通量,並進一步瞭解其變化的成因及與水團分佈的關係。研究時間於2008年晚春初夏(5月28日至7月13日)於南海(South China Sea, SCS)、西菲律賓海(West Philippine Sea, WPS)、台灣西部近岸(Western Taiwan Coast, WTC)和東海(East China Sea, ECS)進行二氧化碳分壓(fCO2)的現場立即偵測,利用”二氧化碳分壓自動分析系統”(Automated Underway pCO2 System)來測量海水與大氣中之fCO2;所量測到的大氣fCO2範圍為367.4~402.2 μatm,其高值均發現在較靠近陸地的區域(台灣、中國大陸、呂宋島),高低濃度相差可達35 μatm。表水fCO2範圍:SCS介於352.3~415.6 μatm(389.3±16.5, n=1400)、WPS介於346.9~399.0 μatm(377.6±5.8, n=840)、WTC介於370.5~407.3 μatm(389.2±4.8, n=836)、ECS介於162~707 μatm(378±69, n=1497),以ECS的變化幅度最大,可達545 μatm;在長江和閩江沖淡水舌(Plume)區域發現海水中有著最低、次低的fCO2值(217、162 μatm),且fCO2分佈隨著經度由西向東而增加,與葉綠素a濃度的分佈趨勢相反,因此海水fCO2分佈主要隨浮游生物量的減少而產生梯度漸增的變化。長江與沿岸湧升流溫度低區,發現到海水中之fCO2分別有顯著的高值(707、676 μatm)存在,此區域有極低的透光度(13.9 %),極高的營養鹽(NO2+NO3)及葉綠素a(Chl-a)(32.2 μM、106.7 mg/m3),此海水含較高的fCO2推測可能來自於長江河水和沿岸湧升的底層水。SCS及WPS海域之水團較為穩定,其fCO2變化梯度均是由陸棚向外洋增加,這是由於近岸海水溫度較低且富含營養鹽葉綠素a,使得海水中的fCO2減少;在外洋區域生物作用較低,主要是反應日夜溫差(0.2~0.3℃),因此在SCS和WPS可清楚看出fCO2白日高晚上低(△fCO2 =7.9)。WTC表水fCO2整體變化幅度不大,但大氣fCO2受控於較接近陸源影響而呈現區域性的峰值。在晚春初夏期間,台灣周遭海域對於大氣來說皆是個二氧化碳的源(source),其二氧化碳溢散至大氣之整體交換通量在SCS約為1.74±2.06 mol C/m2/yr、WPS約為0.54±0.59、NWT約為0.29±0.18和ECS約為0.28±4.94。
The distribution of CO2 in the surface water and the sea-air flux exchange in the sea areas around Taiwan are investigated in this study, and to discuss the reason of variation and the relationship with the distribution of water mass. Automated Underway pCO2 System are used to detect the seawater and air fCO2 during the late spring and early summer of 2008, from May 28 to July 13, including the South China Sea(SCS), the West Philippine Sea(WPS), the Western Taiwan Coast(WTC), and the East China Sea(ECS). The range of the atmospheric fCO2 is 367.4~402.2 μatm and the peaks are found near lands (Taiwan, China, and Luzon Island), the difference of concentration up to 35 μatm. The ranges of the surface water fCO2 are as follows: SCS: 352.3~415.6 μatm(Avg.= 389.3±16.5, n=1400), WPS: 346.9~399.0 μatm(Avg.= 377.6±5.8, n=840), TS: 370.5~407.3 μatm(Avg.= 389.2±4.8, n=836), ECS: 162~707 μatm(Avg.=378±69, n=1497); and ECS has the highest variation up to 545 μatm. The lowest and second lowest values of fCO2(217、162 μatm) are found in Changjiang Plume and Minjiang Plume, increasing from west to east with longitude and opposite to the concentration of chl-a. It’s quite obvious that the gradient of seawater fCO2 increase with the decrease of the biomass of plankton. The high values of fCO2(707、676 μatm) are found in Changjiang Upwelling and Coastal Upwelling which have low temperature. These areas also have very low transmittance(13.9 %) and very high nutrients(NO2+NO3) and Chl-a(32.2 μM, 106.7 mg/m3). It’s speculated that the high fCO2 may come from the bottom water of Changjiang Upwelling and Coastal Upwelling. Water masses in SCS and WPS are more stable and have the fCO2 gradient increase from shelf to offshore because the low temperature and rich of chl-a in nearshore seawater make the fCO2 of water decrease. In offshore, the fCO2 of SCS and WPS are high in daytime and low at night(△fCO2 =7.9), mainly reflecting the temperature difference between day and night(0.2~0.3℃) because of low biological effect. The surface water fCO2 of WTC has few variations but the atmospheric fCO2 has regional peaks because it is influenced by terrigenous matter. Data in this study suggests that the sea areas around Taiwan served as a source of atmospheric fCO2 during late spring and early summer, and the sea-to-air CO2 flux in SCS is +1.74±2.06 mol C/m2/yr, in WPS is +0.54±0.59, in WTC is +0.29±0.18, and in the ECS is +0.28±4.94.
中文摘要..................................................I
英文摘要................................................III
圖目錄....................................................V
表目錄...................................................IX
附錄.....................................................IX
第一章 緒論...............................................1
1.1 邊緣海碳循環的重要性..................................1
1.2全球二氧化碳的海氣交換通量分佈.........................3
1.3海洋碳循環的作用機制...................................5
1.4.文獻回顧..............................................7
1.4.1 邊緣海的二氧化碳通量................................7
1.4.2 沿岸與河口及河川的二氧化碳通量......................8
1.5研究目的..............................................13
第二章 研究材料與方法....................................15
2.1 研究區域.............................................15
2.2 研究方法.............................................19
2.3儀器設備..............................................20
2.4 採樣及分析...........................................22
2.4.1海水二氧化碳........................................22
2.4.2大氣二氧化碳........................................23
2.5 其它參數之輔助資料...................................24
2.5.1海水參數............................................25
2.5.2氣象參數............................................26
2.6 二氧化碳之海氣交換通量計算...........................27
第三章 結果..............................................29
3.1二氧化碳與水文及化學參數之空間變化....................29
3.1.1水文及化學參數......................................29
3.1.2大氣二氧化碳........................................39
3.1.3表水二氧化碳........................................42
3.1.4二氧化碳分壓差......................................45
第四章 討論..............................................48
4.1溫度-鹽度(T-S)分佈圖................................48
4.2二氧化碳航跡時序與水文及化學參數關係..................52
4.2.1南海................................................52
4.2.2西菲律賓海..........................................56
4.2.3台灣西部近岸........................................58
4.2.4東海................................................60
4.3表水二氧化碳分壓主要控制因素探討......................63
4.4大氣二氧化碳不均衡....................................69
4.5二氧化碳海氣交換通量在各海域的差異....................70
4.6局部區域的二氧化碳海氣交換通量........................73
4.6.1南海................................................73
4.6.2西菲律賓海..........................................75
4.6.3台灣西部近岸........................................76
4.6.4東海................................................77
4.7文獻比較..............................................78
第五章 結論..............................................81
參考文獻.................................................84

圖目錄
圖2.1台灣周遭海域之6月夏天表面流場.......................17
圖2.2表水二氧化碳濃度航跡圖和水文測站及地理位置..........18
圖2.3二氧化碳分壓自動分析系統示意圖......................22
圖2.4大氣與表水的二氧化碳採樣設備架設示意圖..............24
圖3.1台灣周遭海域之溫度分佈圖............................34
圖3.2台灣周遭海域之鹽度分佈圖............................35
圖3.3台灣周遭海域之營養鹽濃度分佈圖......................36
圖3.4台灣周遭海域之透光度分佈圖..........................37
圖3.5台灣周遭海域之葉綠素a濃度分佈圖.....................38
圖3.6台灣周遭海域之大氣二氧化碳分壓分佈圖................41
圖3.7台灣周遭海域之表水二氧化碳分壓分佈圖................44
圖3.8台灣周遭海域之大氣與表水的二氧化碳分壓差分佈圖......47
圖4.1台灣周遭海域表水溫度與鹽度之關係圖..................49
圖4.2東海水團型態之分佈示意圖(2008年7月3 ~13日)........51
圖4.3南海二氧化碳航跡時序與水文及化學參數關係圖..........55
圖4.4西菲律賓海二氧化碳航跡時序與水文及化學參數關係圖....57
圖4.5台灣西部近岸二氧化碳航跡時序與水文及化學參數關係圖..59
圖4.6東海二氧化碳航跡時序與水文及化學參數關係圖..........62
圖4.7溫度、葉綠素a與表水二氧化碳相互關係圖...............68
圖4.8台灣周遭海域平均二氧化碳分壓差的比較................71
圖4.9調查期間之當月平均風速及風向........................72
圖4.10台灣周遭海域的二氧化碳海氣交換通量的比較...........73
圖4.11南海局部區域的二氧化碳海氣交換通量.................74
圖4.12西菲律賓海局部區域的二氧化碳海氣交換通量...........75
圖4.13台灣西部近岸局部區域的二氧化碳海氣交換通量.........76
圖4.14東海局部區域的二氧化碳海氣交換通量.................78

表目錄
表1.1全球各大洋之二氧化碳海氣交換通量.....................4
表1.2全球邊緣海的二氧化碳海氣交換通量的文獻回顧...........9
表1.3沿岸與河口及河川的二氧化碳通量文獻回顧..............12
表2.1二氧化碳分壓之採樣航次及日期簡表....................19
表3.1表水與大氣中的二氧化碳和水文及化學參數之簡表........33
表4.1東海水團的溫鹽特性(2008年7月3 ~13日)..............50

附錄
附錄一 航次軌跡圖........................................93
附錄二 2008年6月衛星海面溫度分佈.........................97
附錄三 2008年6月衛星海面葉綠素a分佈......................98
附錄四 各測站表水與大氣之二氧化碳分壓及水文化學參數......99
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