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研究生:吳慧珉
研究生(外文):Huey-Min Wu
論文名稱:視覺監控電腦化實作評量之效度化研究以感覺統合臨床觀察為例
論文名稱(外文):The Sensory Integration Clinical Observation Using Visual Surveillance Based Computerized Performance Assessment and Its Validation
指導教授:林世華林世華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sieh-Hwa Lin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:教育心理與輔導學系
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:視覺監控感覺統合臨床觀察感覺統合功能障礙實作評量樣式辨識
外文關鍵詞:pattern recognitionperformance assessmentssensory integration clinical observationsensory integration dysfunctionvisual surveillance
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本研究是以「感覺統合臨床觀察」為主要研究領域,從實作評量之觀點,探討使用視覺監控分析人物目標之姿勢動作並結合樣式辨識,應用於診斷受試者感覺統合障礙之有效性。
研究結論彙整如下:
一、本研究根據感覺統合臨床觀察電腦計分模式所發展的感覺統合臨床觀察電腦化診斷工具,具有良好之信度與效度,適用於診斷感覺統合臨床觀察之障礙類別。
二、「趴姿伸直」與「臥姿彎曲」之重要觀測向度(頭部、胸部、手部、腳部、協同性、穩定度)診斷,最大概似分類器之診斷正確率最高。
三、原始資料型態在「趴姿伸直」與「臥姿彎曲」各重要觀測向度之訊息融合時,具有較高之診斷正確率。
四、在「趴姿伸直」整體診斷時,選取頭部、手部、腳部之向度在最大概似分類器可以提升診斷正確率;在「臥姿彎曲」整體診斷時,選取頭部、手部、協同性、穩定度之向度在最大概似分類器可以提升診斷正確率。
五、年齡層不同之受試者在「趴姿伸直」與「臥姿彎曲」之量的表現(持久度)有顯著差異, 5歲的受試者優於4歲的受試者。
六、在4歲年齡層,不同性別之受試者在「趴姿伸直」之量的表現有顯著差異,女生在「趴姿伸直」之量的表現優於男生;在5歲~6歲之年齡層,性別之不同在「趴姿伸直」與「臥姿彎曲」之量的表現有顯著差異,女生均優於男生。
七、不同性別受試者在「趴姿伸直」與「臥姿彎曲」之質的表現有顯著性差異,男生感覺統合功能障礙的人數在「趴姿伸直」與「臥姿彎曲」皆多於女生。
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to develop a computerized assessment tool for sensory integration clinical observation. Based on the view of performance assessments, the pattern recognition is combined with the visual surveillance procedures to analyze the posture movements (prone extension and supine flexion) and to diagnose the sensory integration dysfunction of subjects in this study.
The major findings of this study are summarized as follows:
1. With good properties in both reliability and validity, the computerized assessment tool for sensory integration clinical observation developed in this study has good performances in diagnosing disorder of sensory integration functions of subjects.
2. The prediction rates for employing the maximum likelihood classifier are best in diagnosing disorder of sensory integration functions in terms of important features of prone extension and supine flexion.
3. The prediction rates for raw data information are best in diagnosing deficits of sensory integration functions in terms of prone extension and supine flexion.
4. Selecting the features of head, hands, and feet can improve the prediction rates in the maximum likelihood classifier in terms of prone extension; selecting the features of head, hands, coordination, and stability can improve the prediction rates in the maximum likelihood classifier in terms of supine flexion.
5. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates that there were statistically significances on year groups in terms of quantity performances of prone extension and supine flexion. The performance of the 5-year olds subjects is better than the 4-year olds subjects.
6. From the 4-year olds to the 6-year olds , ANOVA indicates that there were statistically significances on gender groups in terms of quantity performances of prone extension and supine flexion. The performance of girls is better than boys.
7. Chi-square testing indicates that there were statistically significances on gender groups in terms of quality performances of prone extension and supine flexion. The number of boys with sensory integration dysfunction is much more than girls.
目次
中文摘要
英文摘要
目次.........................................................................................................i
表目次....................................................................................................iii
圖目次....................................................................................................vii
第一章緒論............................................................................................................1
第一節 研究動機與目的...................................................................................1
第二節 待答問題與研究假設...........................................................................7
第三節 名詞界定...............................................................................................9
第四節 研究範圍與限制.................................................................................12
第二章文獻探討................................................................................................13
第一節 實作評量之設計原則與效度議題.....................................................13
第二節 感覺統合理論與姿勢動作.................................................................17
第三節 視覺監控分析之相關文獻.... ............................................................29
第四節 綜合分析.............................................................................................45
第三章 研究設計與實施................................................................................47
第一節 研究架構.............................................................................................47
第二節 研究樣本.............................................................................................49
第三節 研究工具.............................................................................................50
第四節 研究流程.............................................................................................57
第五節 資料收集與分析.................................................................................59
第四章 結果與討論.........................................................................................71
第一節 感覺統合臨床觀察電腦計分模式在趴姿伸直與臥姿彎
曲重要觀測向度之成效分析.........................................................71
第二節 不同資料型態之訊息融合對於診斷趴姿伸直與臥姿彎
曲整體表現診斷正確率之影響....................................................79
第三節 感覺統合臨床觀察電腦化評量工具之信度與效度分析................85
第四節 四~六歲兒童在感覺臨床觀察趴姿伸直與臥姿彎曲之差異
性分析與資料庫建立.......................................................................88
第五章 結論與建議........................................................................................99
第一節 結論...................................................................................................100
第二節 建議...................................................................................................103
參考文獻..........................................................................................................105
中文部分........................................................................................................105
英文部分........................................................................................................106
附錄...................................................................................................................106
附錄一 感覺統合臨床觀察-個案基本資料(工作人員填寫) .................111
附錄二 不同張數為間隔之「趴姿伸直」穩定度診斷正確率................112
附錄三 不同張數為間隔之「臥姿彎曲」穩定度診斷正確率................113
附錄四「趴姿伸直」和「臥姿彎曲」特徵選取之整體診斷正確率......114




表目次
表1-1 專家診斷與本研究評量工具評量的表現等級人數分配.......................10
表2-1趴姿伸直動作表現計分方式....................................................................24
表2-2趴姿伸直表現的修改計分方式................................................................26
表2-3頭部、胸部障礙與正常類別之機率........................................................43
表3-1有效施測樣本基本資料統計....................................................................49
表3-2感覺統合臨床觀察評量施測指導語與注意事項....................................53
表3-3趴姿伸直之專家計分表............................................................................54
表3-4臥姿彎曲之專家計分表............................................................................55
表3-5趴姿伸直評量內容之觀察重點................................................................60
表3-6臥姿彎曲評量內容之觀察重點................................................................60
表3-7趴姿伸直動作觀測之部位........................................................................61
表3-8臥姿彎曲動作觀測之部位........................................................................61
表3-9趴姿伸直側面影像之標記的質心座標....................................................65
表3-10趴姿伸直與臥姿彎曲之電腦計分模式..................................................66
表3-11電腦計分模式資料型態..........................................................................68
表3-12 專家診斷與本研究評量工具評量的表現等級.....................................69
表4-1-1趴姿伸直頭部觀測向度之診斷正確率.................................................72
表4-1-2趴姿伸直胸部觀測向度之診斷正確率.................................................73
表4-1-3趴姿伸直手部觀測向度之診斷正確率.................................................73
表4-1-4趴姿伸直腳部觀測向度之診斷正確率.................................................73
表4-1-5趴姿伸直協同性觀測向度之診斷正確率.............................................74
表4-1-6趴姿伸直穩定度觀測向度之診斷正確率(30張為間隔)................74
表4-1-7臥姿彎曲頭部觀測向度之診斷正確率.................................................75
表4-1-8臥姿彎曲胸部觀測向度之診斷正確率.................................................75
表4-1-9臥姿彎曲手部觀測向度之診斷正確率................................................76
表4-1-10臥姿彎曲腳部觀測向度之診斷正確率..............................................76
表4-1-11臥姿彎曲協同性觀測向度之診斷正確率..........................................76
表4-1-12臥姿彎曲穩定度觀測向度之診斷正確率(30張為間隔).............77
表4-2-1二元資料之趴姿伸直整體診斷正確率................................................79
表4-2-2後驗機率值之趴姿伸直整體診斷正確率............................................80
表4-2-3原始資料值之趴姿伸直整體診斷正確率............................................80
表4-2-4二元資料之臥姿彎曲整體診斷正確率................................................80
表4-2-5後驗機率值之臥姿彎曲整體診斷正確率............................................81
表4-2-6原始資料值之臥姿彎曲整體診斷正確率............................................81
表4-2-7二元資料趴姿伸直重要觀測向度選取整體最高診斷正確率
(BN分類).........................................................................................82
表4-2-8後驗機率值趴姿伸直重要觀測向度選取整體最高診斷正確率
(ML分類)........................................................................................82
表4-2-9原始資料趴姿伸直重要觀測向度選取整體最高診斷正確率
(ML分類)........................................................................................83
表4-2-10二元資料臥姿彎曲重要觀測向度選取整體最高診斷正確率
(BN分類器)....................................................................................83
表4-2-11後驗機率值臥姿彎曲重要觀測向度選取整體最高診斷正確率
(ML分類器)....................................................................................83
表4-2-12原始資料臥姿彎曲重要觀測向度選取整體最高診斷正確率
(ML分類器)…..................................................................................83
表4-3-1趴姿伸直重要觀測向度之診斷正確率...............................................87
表4-3-2臥姿彎曲重要觀測向度之診斷正確率...............................................87
表4-3-3趴姿伸直專家診斷與本研究評量工具評量的表現類別之人數分配...........................................................................................................87
表4-3-4臥姿彎曲專家診斷與本研究評量工具評量的表現類別之人數分配.........................................................................................................87
表4-4-1年齡層在趴姿伸直量的表現之描述統計量.....................................89
表4-4-2年齡層在趴姿伸直量的表現之單因子變異數分析摘要表.............89
表4-4-3年齡層在臥姿彎曲量的表現之描述統計量.....................................89
表4-4-4年齡層在臥姿彎曲量的表現之單因子變異數分析摘要表.............89
表4-4-5性別在趴姿伸直量的表現之描述統計量(4歲)..........................90
表4-4-6性別在趴姿伸直量的表現之單因子變異數分析摘要表(4歲)..90
表4-4-7性別在臥姿彎曲量的表現之描述統計量(4歲)..........................90
表4-4-8性別在臥姿彎曲量的表現之單因子變異數分析摘要表(4歲)..90
表4-4-9性別在趴姿伸直量的表現之描述統計量(5~6歲)......................91
表4-4-10性別在趴姿伸直量的表現之單因子變異數分析摘要表(5~6歲)..................................................................................................91
表4-4-11 性別在臥姿彎曲量的表現之描述統計量(5~6歲)...................91
表4-4-12 性別在臥姿彎曲量的表現之單因子變異數分析摘要表
(5~6歲)......................................................................................91
表4-4-13幼稚園所在地區在趴姿伸直量的表現之描述統計量(4歲)...92
表4-4-14地區在趴姿伸直量的表現之單因子變異數分析摘要表
(4歲)..........................................................................................92
表4-4-15幼稚園所在地區在臥姿彎曲量的表現之描述統計量(4歲)...92
表4-4-16地區在臥姿彎曲量的表現之單因子變異數分析摘要表
(4歲)..........................................................................................92
表4-4-17幼稚園所在地區在趴姿伸直量的表現之描述統計量
(5~6歲)......................................................................................92
表4-4-18地區在趴姿伸直量的表現之單因子變異數分析摘要表
(5~6歲)......................................................................................93
表4-4-19幼稚園所在地區在臥姿彎曲量的表現之描述統計量
(5~6歲).....................................................................................93
表4-4-20地區在臥姿彎曲量的表現之單因子變異數分析摘要表
(5~6歲).....................................................................................93
表4-4-21感覺統合功能表現類別在趴姿伸直量的表現之描述統計量
(4歲).........................................................................................94
表4-4-22感覺統合功能表現類別在趴姿伸直之量的表現之之單因子
變異數分析摘要表(4歲).........................................................94
表4-4-23感覺統合功能表現類別在臥姿彎曲量的表現之描述統計量
(4歲).........................................................................................94
表4-4-24感覺統合功能表現類別在臥姿彎曲之量的表現之之單因子
變異數分析摘要表(4歲).........................................................94
表4-4-25感覺統合功能表現類別在趴姿伸直量的表現之描述統計量
(5~6歲).....................................................................................95
表4-4-26感覺統合功能表現類別在趴姿伸直之量的表現之之單因子
變異數分析摘要表(5~6歲).....................................................95
表4-4-27感覺統合功能表現類別在臥姿彎曲量的表現之描述統計量
(5~6歲).....................................................................................95
表4-4-28感覺統合功能表現類別在臥姿彎曲之量的表現之之單因子
變異數分析摘要表(5~6歲).....................................................95
表4-4-29不同性別受試者在趴姿伸直之質的表現之卡方考驗摘要表.....96
表4-4-30不同性別受試者在臥姿彎曲之質的表現之卡方考驗摘要表.....96
表4-4-31不同地區受試者在趴姿伸直之質的表現之卡方考驗摘要表.....97
表4-4-32不同地區受試者在臥姿彎曲之質的表現之卡方考驗摘要表.....97
表4-4-33 4~6歲兒童之趴姿伸直資料庫......................................................98
表4-4-34 4~6歲兒童之臥姿彎曲資料庫......................................................98

圖目次
圖1-1使用電腦視覺監控系統,從不同角度分析受試者姿勢動作...............4
圖1-2本研究使用之電腦視覺監控人物分析架構 .........................................5
圖2-1感覺統合理論架構模式圖-重要變項間的因果關係...........................18
圖2-2動作分析的一般架構............................................................................30
圖2-3彩色模型................................................................................................32
圖2-4標準化亮度失真直方圖........................................................................35
圖2-5標準化色彩失真之直方圖....................................................................35
圖2-6迴旋處理示意圖....................................................................................35
圖2-7擴張的效果............................................................................................36
圖2-8侵蝕的效果............................................................................................37
圖2-9斷開的效果............................................................................................37
圖2-10閉合的效果..........................................................................................38
圖2-11 ML分類器辨識示意圖.......................................................................39
圖2-12 kNN(k=1)示意圖.................................................................................40
圖2-13 SVM示意圖........................................................................................41
圖2-14 非循環的有向圖................................................................................42
圖2-15 趴姿伸直整體診斷的貝氏網路架構................................................43
圖3-1 本研究之研究架構............................................................................48
圖3-2實驗環境設計.......................................................................................50
圖3-3本研究規劃之攝影棚實景景...............................................................51
圖3-4本研究規劃之監控設備實景...............................................................51
圖3-5預試之標記實驗衣...............................................................................52
圖3-6正式施測之標記實驗衣.......................................................................52
圖3-7研究流程圖...........................................................................................58
圖3-8電腦計分模式演算流程.......................................................................62
圖3-9原始影像...............................................................................................63
圖3-10側面攝影機擷取進來紅色與藍色標記影像.....................................63
圖3-11圖3-9經修補後之標記影像.............................................................64
圖3-12三位受試者之頭部抬起角度.............................................................68
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