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研究生:賴諭萱
研究生(外文):Yu-Hsuan Lai
論文名稱:由資源基礎觀點與社會交換理論探討績優企業如何獲取競爭優勢—台灣會展產業雙個案研究
論文名稱(外文):An Exploration of How High-performing Corporations Create Sustained Competitive Advantage from Resource-based View and Social Exchange Theory – Two Cases Studied within the Industry of MICE in Taiwan
指導教授:張琦雅張琦雅引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Ya Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:翻譯研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:翻譯學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:438
中文關鍵詞:一般性交換資源基礎理論社會交換理論永續競爭優勢會議展覽產業
外文關鍵詞:generalised exchangeresource-based viewsocial exchange theorysustained competitive advantagesthe MICE industry
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全球會展產業是觀光業中成長速度最驚人的一環,然會展產業本身所包含的場地租借、專業會議籌辦人與專業展覽籌辦人的收益並不高,真正受惠的是周邊協力廠商,如口筆譯業者、旅遊業者、住宿餐飲業者等。口筆譯員為會議展覽中不可或缺之要素,唯口筆譯研究中觸及會展產業各議題的研究甚少。有鑑於會展產業研究之匱乏,尤以產業企業相關議題為最,本研究冀盼能提供會展產業業界企業、欲加入會展產業業者與自由口筆譯者參考。本研究以資源基礎理論與社會交換理論為理論基礎,探討會展產業表現優異之公司所應具備的條件與進行的活動,以發展永續競爭優勢,且創造出卓越的績效。

本研究之研究方法採用個案研究與內容分析法,二十一位受訪者參與此次研究。研究結果顯示,個案之組織文化著重於品質,因而影響其人資源的選擇。兩個個案採用健全的人力資源管理、作業管理、專案管理與品質控制管理,以充分開發高品質的人力資源。經過長時間的積累,所有的運作深植於企業內部。本研究之個案廠商藉由與員工、供應商及客戶進行社會交換,將關鍵資源轉化為核心競爭力,終究成為永續競爭優勢。

透過仔細審視個案與其供應商(本研究以自由口筆譯員為主)和客戶之關係,本研究延伸學者Lawler(2001)所提出的一般化交換,納入其他形式的交換,以解釋三者互動之特殊情形。本文建議,未來的研究可將重心放在產業研究中的產業結構,以及產業內業者與客戶之關係。
The global MICE industry is growsing at an unprecedented pace in the tourism industry. However, the MICE industry itself is not profitable. Tremendous economic growth lies in the peripheral industries such as translation and interpretation, travel-related services, and accommodation and catering services etc. Translators and interpreters are indispensable to the success of meetings and exhibitions. Nonetheless, little attention has been given by scholars of translation and interpretation related studies to the multi-faceted issues faced by the MICE industry in Taiwan. In view of this lack of research on the MICE industry, this study aims to fill the void in the literature by focusing on firm-level issues. By using resource-based view and social exchange theory, this study attempts to answer the two basic questions of what high-performing companies have and have done in order to have sustained competitive advantages and superior performance in the MICE industry. Moreover, this study will provide insight into existing and potential industry players as well as freelance translators and interpreters who are interested in this industry.

The research methods adopted include case study and content analysis approaches. Twenty-one stakeholders, internal and external to the two study cases, participated in the study. The research results show that an organisational culture centering on the perception of quality leads the study cases to pursue better quality human resource practices. In order to bring out the best in employees, they have comprehensive and robust human resource, operations, project, and quality control management programmes, which later on become rooted and embedded in the companies. The two firms studied in this research convert key resources into a core competence, and hence sustained competitive advantages, by developing beneficial social exchanges with employees, suppliers, and customers, who will bring about more new customers. Ultimately, profits will result, and the two firms will outperform other competitors.

Due to the close examination of the interaction among the studied cases and their suppliers (freelance interpreters/translators) and customers, the finding of the study extends Lawler’s (2001) generalised exchange by incorporating other types of exchange into it. Further studies on the macro market structure and micro customer relationships of the MICE Industry in Taiwan are suggested.
Table of Contents

Table of Contents …………………………………………...…………………… iii
List of Tables ......................................................................................................... vii
List of Figures ………………………………………..………………………….. ix

Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Research Background ……………..……………………..…………….. 1
1.2 Research Motivation ……………………………………..……………. 2
1.3 Research Purpose and Questions …...………...………………………... 4
1.4 Research Limitations ……………………….…………..……………… 4
1.5 Research Processes ……………….………………….………….…… 5

Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.1 Structure-Conduct-Performance Paradigm …………...……………….. 9
2.2 Status Quo of Global and Taiwan’s MICE Industries ………....………. 12
2.2.1 Definition of MICE ………………………………..…………….. 12
2.2.2 Current Development of the Global MICE Industry ………..…… 14
2.2.3 Current Development of Taiwan’s MICE Industry ………..…….. 16
2.2.4 Current Development of the T&I Industry in Taiwan …….……... 19
2.3 Resource-based View ……………….…………………...…………….. 21
2.3.1 Definition of Firm Resources ………...………………………….. 22
2.3.2 Characteristics of Key Resources ….....………………………….. 25
2.3.3 Evaluation of Key Resources …………………….……………… 26
2.4 Social Exchange Theory ……………………………………….…….… 30
2.4.1 Definition of Social Exchange Theory ……….………………….. 30
2.4.2 Types of Exchange Structures …………………………………… 32
2.4.3 Intra-firm Relationships ……….………………………………… 34
2.4.3.1 Industrial Relations ……………….…………………….. 34
2.4.4 Inter-firm Relationships ……………………………….………… 35
2.4.4.1 Firm-customer Relationships ……….…….…………….. 35
2.4.4.2 Firm-supplier Relationships ……………..…..………….. 37
2.5 RBV, Social Exchange Theory, and Sustained Competitive
Advantages …………….…..……...……….…..…………….…..…….. 40

Chapter Three: Methodology
3.1 Research Methods: Case Study and Qualitative Content
Analysis ……………............................................................................... 42
3.2 Collection of Data …………………………………………………… 44
3.2.1 Secondary Data Collection ……………….…………………… 44
3.2.2 Primary Data Collection ............................................................. 45
3.2.2.1 Selection of Case ………………..……….…..………….. 45
3.2.2.2 Interview ………….......................……….…..………….. 46
3.2.2.3 Research Participants …........……….…..………………. 46
3.2.3 Design of Interview Questions ................................................... 49
3.3 Data Analysis ....................................................................................... 68

Chapter Four: Results & Discussions
4.1 Company Profile of Firm A ….………………………………………… 71
4.2 Case Analysis of Firm A …..…………………………………………. 73
4.2.1 Key Resources of Firm A and Sustained Competitive
Advantages ……………………………………………………… 74
4.2.1.1 Tangible assets …….…………………………………….. 74
4.2.1.2 Intangible assets ………………………………………… 76
4.2.1.3 Capabilities ………………………..…………………….. 78
4.2.2 Social Exchanges of Firm A and Sustained Competitive
Advantages ……………………………………………………… 81
4.2.2.1 Employer vs. Employees ……………………………… 82
4.2.2.2 Project Manager vs. Suppliers ...………………………. 87
4.2.2.3 Industry Expert vs. Employer ………………………….. 94
4.3 Company Profile of Firm B …………………………………………. 98
4.4 Case Analysis of Firm B …………………….………………………..... 99
4.4.1 Key Resources of Firm B and Sustained Competitive
Advantages …………………………………...……………..…... 99
4.4.1.1 Tangible Assets …………..........…..………………….... 100
4.4.1.2 Intangible Assets ………...........…..………………….. 101
4.4.1.3 Capabilities ……........…...........…..……………………. 105
4.4.2 Social Exchanges of Firm B and Sustained Competitive
Advantages ….............................................................................. 108
4.4.2.1 Employer vs. Employees ..........…..………………….. 108
4.4.2.2 Project Managers vs. Suppliers ………………….……. 116
4.4.2.3 Customer vs. Employer …………..…………….……. 121
4.5 Cross-case Analysis …………………………………………………. 124
4.5.1 Key Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantages ……….. 124
4.5.1.1 Tangible Assets …………………………………….…... 124
4.5.1.2 Intangible Assets ………………………………….…… 126
4.5.1.3 Capabilities ……………………………………….……. 127
4.5.2 Social Exchanges of the Firm and Sustained Competitive
Advantages ………………..………………...…………………. 129
4.5.2.1 Industrial Relations …………………..………….…... 129
4.5.2.2 Firm-supplier Relationships …….…………………… 130
4.5.2.3 Firm-customer Relationships ..………………….…… 130
4.5.3 Strategic Choices ………………………….……………………. 137
4.5.3.1 Diversification ………………...……………………... 137
4.5.3.2 Differentiation ………………...……………….…….. 138

Chapter Five: Conclusions
5.1 Summary of the Research …………………………………………….. 139
5.2 Research Findings …………………………...……………………….. 141
5.3 Managerial Implications…………………………………….………… 144
5.4 Research Contributions and Suggestions for Future Study ………...… 146

References …………………………………………………………………... 148

Appendix
Appendix A: Interview Questions for Employers (Chinese) ........................ -1-
Appendix B: Interview Questions for Employers (English) …....................... -3-
Appendix C: Interview Results for Firm A’s Employer (AR1) ...................... -5-
Appendix D: Preliminary Interview Results for Firm B‘s
Employer (BR1) ……………………………………………. -44-
Appendix E: Interview Results for Firm B’s Employer (BR1) …................ -48-
Appendix F: Interview Questions for Employees (Chinese) ….................... -78-
Appendix G: Interview Questions for Employees (English) ….................... -81-
Appendix H: Interview Results for Firm A’s Employees …...................... -85-
Appendix I: Interview Results for Firm B’s Employees …......................... -113-
Appendix J: Interview Questions for Suppliers (Chinese) …..................... -170-
Appendix K: Interview Questions for Suppliers (English) …..................... -172-
Appendix L: Interview Results for Firm A’s Suppliers ….......................... -175-
Appendix M: Interview Results for Firm B’s Suppliers …......................... -198-
Appendix N: Interview Questions for Expert (Chinese) ..…...................... -216-
Appendix O: Interview Questions for Expert (English) …..…................... -218-
Appendix P: Interview Results for Expert …………….............................. -220-
Appendix Q: Interview Questions for Customers (Chinese) ...................... -244-
Appendix R: Interview Questions for Customers (English) …………… -246-
Appendix S: Interview Results for Customers …………......................... -248-
Appendix T: Interview Questions for Project Managers (Chinese) …........ -255-
Appendix U: Interview Questions for Project Managers (English) .…....... -257-
Appendix V: Interview Results for Firm A’s Project Manager …………. -259-
Appendix W: Preliminary Interview Results for Firm B’s
Project Manager ………...………………........................... -266-
Appendix X: Interview Results for Firm B’s Project Manager ………… -269-
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