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研究生:李幸憲
論文名稱:黑色矽巨孔洞陣列結構應用於矽晶太陽能電池之研究
論文名稱(外文):Research on black silicon macroporous arrays structure for silicon solar cell application
指導教授:楊啟榮楊啟榮引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:機電科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:太陽能電池抗反射結構黑色矽巨孔洞陣列光輔助電化學蝕刻多孔矽
外文關鍵詞:solar cellantireflective structureblack silicon macroporous arraysphoto-assisted electrochemical etchingporous silicon
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隨著石化燃料日益短缺與環保意識的高漲,人類亟需一種乾淨、無污染的能量來源,以應用於再生能源。太陽光能取之不盡,用之不竭,在發電的過程中無噪音且零汙染,因此,太陽能電池被視為最具潛力的再生能源。目前市面上的商用太陽能電池,其抗反射結構僅侷限於隨機金字塔結構,並無法達到最佳的抗反射效能。有鑑於傳統的太陽能電池製作方法,對於抗反射效能的提升極為有限,故本研究提出以黃光微影定義圖案搭配光輔助電化學蝕刻(PAECE)之整合技術,在矽晶片表面製作高深寬比的黑色矽巨孔洞陣列結構,而此結構將使太陽電池具有較佳的抗反射效能。

多孔矽成長於525 um與380 um之矽基板,當PAECE蝕刻時間為0.5 hr、1 hr、1.5 hr及2 hr條件下,皆能得到黑色矽巨孔洞陣列結構,且其反射率皆能大幅度降低。在280 nm-800 nm波長範圍內,空白矽晶片的平均反射率為37.35 %。未經過PAECE蝕刻的倒金字塔陣列,平均反射效率為6.2 %;具倒金字塔陣列再經PAECE蝕刻後,於525 um之矽基板條件下,經過30分鐘的PAECE蝕刻後,平均反射效率可大幅降低為1.02 %,而經過2 hr的PAECE蝕刻後,平均反射率更可降低為0.81 %。若晶片減薄至380 um時,經過2 hr的PAECE蝕刻後,能進一步降低反射率至0.72 %。此時結構除了具有倒金字塔的形貌外,尚還具有深凹的巨孔洞、微溝渠、隨機多孔矽及黑色多孔矽薄膜層等五種特殊結構。本研究提出的新型複合結構將能具有良好的光捕捉效應,並且增大受光表面積與P-N接面面積,可實際應用於單晶矽太陽能電池,將使太陽能電池的效率能進一步提升。
With the fossil fuels are shortage day by day and the raised environmental consciousness, humans need anxiously power sources which are clean and environmental friendly and applicable to on renewable energy. Solar energy is inexhaustible, calm and environmental friendly in the power generation. Therefore, solar cell is thought as the most promising renewable energy. Nowadays, commercial cell usually use the random pyramid as an antireflective structure, but its antireflective performance is not very well. The improvement of antireflective performance for conventional solar cell is not easy to achieve. Therefore, this study presents the integration of photolithography and photo-assisted electrochemical etching (PAECE) to fabricate a black silicon macroporous arrays with a high aspect ratio on the surface of silicon wafer, it will improve antireflective performance significantly.

Porous silicon (PS) was grown on the 525 um and 380 um thick silicon wafers. The black silicon are produced after PAECE under the etching time of 0.5 hr, 1 hr, 1.5 hr, and 2 hr, respectively. The macroporous arrays with low reflection in the 280-800 nm wavelength regimes can be easily achieved. The weighted mean reflectance of a blank silicon wafer is 37.35 % in the 280-800 nm wavelength regimes. Inverted pyramid arrays without PAECE can reduce the weighted mean reflectance to 6.2 %. Inverted pyramid arrays with 30 min PAECE reduce the weighted mean reflectance even to 1.05 % on the 525 um thick silicon wafer. Besides, after PAECE of 2 hrs can reduce the weighted mean reflectance to 0.81 %. Besides, if the thickness of silicon wafer is decreased to 380 um, the weighted mean reflectance after PAECE of 2 hrs process further reduce to 0.72 %. The novel structure of combining inverted pyramid, deep macroporous, micro-trench, random porous, and black porous membrane can be observed simultaneously. Such a compound antireflective structure proposed in this study has the advantage to enhance light trapping, increase the area of light absorption and P-N junction, and can be applied as an antireflective structure to single crystalline silicon solar cell to improve its performance of efficiency.
摘要...................................................I
總目錄...............................................III
表目錄.................................................V
圖目錄...............................................VII

第一章 緒論..............................................1
1.1 太陽能電池介紹................................1
1.2 矽晶太陽能電池製程技術簡介......................6
1.3 電化學蝕刻技術簡介............................12
1.4 研究動機與目的................................15
1.5 論文架構.....................................17

第二章 理論與文獻探討....................................18
2.1 矽晶太陽能電池之工作原理......................18
2.2 太陽能電池之文獻探討..........................23
2.2.1 太陽能電池之效率文獻....................23
2.2.2 抗反射結構之反射率文獻..................40
2.3 電化學蝕刻技術...............................49
2.3.1 多孔矽在電解液中的電流-電壓(I-V)特性.....49
2.3.2 電化學蝕刻之多孔矽成形機制...............50

第三章 研究設計與實驗規劃.................................63
3.1 研究設計.....................................63
3.1.1 光罩設計...............................63
3.1.2 抗反射結構設計..........................64
3.2 實驗製程.....................................67
3.2.1 黑色矽巨孔洞陣列結構製作流程.............67
3.2.2 電化學蝕刻製程規劃......................69
3.3 實驗與量測設備................................76
3.3.1 實驗設備...............................76
3.3.2 量測儀器...............................77
第四章 實驗結果與討論.....................................83
4.1 抗反射結構之反射率量測.........................83
4.2 多孔矽成長於525 um與380 um之矽基板.............87
4.2.1 實驗參數...............................87
4.2.2 黑色矽巨孔洞陣列之反射率量測..............87
4.2.3 巨孔洞陣列之反射率量測...................91
4.3 黑色矽巨孔洞陣列結構之總討論...................108
4.4 研究結果與反射率文獻之比較.................... 114
第五章 結論與未來展望......................................118
5.1 結論........................................118
5.2 未來展望.....................................120
參考文獻..............................................122
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