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研究生:董格
研究生(外文):Duong Ngoc Duong
論文名稱:不同延遲供應結晶胺基酸方式對點帶石斑(Epinepheluscoioides)的成長及利用效果
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Different Strategies of Delayed Crystalline Essential Amino Acid Supplementation on the Growth and Feed utilization of Juvenile Grouper ( Epinephelus coioides )
指導教授:劉擎華劉擎華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chyng-Hwa Liou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:155
中文關鍵詞:氨基酸延遲補充石斑成長表現含氮廢物
外文關鍵詞:amino aciddelayed supplementationgroupergrowth performanceammonia excretion
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提高水產動物對結晶型必需胺基酸(AA)利用的方法為包覆AA,增加投餵頻度及調整pH為中性。然而以往這些方法的餵食結果,仍不如以魚粉為主蛋白源的配方。本研究的目的為以不同延遲供應AA的方式,以增進點帶石斑幼魚對AA的利用。試驗I以增加投餵頻度及延遲投餵時間補充7種AA;試驗II以不同的投餵量及濃度補充7種AA;試驗III以不同的投餵量及延遲時間補充2種AA。三個試驗每餐投餵量皆採固定量。試驗I每天餵兩餐,試驗II及III每天餵一餐。每餐投餵量於添加AA組分為兩次,以不同量、時間及濃度的AA投餵以達到延遲吸收AA的結果。
結果顯示與投餵植物性蛋白為主的飼料相較,補充AA可改善成長,試驗I為19.0~38.8%,試驗II為29.9~56.8%,試驗III為22.5~37.8%。三個試驗可明顯促進成長的補充AA方式分別為:試驗I,第一餐投餵35%飼料含15%AA,兩小時後再投餵15%飼料,第二餐以相同方式重複。試驗II為初餵50%飼料含30%AA,兩小時後再餵50%飼料含70%AA。試驗III下列三種方式結果相近,初餵70%飼料含70%AA,兩小時後再餵30%飼料含30%AA;初餵50%飼料含30%AA,兩小時候再餵50%飼料含70%AA;初餵70%飼料含30%AA,四小時後再餵30%飼料含70%AA。三個試驗中,若與以植物蛋白為主蛋白飼料組相較,添加AA組以不同的延遲時間、投餵比率、不同濃度及增加投餵頻度可較低血糖、血脂、肝體比、內臟體比、腹腔脂體比、排氨量及肝脂含量。
The traditional methods to improve utilization of crystalline essential amino acids (AA) are using feeding frequency, coating AA and adjusting pH of the diet to be neutral. However, the results were not as good as the results of the fish fed fish meal diet. The purpose of the 3 studies was to find the optimal way of supplementation of AA to improve feed utilization of juvenile grouper (Epinephelus coioides) by different ways. The delayed supplementation of AA by feeding frequency and time delayed supplementation of 7 AA in the experiment I, different amount of feeding and concentration of 7 AA supplementation in the experiment II and different amount of feeding and time delayed supplementation of 2 AA in the experiment III were investigated.
The results of the 3 experiments showed that supplementation of AA by feeding frequency, time delayed supplementation of AA, different amount of feeding and concentration of AA supplementation improved the growth of grouper from 19.0% to 38.8% in the experiment I, from 29.9% to 56.8% in the experiment II and from 22.5% to 37.8% in the experiment III as compared to the fish fed plant protein diet without supplementation of AA.
In the experiment I, the optimal way of supplementation of AA is by given 30% of diet with 70%AA 2 hours after initial feeding of 70% diet with 30% AA. In the experiment II, the optimal way of supplementation of AA is by given 50% of diet with 70%AA 2 hours after initial feeding of 50% diet with 30% AA. Any of the following ways can be an optimal way of supplementing AA in experiment III: the diet AA was divided into two unequal portions, 70% of diet was given 2 hours after initial feeding of 30% diet); or 50% of diet with 70% AA was given to fish 2 hours after initial feeding of 50% diet with 30% AA); or 30% of diet with 70% AA was given to fish 4 hours after first feeding of 70% diet with 30% AA.
In the 3 experiments, the delayed supplementation of AA by different amount of feeding and different concentration and time delay supplementation of AA and feeding frequency tended to decrease plasma glucose, triglyceride, levels, hepatosomatic index, visceral somatic index, intraperitoneal fat, total ammonia excretion and lipid in liver as compared to fish fed plant protein diet (basal diet).
Key words: amino acid, delayed supplementation, grouper, growth performance, ammonia excretion.
Abstract………………………………………………………………… i
Acknowledgments……………………………………………………… v
List of Tables…………………………………………………………… vii
List of Figures………………………………………………………... x
Chapter 1. Review of related literature…………………………1
1.1. Taxonomic classification of Grouper (Epinephelus coioides)…………………………………………………2
1.2. Protein and amino acids requirements of Grouper………3
1.3. Replace fish meal by alternative protein sources on grouper diets……………………………………………8
1.4. Amino acid utilization in fish……………………………12
1.5. Studies on supplementation of crystalline amino acids in fish diets………………………………………………13

Chapter 2. Experiment I
Effects of delayed supplementation of crystalline essential amino acid by feeding frequency and time delayed supplementation of AA on growth performance, blood parameters and ammonia excretion of juvenile grouper (Epinephelus coioides)……………………………….……….16
Abstract……………………………………..………………17
2.1. Introduction………………………………………………19
2.2. Materials and methods……………………………………20
2.3. Results……………………………………………………25
2.4. Discussion…………………………………………………28
2.5. Conclusion…………………………………………………32
Chapter 3. Experiment II
Effects of delayed supplementation of crystalline amino acid by different amount of feeding and different concentration of AA on growth performance, blood parameters, ammonia excretion and liver composition of juvenile grouper (Epinephelus coioides)………………………………………………………33
Abstract…………………………………………………………34
3.1. Introduction………………………………………………36
3.2. Materials and methods……………………………………37
3.3. Results……………………………………………………41
3.4. Discussion…………………………………………………44
3.5. Conclusion………………………………………………49
Chapter 4. Experiment III
Effects of delayed supplementation of crystalline amino acid by feeding amount and time delayed supplementation of AA on growth performance, blood parameters, ammonia excretion and liver composition of juvenile grouper (Epinephelus coioides)……………………………………………………50
Abstract………………………………………………………51
4.1. Introduction………………………………………………53
4.2. Materials and methods……………………………………54
4.3. Results……………………………………………………58
4.4. Discussion…………………………………………………61
4.5. Conclusion…………………………………………………67
References………………………………………………………………68
Tables……………………………………………………………………101
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