(3.238.235.155) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/11 03:04
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:陳映汝
研究生(外文):Ying-Ju Cheng
論文名稱:臺灣扇蟹科蟹類之毒性及種屬基因鑑定探討
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Toxicity and Genetic Identification of Xanthidae Crab Species in Taiwan
指導教授:黃登福黃登福引用關係
指導教授(外文):Deng-Fwu Hwang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:麻痺性貝毒河魨毒扇蟹細胞色素 C 氧化? I
外文關鍵詞:paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP)tetrodotoxin (TTX)Xanthidaecytochrome oxidase I (COI)
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:447
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:40
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
有毒蟹在臺灣沿岸珊瑚礁與岩礁水域常被發現,且由目前國外毒蟹研究資料得知,蟹類科別中以扇蟹科的有毒種類較多,毒性較強。而海洋生物的毒性與環境息息相關,即使是同種生物,在不同水域也具有不相同的毒性,甚至同一水域的每個個體毒性都不相同。然而,蟹類為雜食性的動物,其攝食的範圍非常廣,包括海藻及魚蝦蟹貝等小型動物,甚至是底泥中的生物碎屑或有機質,皆可能是牠的攝食範圍,而如果該環境具有海洋生物毒,只要是對於海洋生物毒具有抵抗性的蟹類就有可能經由食物鏈,將海洋生物毒蓄積於體內。為了鑑定有毒蟹類及建立基因圖譜資料,乃以生物毒性檢驗法 (mouse bioassay)、高效能液相層析 (high performance liquid chromatography; HPLC) 檢測毒性及毒成分,並利用直接定序法和聚合?鏈鎖反應限制片段長度多型性 (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism; PCR-RFLP) 技術鑑定物種基因相關性,針對臺灣蟹類花紋愛潔蟹 (Atergatis floridus)、正直愛潔蟹 (A. integerrimus)、廣闊愛潔蟹 (A. latissimus)、絨毛仿銀杏蟹 (Actaeodes tomentosus)、隆背瓢蟹 (Carpilius convexus)、紅斑瓢蟹 (C. maculates)、鈍額曲毛蟹 (Camposcia retusa)、光手酋婦蟹 (Eriphia sebana)、灰青鄰扇蟹 (Juxtaxanthias lividus)、鏽花脊熟若蟹 (Lophozozymus pictor)、羅氏毛足蟹 (Lachnopodus rodgersi) 及銅鑄熟若蟹 (Zosimus aeneus) 等 12 種蟹類物種建立近年來蟹類毒性、毒成分資料及其基因圖譜。
其中 11 種蟹類,由生物毒性檢驗法研究結果得知,J. lividus 最高個體毒性值為 167 老鼠單位 (mouse unit; MU);平均個體毒性值為 97 ± 52 (mean ± SD) MU,而 Z. aeneus 的最高個體毒性值則為 3,503 MU;平均個體毒性值為 897 ± 1,306 MU,而其它 9 種蟹類則未檢測出毒性;而由 HPLC 進行進一步的毒成分鑑定的結果則發現 J. lividus及 Z. aeneus 皆含有河魨毒 (tetrodotoxin; TTX) 及其衍生物和麻痺性貝毒 (paralytic shellfish poisons; PSP,包含 gonyautoxin; GTX 及 saxitoxins; STX) 等毒成分。在基因實驗方面,首先,利用文獻中設計之引子對 (HCO2198 & CrustF2),成功增幅生鮮及 100℃, 15 mim 和100℃, 30 min 加工處理條件之 9 種蟹類部份 cytochrome oxidase I (COI) 基因 715 bp 特異性片段,但以高溫高壓滅菌 (121℃, 15 mim) 的蟹肉組別,因加工條件過於嚴苛,使 DNA 發生嚴重斷裂的情況,因此自行設計適用於增幅短片段COI 基因之引子對 (COI-403L/ COI-664H) 進行 PCR 反應,即可成功增幅出部份 COI 基因 301 bp。最後篩選出 DdeI 及 HaeIII 兩種具有特異性切位之限制? (restriction enzyme) 進行 715 bp 片段之切位分析,可確實將生鮮及加工條件 100℃, 30 mim 處理之 9 種蟹類區分出來。綜合顯示臺灣珊瑚礁蟹類毒性範圍大,毒成分主要為 TTX 及 PSP;利用直接定序法配合 RFLP 法可成功鑑別出 9 種生鮮蟹類樣品,並建立9 種蟹類之限制?圖譜。
The toxic crabs are often found on coral reefs and coasts of Taiwan. The related researches pointed out that toxic crabs mostly belong to the family Xanthidae. In order to investigate the toxicity, toxin and specific species-gene characteristics of coral reef crab species in Taiwan, the mouse bioassay, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), direct sequencing and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology were used in Atergatis floridus, A. integerrimus, A. latissimus, Actaeodes tomentosus, Carpilius convexus, C. maculates, Camposcia retusa, Eriphia sebana, Juxtaxanthias lividus, Lophozozymus pictor, Lachnopodus rodgersi and Zosimus aeneus.
Toxicity was determined by mouse bioassay in 11 species of crab. Except for J. lividus and Z. aeneus, other 9 crabs species all are non- toxic. The mean value of the toxicity of J. lividus and Z. aeneus, was 97 ± 52 (mean ± SD) and 897 ± 1,306 MU/specimen, respectively. The highest toxicity was 167 and 3,503 MU/specimen, respectively. In HPLC-FLD analysis for the toxins, J. lividus and Z. aeneus contained tetrodotoxin (TTX) and paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP). In gene aspect, at beginning, the utility of designed primers (HCO2198 & CrustF2) was successfully amplified 715 bp of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene of 9 coral reef crab species from fresh and cooked (100℃ heating for 15 - 30 min) meat of crabs. Because DNA extracted from steam sterilized (121℃ heating for 15 min) meats has serious damage, the another primer pair COI-403L/ COI-664H were designed to successfully amplify smaller fragments of 301 bp from this meat. Finally, the two restriction enzymes DdeI and HaeIII with specific cutting sites that were applied to identify species of 9 fresh and cooked (100℃ heating for 30 min) crabs successfully. Conclusively, the coral reef crab species contain TTX and PSP as the the major toxin in Taiwan, and these species identification could be conducted by using gene sequencing and PCR-PFLP method.
中文摘要...................................................................................................iii
Abstract.....................................................................................................v
文獻整理................................................................................................1
一、蟹類之分類與實驗之蟹類簡介……………………………………….2
二、歷年研究蟹類毒成分與其毒性...……………………………………..6
三、麻痺性貝毒和河魨毒之介紹…...……………………………………15
四、有毒蟹類毒成分之分析方法…….…………………………………..22
五、利用mtDNA 鑑定物種之特性………………………………………27
六、分子生物技術鑑定物種……………………………………………...31
研究內容.....................................................................................................38
第一章、臺灣扇蟹科蟹類毒性及毒成分分析...........................................39
一、前言....................................................................................................39
二、材料與方法........................................................................................40
三、結果....................................................................................................45
四、討論....................................................................................................47
附表與附圖..............................................................................................50
第二章、扇蟹科蟹類之粒線體部份 COI 基因序列分析及利用 PCR-RFLP 鑑定不同溫度處理蟹類之種類........................ 60
一、前言....................................................................................................60
二、材料與方法........................................................................................61
三、結果....................................................................................................68
四、討論....................................................................................................71
附表與附圖..............................................................................................74
參考文獻.....................................................................................................97
謝辭........................................................................................................115
附錄........................................................................................................117
邵廣昭,1996。台灣常見魚介類圖說(上)--海藻與無脊椎動物。臺灣省漁業局,台北。
陳蕙蓮,2002。低等海洋蟹類。中國動物志。30: 1-30。
黃登福,1989。河魨加工利用之推廣。漁業技術推廣專輯 (三)。國立臺灣海洋大學出版,基隆。
黃登福,1990。日本之河魨加工利用、管理與養殖。中國水產 452: 7-17。
蔡永祥,1994。臺灣產銅鑄熟若蟹之毒性與毒成分研究。國立臺灣海洋大學水產食品科學研究所碩士論文,基隆。
橋本芳郎,1978。魚貝類?毒。學會出版????,東京。
Akane, A. Matsubara, K. Nakamura, H., Takahashi, S. and Kimura, K. 1994. Purification of highly degraded DNA by gel filtration for PCR. Biotechniques 16: 235-238.
Alam, M. I., Shimizu, Y., Ikawa, M. and Sasner, J. J. 1978. The blue-green alga, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, by a high performance chromatographic method. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 13: 493-499.
AOAC. 1995. Paralytic shellfish poison: Biological method. Final action. Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) International, Gaithersburg, MD. pp. 22-23.
Arakawa, O. 1988. Studies on Paralytic Toxin in Crabs of the Family Xanthidae. Ph.D. thesis, Tokyo University.
Arakawa, O., Nishio, S,. Noguchi, T., Shida, Y. and Onoue, Y. 1995. A new saxitoxin analogue from a Xanthid crab Atergatis floridus. Toxicon 33: 1577-1584.
Ballard, J. W. O. and Rand, D. M. 2005. The population biology of mitochondrial DNA and its phylogenetic implications. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 36: 621-642.
Beismann, H., Barker, H., Karp, A. and Speck, T. 1997. AFLP analysis sheds light on distribution of two Salix species and their hybrid along a natural gradient. Molecular Ecology 6: 989-993.
Bond, R. M. and Medcof, J. C. 1958. Epidemic shellfish poisoning in New Brunswick, 1957. Canadian Medical Association Journal 79: 19.
Boore, J. L. 1999. Survey and summary animal mitochondrial genomes. Nucleic Acids Research 27: 1767-1780.
Broughton, R. E. and Dowling, T. M. 1994. Length variation in mitochondrial DNA of the minnow Cyprinella spilopterus. Genetic 138: 179-190.
Brown, B. W., Nelson, W. S. and Avise, J. C. 1993. A molecular phylogeny for marine turtles: Trait mapping, rate assessment, and conservation relevance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90: 5574-5557.
Bruno, M., Gucci, P. M. B., Pierdominici, E., Ioppolo, A. and Volterra, L. 1990. Presence of saxitoxin in toxic extracts from Gonyaulax polyedra. Toxicon 28: 1113-1116.
Castro, J. A., Picornell, A. and Ramon, M. 1998. Mitochondrial DNA: A tool for populational genetics studies. International Microbiology 1: 327-332.
Cespedes, A., Garcia, T., Carrera, E., Gonzalez, I., Fernandez, A., Hernandez, P. and Martin, R. 1999. Application of polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) to identification of flatfish species. Journal of AOAC International 82: 903-907.
Chakraborty, A., Aranishi, F. and Iwatsuki, Y. 2005. Molecular identification of hairtail species (Pisces: Trichiuridae) based on PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Journal of Applied Genetics 46: 381-385.
Cheng, C. A., Hsieh, Y. W., Noguchi, T., Arakawa, O. and Hwang, D. F. 2001. Effect of processing on sequence of cytochrome b gene and its restriction site in the meat of puffer Takifugu rubripes. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 9: 232-237.
Chu, F. S. and Fan, T. S. L. 1985. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for saxitoxin in shellfish. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists 68: 13-16.
Chu, K. H., Tong, J. and Chan, T. Y. 1999. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I sequence divergence in some Chinese species of Charybdis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 27: 461-468.
Cook, B. D., Pringle, C. M. and Hughes, J. M. 2008. Molecular evidence for sequential colonization and taxon cycling in freshwater decapod shrimps on a Caribbean island. Molecular Ecology 17: 1066-1075.
Costa, F. O., de Waard, J. R., Boutillier, J., Ratnasingham, S., Dooh, R. T., Hajibabaei, M. and Hebert, P. D. N. 2007. Biological identification through DNA barcodes: The case of the Crustacea. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64: 272-295.
Daigo, K., Uzu, A., Arakawa, O., Noguchi, T., Seto, H. and Hashimoto, K. 1985. Isolation and some properties of neosaxitoxin from a xanthid crab Zosimus aeneus. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 51: 309-315.
Davolos, D. and Maclean, N. 2005. Mitochondrial COI-NC-COII sequences in talitrid amphipods (Crustacea). Heredity 94: 81-6.
Derr, J. N., Davis, S. K., Woolley, J. B. and Wharton, R. A. 1992. Variation and the phylogenetic utility of the large ribosomal subunit of mitochondrial DNA from the insect order Hymenoptera. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 1: 136-147.
Do, H. K., Kogure, K., Imada, C., Noguchi, T., Ohawada, K. and Simidu, U. 1991. Tetrodotoxin production of actinomycetes isolated from marine sediment. The Journal of Applied Bacteriology 70: 464-468.
Eastaugh, J. and Shepherd, S. 1989. Infections by Octopus maculosus Hoyle. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 16: 681-690.
Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R., and Vrijenhoek, R. 1994. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 3: 294-299.
Fukiya, S. and Matsumura, K. 1992. Active and passive immunization for tetrodotoxin in mice. Toxicon 30: 1631-1636.
Gadaleta, G., Pepe, D., De Candia, G., Quagliariello, C., Sbisa, E. and Saccone, C. 1989. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Rattus novergicus mitochondrial genome: Cryptical signals revealed by comparative analysis between vertebrates. Journal of Molecular and Evolution 28: 497-516.
Gallacher, S. and Birkbeck, T. H. 1993. Effect of phosphate concentration on production of tetrodotoxin by Alteromonas tetraodonis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59: 3981- 3983.
Goto, T., Hishi, Y., Takahashi, S. and Hirata, Y. 1965. Tetrodotoxin. Tetrahedron 21: 2059 2088.
Gray, W. M. 1989. Origin and evolution of mitochondrial DNA. Annual Review of Cell Biology 5: 25-50.
Griffiths, C. S. 1997. Correlation of functional domains and rates of nucleotide substitution in cytochrome b. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 7: 352-365.
Halstead, B. W. and Schantz, E. J. 1984. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Harrison, M. K. and Crespi, B. J. 1999. Phylogenetics of Cancer crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12: 186-199.
Hashimoto, Y. 1979. Marine Toxins and Other Bioactive Marine Metabolites. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo.
Hashimoto, T., Matsuoka, S., Yoshimatsu, S. A., Miki, K., Nishibori, N., Nushio, S. and Noguchi, T. 2002. First paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) infestation of bivalves due to toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamiyavanichii, in the southeast coasts of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan 43: 1-5.
Ho, P. H., Yu, H. P. and Ng, P. K. L. 2000. New records of Eriphiidae, Pilumnidae and Xanthidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Taiwan. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 48: 111-122.
Ho, P. H., Yu, H. P. and Ng, P. K. L. 2001. The Indo-Pacific Pilumnidae XIV. On a new species of Actumnus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Taiwan. Proceeddings of the Biological Society of Washington 114: 145-151.
Ho, P. H., Ng, P. K. L. and Chan, T. Y. 2004. New records of 31 species of brachyuran crab from the joint Taiwan-France expedititions, “Taiwan 2000” and “Taiwan 2001”, off deep waters in Taiwan. Crustaceana 77: 641-668.
Ho, P. H., Tsai, Y. H., Hwang, C. C., Hwang, P. A., Hwang, J. H. and Hwang, D. F. 2006. Paralytic toxins in four species of coral reef crabs from Kenting National Park in southern Taiwan. Food Control 17: 439-445.
Hoeijmakers, J. H. 2001. Genome maintenance mechanisms for preventing cancer. Nature 411: 366-374.
Hold, G. L., Smith, E. A., Birkbeck, T. H. and Gallacher, S. 2001. Comparison of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production by the dinoflagellates Alexandrium lusitanicum NEPCC 253 and Alexandrium tamarense NEPCC 407 in the presence and absence of bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 36: 223-234.
Hsieh, Y. W., Hwang, P. A., Pan, H. H., Chen, J. B. and Hwang, D. F. 2003. Identification of tetrodotoxin and fish species in an adulterated dried mullet roe implicated in food poisoning. Journal of Food Science 68: 142-146.
Hsieh, H. S., Chai, T. J., and Hwang, D. F. 2007. Using the PCR-RFLP method to identify the species of different processed products of billfish meats. Food Control 18: 369-374.
Hwang, D. F. 2003. Studies on toxic substances implicated to fishery food poisoning in Taiwan. Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan 30: 185-197.
Hwang, D. F. and Jeng, S. S. 1991. Bioassay of tetrodotoxin by using ICR strain male mouse. Journal of the Chinese Nutrition Society 20: 80-86.
Hwang, D. F., Noguchi, T., Arakawa, O., Abe, T. and Hashimoto, K. 1988. Toxicological studies on several species of puffer in Taiwan. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 54: 2001-2008.
Hwang, D. F., Chueh, C. H. and Jeng, S. S. 1990. Occurrence of tetrodotoxin in the gastropods mollusk Natica lineata (lined moon shell). Toxicon 28: 21-27.
Hwang, D. F., Cheng, C. A. and Jeng, S. S. 1994. Gonyautoxin 3 as minor toxin in the gastropod Niotha clathrata in Taiwan. Toxicon 30: 669-672.
Hwang, D. F., Tsai, Y. H., Chai, T. and Jeng, S. S. 1996. Occurrence of tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poison in Taiwan crab Zosimus aeneus. Fisheries Science 62: 500-501.
Hwang, D. F., Tsai, Y. H., Liao, H. J., Matsuoka, K., Noguchi, T. and Jeng, S. S. 1999. Toxins of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim from the coastal waters and aquacqlture ponds in Southern Taiwan. Fisheries Science 65: 171-172.
Hwang, D. F., Hsieh, Y. W., Shiu, Y. C., Chen, S. K. and Cheng, C. A. 2002. Identification of tetrodotoxin and fish species in dried dressed fish fillet implicated in food poisoning. Journal of Food Protection 65: 389-392.
Hwang, D. F. 2003. Studies on toxic substances implicated to fishery food poisoning in Taiwan. Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan 30: 185-197.
Hwang, D. F., Jen, H. C., Hsieh, Y. W. and Shiau, C. Y. 2004. Applying DNA techniques to the identification of the species of dressed toasted eel products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 5972-5977.
Hwang, P. A., Tsai, Y. H., Lin, S. J. and Hwang, D. F. 2007. The gastropods possessing TTX and/or PSP. Food Reviews International 23: 321-340.
Innis, M. A. and Gelfand, D. H. 1990. Optimization of PCR. In: PCR Protocols-A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press. New York. USA. pp.3-12.
Jensen, M. O. and Moestrup, O. 1997. Autecology of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii: Life history and growth at different temperatures and salinities. European Journal of Phycology 32: 9-18.
Jerome, M., Lemaire, C., Bautista, J. M., Fleurence, J. and Etienne, M. 2003. Molecular phylogeny and species identification of sardines. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 51: 43-50.
Johansen, S., Guddal, P. H. and Johansen, T. 1990. Organization of the mitochondrial genome of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Nucleic Acids Research 18: 411-419.
Keim, P., Kalif, A., Schupp, J., Hill, K., Travis, S. E., Richmond, K., Adair, D. M., Hugh-Jones, M., Kuske, C. R. and Jackson, P. 1997. Molecular evolution and diversity in Bacillus anthracis as detected by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Journal of Bacteriology 179: 818-824.
Khora, S. S. and Yasumoto, T. 1989. Isolation of 11-oxotetrodotoxin from the puffer Arothron nigropunctatus. Tetrahedron Letters 30: 4393-4394.
Knowlton, N. 2000. Molecular genetic analyses of species boundaries in the sea. Hydrobiologia 420: 73-90.
Kobayashi, T., Shiomi, K., Nagashima, T., Fuji, T. and Okuzumi, M. 1992. Effect of culture conditions on bacterial production of tetrodotoxins. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 58: 1365- 1372.
Kocher, T. D., Thomas, K., Meyer, A., Edwards, S. V., Paabo, S., Villablanca, F. X. and Wilson, A. C. 1989. Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: Amplification and sequencing with conserved primers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 86: 6196-6200.
Koyama, K., Noguchi, T., Ueda, Y. and Hashimoto, K. 1981. Occurrence of neosaxitoxin and other paralytic shellfish poisons in toxic crabs belonging to the family Xanthidae. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 47: 965.
Koyama, K., Noguchi, T., Uzu, A. and Hashimoto, K. 1983a. Individual, local, and size-dependent variations in toxicity of the xanthid crab Zosimus aeneus. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 49: 1273-1279.
Koyama, K., Noguchi, T. Uzu, A. and Hashimoto, K. 1983b. Local variation of toxicity and toxin composition in a xanthid crab Atergatis floridus. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 49: 1883-1886.
Lavrov, D. V., Forget, L., Kelly, M. and Lang, B. F. 2005. Mitochondrial genomes of two demosponges provide insights into an early stage of animal evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution 22: 1231-1239.
Lessios, H. A., Kessing, B. D. and Pearse, J. S. 2001. Population structure and speciation in tropical seas: Global phylogeography of the sea urchin diadema. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution 55: 955-975.
Lessios, H. A., Kane, J. and Robertson, D. R. 2003. Phylogeography of the pantropical sea urchin Tripneustes: Contrasting patterns of population structure between oceans. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution 57: 2026-2036.
Lin, W. F. and Hwnag, D. F. 2008. A multiplex PCR assay for species identification of raw and cooked bonito. Food Control 19: 879-885.
Llewellyn, L. E., Dodd, M. J., Robertson, A., Ericson, G., de Koning, C., and Negri, A. P. 2002. Post-mortem analysis of samples from a human victim of a fatal poisoning caused by the xanthid crab, Zosimus aeneus. Toxicon 40: 1463-1469.
Lodish, H., Berk, A., Matsudaira, P., Kaiser, C. A. and Scott, M. P. 2004. Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes. In: Molecular Cell Biology 5th ed. Freeman. New York. USA. pp. 438-450.
Mackie, I. M., Pryde, S. E., Gonzales-Sotelo, C., Medina, I., Perez-Martin, R., Quinteiro, J., Rey-Mendez, M. and Rehbein, H. 1999. Challenges in the identification of species of canned fish. Trends in Food Science and Technology 10: 9-14.
Maughan, P. J., Saghai, Maroof, M. A., Buss, G. R. and Huestis, G. M. 1996. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in soybean: Species diversity, inheritance and near-isogenic line analysis. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 93: 392-401.
Mauro, A., Arculeo, M. and Parrinello, N. 2003. Morphological and molecular tools in identifying the Mediterranean limpets Patella caerulea, Patella aspera and Patella rustica. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 295: 131-143.
Medina, M. and Walsh, J. P. 2000. Molecular systematics of the Order Anaspidea based on mitochondrial DNA sequence (12S, 16S, and COI). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15: 41-58.
Mueller, U. G. and Wolfenbarger, L. L. 1999. AFLP genotyping and fingerprinting. TREE 14: 389-394.
Nagashima, T., Maruyama, J., Noguchi, T. and Hashimoto, K. 1987. Analysis of paralytic shellfish poison and tetrodotoxin by ion pairing high performance liquid chromatography. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 53: 819 823.
Narahashi, T. 2001. Pharmacology of tetrodotoxin. Journal of Toxicology: Toxin Reviews 20: 67-84.
Narita, H., Mastsubara, S., Miwa, N., Akahane, S., Murakame, M., Goto, T., Nara, M., Noguchi, T., Saito, T., Shida, Y. and Hashimoto, K. 1987a. Vibrio alginolyticus, a TTX-producing bacterium isolated from the starfish Astropecten polyacanthus. Nippon Suisan Gakkaiahi 54: 617-621.
Narita, H., Miwa, N., Akahane, S., Masumoto, H., Mizuno, S., Noguchi, T., Shida, Y. and Hashimoto, K. 1987b. Tetrodotoxin productivity of bacteria isolated from trumpet shell Charonia sauliae intestine. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan 30: 518-521.
Ng, P. K. L. and Ho, P. H. 2003. On the deep-water dorippid crabs of the genus Ethusina smith, 1884 (Crustacean: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Taiwan. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 51: 71-85.
Nissen, S. J., Masters, R. A., Lee, D. J. and Rowe, M. L. 1995. DNA-based marker systems to determine genetic diversity of weedy species and their application to biocontrol. Weed Science 43: 504-513.
Noguchi, T., Uzu, A., Koyama, K., Maruyama, J., Nagashima, Y., and Hashimoto, K. 1983. Occurrence of tetrodotoxin as the major toxin in a xanthid crab Atergatis floridus. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 49: 1887-1892.
Noguchi, T., Arakawa, O., Koyama, K., and Hashimoto, K. 1986. Local differences in toxin composition of a xanthid crab Atergatis floridus inhabiting Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Toxicon 24: 705-711.
Noguchi, T., Hwang, D. F., Arakawa, O., Sugita, H., Deguchi, Y., Shida, Y. and Hashimoto, K. 1987. Vibrio alginolyticus, a tetrodotoxin- producing bacterium, in the intestines of the fish Fugu vermicularis vermicularis. Marine Biology 94: 625-630.
Oshima, Y. 1995. Post column derivatization liquid chromatographic method for paralytic shellfish toxins. Journal of AOAC International 78: 528-532.
Oshima, Y., Blackburn, S. I. and Hallegraeff, G. M. 1993. Comparative study on paralytic shellfish toxin profiles of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum from three different countries. Marine Biology 116: 471-476.
Page, T. J., Choy, S. C. and Hughes, J. M. 2005. The Taxonomic Feedback Loop: Symbiosis of morphology and molecules. Biology Letters 1: 139-142.
Palumbi, S. R. and Benzie, J. 1991. Large mitochondrial DNA differences between morphologically similar Penaeus shrimp. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 1:27-34.
Pereira, S. L. 2000. Mitochondrial genome organization and vertebrate phylogenetics. Genetics and Molecular Biology 23: 745-752.
Perez, K. E., Ponder, W. F., Colgan, D. J., Clark, S. A. and Lydeard, C. 2005. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of spring-associated hydrobiid snails of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34: 545-556.
Pires, O. R., Sebben, A., Schwartz, E. F., Morales, R. A. V., Bloch, C. and Schwartz, C. A. 2005. Further report of the occurrence of tetrodotoxin and new analogues in the Anuran family Brachycephalidae. Toxicon 45: 73-79.
Power, A. M., Piyapattanakorn, S., O’Riordan, R. M., Iyengar, A., Myers, A. A., Hawkins, S. J. Delany, J., McGrath, D. and Maclean, N. 1999. Veri?cation of cyprid size as a tool in the identi?cation of two European species of Chthamalus barnacles using mtDNA RFLP analysis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 191: 251-256.
Raybould, T. J. G., Bignami, G. S., Inouye, L. K., Simpson, S. B., Byrnes, J. B., Grothaus, P. G. and Vann, D. C. 1992. A monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay for detecting tetrodotoxin in biological samples. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 6: 65-72.
Rego, I., Martinez, A., Gonzalez-Tizon, A., Vieites, J., Leira, F. and Mendez, J. 2002. PCR technique for identification of mussel species. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 50: 1780-1784.
Roman, J. and Palumbi, S. R. 2004. A global invader at home: Population structure of the green crab, Carcinus maenas, in Europe. Molecular Ecology 13: 2891-2898.
Russell, V. J., Hold, G. L., Pryde, S. E., Rehbean, H., Quinteiro, J., Rey, M. M., Sotelo, C. G., Santos, A. T. and Rosa, C. 2000. Use of restriction fragment length polymorphism to distinguish between salmon species. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 48: 2184-2188.
Sasuga, J., Yokobori, S., Kaifu, M., Ueda, T., Nishikawa, K. and Watanabe, K. 1999. Gene contents and organization of a mitochondrial DNA segment of the squid Loligo bleekeri. Journal of Molecular Evolution 48: 692-702.
Schantz, E. J. 1960. Biochemical studies on paralytic shellfish poisons. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 90: 843-855.
Schantz, E. J. 1975. Poisonous red tide organisms. Environmental Letters 9: 225-237.
Schantz, E. J. 1984. Historical perspective on paralytic shellfish poison. In: Seafood Toxins (ed. by Ragelis, E. P.). ACS Symposium Series 262, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. pp. 99-111.
Schantz, E. J., Mold, J. D., Stanger, D. W., Shavel, J., Riel, F. J., Bowdew, J. P., Lynch, J. M., Wyler, R. B. R. and Sommer, H. 1957. Paralytic shellfish poison. VI. A procedure of the isolation and purification of the poison from toxic calms and mussel tissues. Journal of the American Chemical Society 79: 5230-5238.
Schantz, E. J., Ghazarossian, V. E., Schnoes, H. K. and Strong, F. M. 1975. The structure of saxitoxin. Journal of the American Chemical Society 97: 1238-1239.
Schubart, C. D., Diesel, R. and Hedges, S. B. 1998. Rapid evolution to terrestrial life in Jamaican crabs. Nature 393: 363-365.
Schubart, C. D., Neigel, J. E. and Felder, D. L. 2000. Use of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene for phylogenetic and population studies of Crustacea. Crustacea 12: 817-830.
Simidu, U., Noguchi, T., Hwang, D. F., Shida, Y. and Hashimoto, K. 1987. Marine bacteria which produce tetrodotoxin. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53: 1714-1715.
Steiner, J. J., Poklemba, C. J., Fjellstrom, R. G. and Elliott, L. F. 1995. A rapid one-tube genomic DNA extraction process for PCR and RAPD analysis. Nucleic Acids Research 23: 2569-2570.
Stepien, C. A., Dixon, M. T. and Hillis, D. M. 1993. Evolutionary relationships of the Blennioid fishes families Clinidae, Labrisomidae and Chaenopsidae: Congruence between DNA sequence and allozyme data. Bulletin of Marine Science 52: 496-515.
Takeyama, H., Chow, S., Tsuzuki, H. and Matsunaga, T. 2001. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation within and between tuna Thunnus species and its application to species identification. Journal of Fish Biology 58: 1646-1657.
Tsai, Y. H., Hwang, D. F., Chai, T. J. and Jeng, S. S. 1995. Occurrence of tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poison in the Taiwanese crab Lophozozymus pictor. Toxicon 33: 1669-1673.
Tsai, Y. H., Hwang, D. F., Chai, T. J. and Jeng, S. S. 1996. Occurrence of paralytic toxin in Taiwanese crab Atergatopsis germaini. Toxicon 34: 467-474.
Tsai, Y. H., Hwang, D. F., Chai, T. J. and Jeng, S. S. 1997a. Toxicity and toxic components of two xanthid crabs, Atergatis floridus and Demania reynaudi. Toxicon 35: 1327-1335.
Tsai, Y. H., Jeng, S. S. and Hwang, D. F. 1997b. Seasonal and regional variations of toxicity in the Xanthid Crab Zosimus aeneus in Taiwan. Fisheries Science 63: 313-314.
Tsai, Y. H., Ho, P. H., Jeng, S. S. and Hwang, D. F. 2002. Paralytic toxins in Taiwanese crab Xanthias lividus. Fisheries Science 68: 659-661.
Tsai, Y. H., Ho, P. H., Hwang, C. C., Hwang, P. A., Cheng, C. A. and Hwang, D. F. 2006. Tetrodotoxin in several species of xanthid crabs in southern Taiwan. Food Chemistry 95: 205-12.
Tsuda, K., Ikuma, S., Kawamura, M., Tachikawa, R., Sakai, K., Tamura, C. and Amakasu, O. 1964. Tetrodotoxin. VII. On the structures of tetrodotoxin and its derivatives. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 12: 1357-1374.
Tzeng, C. S., Hui, C. F., Shen, S. C. and Huang, P. C. 1992. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Crossostoma lacustre mitochondrial genome: Conservation and variations among vertebrates. Nucleic Acids Research 20: 4853-4858.
Usup, G., Kulis, D. M. and Anderson, D. M. 1994. Growth and toxin production of the toxic dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum in laboratory cultures. Natural Toxins 2: 254-62.
Uthicke, S. and Benzie, J. A. H. 2003. Gene flow and population history in high dispersal marine invertebrates: Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Holothuria nobilis (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) populations from the Indo-Pacific. Molecular Ecology 12: 2635-2648.
Wilson, A. C., Cann, R. L., Carr, S. M., George, M., Gyllesten, U. B., Helm-Bychowski, K. M., Higuchi, R. G., Palumbi, S. R., Prager, E. M., Sage, R. D. and Stoneking, M. 1985. Mitochondrial DNA and two perspectives on evolutionary genetics. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 26: 375-400.
Wolf, C., Rentsch, J. and Hubner, P. 1999. PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA: A reliable method for species identication. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47: 1350-1355
Woodward, R. B. 1964. The structure of tetrodotoxin. Pure and Applied Chemistry 9: 49-74.
Wu, Y. J., Jen, H. C., Deng, J. F. and Hwang, D. F. 2008. Identification of toxin and species of causative fish roe implicated into a food poisoning incident. Journal of the Fish Society of Taiwan 35: 359-367.
Yamauchi, M. M., Miya, M. U. and Nishida, M., 2003. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura). Gene 311: 129-135.
Yasumura, D., Oshima, Y., Yasumoto, T., Alcala, A. C. and Alcala, L. C. 1986. Tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish toxins in Philippine crabs. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 50: 593-598.
Yasumoto, T., Yasumura, D., Ohizumi, Y., Takahashi, M., Alcala, A. C. and Alcala, L. C. 1986. Palytoxin in two species of xanthid crab from the Philippines. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 59: 163-167.
Yasumoto, T., Yotsu, M. and Murata, M. 1988. New tetrodotoxin analogues from the newt Cynops ensicauda. Journal of the American Chemical Society 110: 2344-2345.
Yokoo, A. 1950. Study on chemical purification of tetrodotoxin (3)-Purification of spheroidine. Journal of the Chemical Society of Japan 71: 590-592.
Yu, F. H. and Catterall, W. A. 2003. Overview of the voltage-gated sodium channel family. Genome Biology 4: 207.1-207.7.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔