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研究生:楊志傑
研究生(外文):Chih-Chieh Yang
論文名稱:冷凍牡蠣產品研發及其品質衛生控管
論文名稱(外文):Development of frozen oyster products and their quality and sanitation control
指導教授:蕭泉源蕭泉源引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chyuan-Yuan Shiau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:牡蠣冷凍品質
外文關鍵詞:oysterfrozenquality
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生鮮牡蠣於4℃貯藏至第3天時,外觀開始呈現萎縮和黑變現象,汁液流失增加,K值上升至45%,貯存至第7天後,牡蠣呈黑變萎縮並流出大量汁液,K值亦上升至77%,揮發性鹽基態氮 (VBN) 含量達25.76 mg/100 g,顯示牡蠣冷藏期限低於7天。此外,生鮮牡蠣供應之數量與品質不穩定,故本研究擬研發冷凍牡蠣產品及其品質之控管,俾利產銷平衡。
以緩慢凍結 (-18℃)、個別快速凍結I.Q.F.技術 (-40℃、35分) 與tray-packing type (T.P.) 液態氮凍結(-110℃、18分) 應用於牡蠣之凍結,凍藏期間三組牡蠣外觀皆有褐變現象,緩慢凍結組和T.P.組產品於解凍後,部分組織 (櫛狀鰓、消化腺) 破裂,甚至有塌陷萎縮現象,過濾汁液亦以T.P.組流失最多,但三組固形物與肝醣含量差異不大,緩慢凍結組VBN、hypoxanthine含量和K值為最高,游離胺基酸則以T.P.組損失最多,牛磺酸、麩胺酸等為主要流失對象。
牡蠣凍結前,加入水、鹽水 (1.5%) 與磷酸鹽 (0.3%) 浸漬再於-18℃下凍結,樣品解凍後之固形物、肝醣與游離胺基酸之保持較控制組 (未浸漬組) 差,且未能改善冷凍牡蠣褐變現象。
生鮮牡蠣經熱水殺菁 (80℃、70秒) 與I.Q.F.凍結處理 (-40℃,35分) 後之熟凍牡蠣,產品外觀無破裂情況,且可降低總好氣性菌、大腸桿菌和大腸桿菌群數,但殺菁過程中呈味成分減少。熟凍牡蠣解凍後於4℃下儲藏期限為24小時,冷凍貯藏期限為5個月。本研究結果可利用於牡蠣盛產期生產冷凍牡蠣,俾在淡季時替代生鮮牡蠣產品供應市場,以穩定牡蠣產銷價格與品質。
The raw shucked oyster began to shrink in shape and darken in color after storage at 4℃ for 3 days. Drained liquid also increased and K value reached 45%. After 7-day storage the darkened color and liquid loss became more serious. K value and volatile basic nitrogen reached 77% and 25.76 mg/100 g, respectively. Results showed the shelf-life of refrigerated oyster was less than 7 days. In addition, the supply and quilty of raw oyster is unstable. Therefore this study was carried out to develop frozen oyster products and to upgrade their quality for the benefit of oyster production and marketing.
The products treated with slow freezing (-18℃), I.Q.F. (individual quick freezing) (-40℃, 35 min) and T.P. (tray-packing type, liquid N2 freezing) (-110℃, 18 min) gradually became brown in color during frozen storage. The rupture of some tissues such as gills and digestive glands was found in slow freezing and I.Q.F. products after thawing. The drained liquid in T.P. product was the highest. There were no remarkable differences in solid and glycogen content among three products. Slow freezing product had the highest values of VBN, hypoxanthine and K value. The loss of free amino acids (FAA) including taurine and glutamic acid was more serious in T.P. product.
Shucked oyster meat were immersed with distilled water, brine (1.5%) and phosphate solution (0.3%), and then frozen storage at -18℃ for 3 months. The thawed products showed their solid, glycogen and FAA remained lower than those of control group without treatment. The brown color was also found in the thawed products.
The oyster meat treated with blanching procedure (80℃, 70 sec) and then I.Q.F. (-40℃, 35 min) freezing showed no occurrence of broken products. This procedure also reduced drip loss and bacteria counts including aerobic plate count, E. coli and coliforms. The shelf-life of the blanched product was 24 hrs during storage at 4℃, and 5 months for that of frozen (-18℃) storage. This study provided useful information for the seafood industry to produce the high quality frozen products at oyster season and provided them in the market at oyster off-season to stabilize the price and the quality of oyster products.
目錄
中文摘要 II
Abstract III
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 XI
附錄 XII
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻整理 3
一、牡蠣之生理、生態與養殖 3
二、牡蠣收穫後處理與利用 4
三、牡蠣之化學組成分 5
四、魚貝類之萃取物成分 6
(一) 游離胺基酸 7
(二) 雙胜? 9
(三) 核?酸及其相關化合物 10
(四) 醣類 11
五、魚貝類之鮮度判定指標 11
(一) 揮發性鹽基態氮 12
(二) 三甲胺及二甲胺 13
(三) K值 13
(三) pH值 14
(四) 次黃嘌呤 15
(五) 好氣性總生菌數 15
(五) 大腸桿菌群 16
(六) 大腸桿菌 17
六、冷凍加工特性及其應用 17
(一) 水產品冷凍原理與特性 17
(二) 冷凍水產品之品質控制 18
(三) 冷凍牡蠣之品質評估 18
參、材料與方法 20
一、實驗材料 20
(一) 小盒裝不泡水生鮮牡蠣 20
(二) 冷凍牡蠣 20
(三) 過濾汁液與殘留肉之分離 21
二、實驗項目 21
(一) 生鮮與冷藏牡蠣品質之差異 21
(二) 凍結方式對冷凍牡蠣品質之差異 21
(三) 浸漬液浸漬處理對冷凍牡蠣品質之影響 21
(四) 熱水殺菁處理對牡蠣品質之影響 22
(五) 熟凍牡蠣貯存期間品質之變化 22
三、分析方法 22
(一) 一般成分與總固形物 22
(二) 鹽分 24
(三) pH 值 24
(四) 游離胺基酸與雙胜? 24
(五) 肝醣 24
(六) 揮發性鹽基態氮 25
(七) 核?酸相關化合物與K值計算 25
(八) 總生菌數 26
(九) 大腸桿菌群和大腸桿菌 27
(十) 官能檢測 27
四、統計分析 27
肆、結果與討論 28
一、生鮮與冷藏牡蠣品質之差異 28
(一) 生鮮牡蠣之一般成分 28
(二) 生鮮與冷藏牡蠣一般成分之比較 28
(三) 牡蠣冷藏期間鮮度之變化 28
(四) 牡蠣冷藏期間游離胺基酸之變化 29
(五) 官能檢測 30
二、凍結方式對冷凍牡蠣品質之影響 31
(一) 一般成分 31
(二) 鮮度品質 31
(三) 游離胺基酸 32
(四) 官能檢測 33
三、浸漬液浸漬處理對冷凍牡蠣品質之影響 34
(一) 一般成分和外觀 34
(二) 含氮化合物 34
四、熱水殺菁處理對牡蠣品質之影響 36
(一) 一般成分和外觀 36
(二) 含氮化合物 36
(三) 總生菌數、大腸桿菌群和大腸桿菌 37
五、熟凍牡蠣貯存期間品質之變化 39
(一) 冷藏期間之品質變化 39
(二) 凍藏期間之品質變化 39
伍、結論 41
參考文獻 42
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