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研究生(外文):Wan-Ling Lu
論文名稱(外文):Comparison on Aroma Profile of Clam Essence Measured with GC-Sniffing and Electronic Nose
指導教授(外文):Bonnie Sun Pan
外文關鍵詞:GC-SniffingE-noseclam essenceodor
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摘 要
台灣蜆 (Freshwater clam, Corbiclular fluminea) 為台灣地區主要淡水養殖貝類,民間普遍以熬蜆湯以滋補身體,並認為有保肝效果。目前市面上已有蜆精產品,但氣味不良,故本實驗以 GC/MS分析蜆精之氣味化合物, E-nose建立蜆精氣味之指紋圖,以便快速進行蜆精氣味之品質管理及控制腥氣。
由 E-nose建立各樣品之氣味指紋。樣品 (E) 中含有氣味強之添加物,其氣味指紋強度大於其他樣品,剔除樣品 (E) 後轉換成 PCA 分析得知樣品氣味主成分差異性為 99.67%;以 SQC 分析,樣品 (D)、(F) 距離以樣品 (A)為氣味品質標準區之範圍最遠,其氣味品質與品質標的樣品差異最大,進一步可應用於生產線上,對於不同批次之產品進行管控,以確保產品之品質。雷達圖當中感應器 PA2、T30/1 及 T70/2 在各樣品中差異明顯,利用感應器敏感氣體表推測結果與GC/MS 相符合,而P10/1、P10/2 及 P40/1 感應器對於吸附樣品氣味並無太大差異。
樣品進行 GC 分析及嗅聞,市售樣品 (A) - (D) 和 (F) 進行嗅聞,可聞到烤味 (R.I. = 1204) 、甜味、清涼味 (R.I. = 1501) 、花香味 (R.I. = 1627) 、燒烤味、胡椒味 (R.I. = 1641) ;市售樣品 (E) 可聞到刺激、硫味 (R.I. = 977、1517) 。生蜆肉 (G) 的脂肪酸中 PUFA占總脂肪酸 17.89 %,當中以 C18:3 n-3 含量最高,C22:6 n-3含量次之,可作為 LOX 氧化反應產生氣味。自製蜆精 (H) 因加溫造成 LOX 失去活性,無法與脂質作用,且揮發性高之氣味化合物已揮發,導致氣味化合物含量低。以GC/MS 鑑定揮發性成份,樣品中醇類比例最高。將市售樣品與生蜆肉 (G) 及自製蜆精 (H) 比對,發現樣品 (G) 及(H) 並未測出碳氫化合物及含氮、含硫化合物,在此認定為添加之香氣配料。市售樣品與生蜆肉 (G) 和自製蜆精 (H) 比對,市售樣品含有 1-nonanol (7/8,油味、草味)、l-dodecanol (5/8,油味、蠟味) 及 benzaldehyde (4/8,杏仁味、燒烤味)。
Freshwater clam (Corbiclular flminea) is the major freshwater cultivated bivalvia in Taiwan. In addition, local people believe that the soup made with freshwater clam has hepatoprotective activity. There are many clam essences in market, but the odor of those products is hard to accept by consumer. The purpose of this study was using GC/MS to analysis the odor of clam essences, establishing fingerprint of sample and quickly controlling the odor quality of clam essence by E-nose
E-nose plot showed that sample (E) was stronger than the other 5 commercial clam essences products in 6 volatile attributes. Its principal component analysis (PCA) differed at 99.67% level from the other products, which showed similar profile that was hard to distinguish from each other. Statistical quality control (SQC) of clam essence odor was assessed product odor quality control, can apply on the production line. Sample (D) and (F) were separate from sample (A) as normal area in SQC plot. Comparing with sensitive gas of sensor, PA2, T30/1 and T70/2 sensors in radar plot of clam essences showed alcohols having significantly different and P10/1, P10/2 and P40/1 sensors didn’t.
Analysis samples with GC/FID and GC-sniffing,that we can smell burnt (R.I. = 1204), sweet, mint (R.I. = 1501), flower (R.I. = 1627), burnt pepper (R.I. = 1641) in sample (A), (D) and (F); sulfurous (R.I. = 977、1517) in sample (E). There were 17.89 % PUFA in flash clam meat (G), could product odor through LOX oxidation. The odor concentration of lab-made clam essence was low, because temperature cause LOX deactivate and make high volatile compounds evaporated
Proportion of volatile alcohols was highest in samples identifying by GC/MS. Some hydrocarbons, nitrogen and sulfur compounds were established as additive because haven’t been detected in clam meat (G) and Lab-made clam essence (H), There were 1-nonanol (fatty, green)、l-dodecanol (fatty, waxy) and benzaldehyde (almond, burnt sugar) in commercial clam essence.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
圖目錄 v
表目錄圖 vi
壹、 前言 1
貳、 文獻回顧 3
一、 食品風味 3
1. 食品風味之形成 3
2.1 醇類 (alcohols) 3
2.2 醛類 (aldehydes) 4
2.3 酮類 (ketones) 5
2.4 酸類 (acids) 6
2.5 酯類 (esters) 6
2.6 雜環化合物 6
(1) 環氧化合物 7
(2) 含氮化合物 7
(3) 含硫化合物 8
二、 水產品風味 9
1. 魚 9
2. 蝦類 10
3. 貝類 11
三、 氣味分析方法 12
1. 氣相層析嗅聞裝置 13
2. 電子鼻 14
參、 材料與方法 17
一、 材料 17
1. 生蜆肉 17
2. 自製蜆精 17
3. 市售蜆精 17
4. SPME吸附纖維 17
二、 氣味成份分析 19
1. 氣味成份萃取 19
1.1. 固相微量萃取法 (solid-phase microextraction, SPME) 19
1.2. MonoTrap 法 20
2. 氣相層析 (Gas chromatography, GC) 20
3. 氣相層析嗅聞法 (GC-Sniffing) 20
4. 滯留指數 (Retention index, R.I.) 之測定 21
5. 氣液相層析-質譜儀 (GC/MS) 分析 21
三、 電子鼻氣味分析 22
1. 氣味成份萃取 22
2. 電子鼻 (electronic nose, E-nose) 22
四、 脂肪酸分析 25
1. 脂質萃取 25
2. 氣相層析分析 25
肆、 結果與討論 27
一、 蜆精氣味品質管控 27
1. 電子鼻雷達圖 27
2. 氣味指標成份 34
二、 蜆精氣味化合物組成 36
1. 氣味化合物SPME 吸附纖維之選擇 36
2. 氣味化合物之分離 39
2.1. 生蜆肉 39
2.2. 自製蜆精 39
2.3. 市售蜆精 45
3. 氣味化合物之鑑定 53
2.1. 碳氫化合物 53
2.2. 醇類 53
2.3. 醛類 54
2.4. 酮類 55
2.5. 含氮及含硫化合物 55
伍、 結論 60
陸、 參考文獻 62
陸、 參考文獻
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