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研究生:黃雅雯
研究生(外文):Ya-Wen Huang
論文名稱:以生活史參數探討魟、鰩資源管理之應用
論文名稱(外文):Management implication for skates and rays based on analysis of life history parameters
指導教授:劉光明劉光明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kwang-Ming Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋事務與資源管理研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:生活史參數族群成長率多變量分析
外文關鍵詞:skatesrayslife history parameterspopulation growth ratemultivariate analysis
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魟、鰩有成長緩慢、性成熟晚、產仔數或產卵數少等特性,只要漁獲壓力稍大,其族群即有可能崩潰甚至滅絕之虞。由於魟、鰩管理之迫切性,卻無法對每種魟、鰩進行詳細的資源評估,因此本研究蒐集35 種41 系群之生活史特性進行分析,包含出生體長與極限體長之比值(Lb/L∞)、性成熟體長與極限體長之比值(Lm/L∞)、性成熟年齡(Tm)、成長係數(k)、最大年齡(Tmax)及年胎仔數(f/Rc)。以主成份分析得到主成份得點,再利用集群分析法進行分群,最後利用迴歸分析找出生活史參數與族群成長率之關係,並建立估計各群族群成長率(λ)之經驗式。結果顯示41 系群可分為3 群,第一群為較早熟(Lm/L∞<0.62)、成長緩慢(k<0.090 yr-1)、壽命長(Tmax>28 yr),如金魟(Dasyatis chrysonota)等,估計λ 的經驗式為λ'=1.7127+0.3127*ln(Lm/L∞)-0.2720*ln(Tm)+0.1080*ln(f/Rc);第二群為較晚熟(Lm/L∞>0.62)、成長速率介於中間(0.090 yr-1<k<0.160 yr-1)、最大年齡也介於中間(17 yr<Tmax<28 yr),如滑鰩(Dipturus laevis)等,λ'=1.2523-0.4038*ln(Tm)-0.2302*ln(k)+0.1166*ln(f/Rc);第三群為出生體長與極限體長之比值大(Lb/L∞>0.18)、成長快速(k>0.160 yr-1)、壽命短(Tmax<17 yr),如紫魟(Pteroplatytrygon violacea)等,λ'=0.9205+0.0603*ln(Lb/L∞)-0.3744*ln(Lm/L∞)+0.1234*ln(f/Rc)。依照個別魟、鰩之生活史特性帶入本研究所發展所屬群組之迴歸方程式,即可預測該魚種之族群成長率,且與傳統人口學分析法所得之結果相近。此方法可減少因生活史參數估計之不確定性所造成族群成長率之誤差,是一經濟有效的資源管理工具。
Skates and rays generally grow slowly, reach sexual maturity at a late age, and have low fecundity. These stocks may be depleted or collapsed under heavy fishing pressure. Thus, management of these species is urgently needed. This study used the analysis of life history parameters to achieve this goal. Life history parameters including the ratio between size at birth and asymptotic length (Lb/L∞), the ratio between size at maturity and asymptotic length (Lm/L∞), maximum age (Tmax), age at maturity (Tm), growth rate (k) and the ratio between fecundity and reproduction cycle (f/Rc) of 35 species (41 stocks) were analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA) to calculate factor coordinates. Three groups were categorized by cluster analysis based on PC scores. Three empirical equations describing the relationships between population growth rates (λ' ) and life history parameters were developed as followings: (1) λ'=1.7127+0.3127*ln(Lm/L∞)-0.2720*ln(Tm)+0.1080*ln(f/Rc), for species with slow growth rate (k<0.090 yr-1), high longevity (Tmax>28 yr) and early maturity (Lm/L∞<0.62), (e.g. Dasyatis chrysonota etc.); (2) λ'=1.2523-0.4038*ln(Tm)-0.2302*ln(k)+0.1166*ln(f/Rc), for species with intermediate growth rate (0.090 yr-1<k<0.160 yr-1), intermediate longevity (17 yr<Tmax<28 yr), late mature (Lm/L∞>0.62), (e.g. Dipturus laevis etc.); (3) λ'=0.9205+0.0603*ln(Lb/L∞)-0.3744*ln(Lm/L∞)+0.1234*ln(f/Rc), for species with fast growth rate (k>0.160 yr-1), low longevity (Tmax<17 yr) and big size at birth (Lb/L∞>0.18), (e.g. Pteroplatytrygon violacea etc.). The population growth rates predicted by empirical equations developed in this study have good agreement with those from conventional demographic analysis. Our empirical equations can reduce the uncertainties from life history parameter estimation and increase the accuracy of estimation of population growth rates.
第一章 前言................................................1
1-1分類地位及型態特徵........................................1
1-2緣由與動機...............................................2
1-3文獻回顧.................................................4
1-4研究目的.................................................8
第二章 材料與方法..........................................10
2-1資料來源................................................10
2-1-1生活史參數之蒐集.......................................10
2-1-2生態參數之蒐集........................................13
2-2資料處理與分析..........................................14
2-2-1自然死亡係數之估計.....................................14
2-2-2以人口學方法估計族群成長率..............................14
2-2-3輸入之生活史參數.......................................15
2-3多變量分析法............................................16
2-3-1主成份分析法..........................................16
2-3-2集群分析法............................................18
2-3-3迴歸分析法............................................18
2-4生態參數與分群..........................................19
第三章 結果...............................................20
3-1生活史參數..............................................20
3-1-1生殖參數..............................................20
3-1-2年齡成長參數..........................................21
3-1-3各體長間之比值........................................22
3-2參數之估計..............................................23
3-2-1生殖週期與年胎仔數(或年產卵數).........................23
3-2-2最大年齡之估計........................................23
3-2-3自然死亡係數之估計.....................................24
3-2-4以人口學估計之族群成長率................................24
3-3多變量分析法............................................25
3-3-1主成份分析............................................25
3-3-1-1生活史參數之相關性...................................25
3-3-1-2特徵值與解釋變異.....................................26
3-3-1-3特徵向量............................................26
3-3-1-4生活史參數與主成份之相關性............................27
3-3-1-5主成份得點..........................................27
3-3-2集群分析..............................................28
3-3-3生態參數與分群........................................29
3-3-4迴歸分析..............................................29
3-3-4-1各群之經驗式........................................29
3-3-4-2以迴歸分析估計族群成長率..............................30
第四章 討論...............................................31
4-1生活史參數之引用.........................................31
4-1-1生殖週期與年胎仔數(或年產卵數).........................31
4-1-2成長係數..............................................32
4-1-3體長.................................................33
4-1-4出生體長與極限體長之比值................................33
4-1-5成熟體長與極限體長之比值................................34
4-2最大年齡之估計..........................................35
4-3自然死亡係數之估計.......................................35
4-4以人口學方法估計之族群成長率..............................36
4-5輸入之生活史參數.........................................37
4-6生活史參數之相關性.......................................38
4-7多變量分析..............................................39
4-8以迴歸分析估計之族群成長率................................39
4-9生活史參數之不確定性.....................................40
4-9-1生殖參數..............................................40
4-9-2年齡成長參數..........................................41
4-10生活史特性之比較........................................42
4-11生態參數與生活史參數之關聯性.............................42
4-12資源管理之建議.........................................43
4-13結論..................................................46
4-14後續研究...............................................46
參考文獻...................................................48
附圖......................................................65
附表......................................................90
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