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研究生:李吉立
論文名稱:組織氣候、獎勵制度、領導型態與工作績效之關係—以海運承攬運送業為例
論文名稱(外文):The Relationships among Organization Climate, Reward System, Leadership Styles, and Job Performance: The Case of Ocean Freight Forwarder Industry
指導教授:梁金樹梁金樹引用關係
指導教授(外文):Gin-Shuh Liang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:航運管理學系
學門:運輸服務學門
學類:運輸管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:組織氣候獎勵制度領導型態工作績效
外文關鍵詞:organization climatereward systemleadership stylesjob performance
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:70
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  • 下載下載:562
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企業之成員必須完成上級交付的任務,提升工作績效,才能使其工作團隊與整體組織達成獲利目標。為有效管理與掌握工作績效,組織必須找出造成工作績效落差的影響因素,並設法改善。

本研究旨在探討組織內部因素:組織氣候、獎勵制度及領導型態,對成員工作績效之影響。研究對象為台灣地區海運承攬運送業者,採隨機抽樣方式進行問卷調查,共發放200份問卷,回收122份,有效回收問卷為95份,有效回收率為47.5%。經綜合、彙整文獻探討之內容後,設計出各項研究構面分別為:組織氣候-人際關係、組織認同、程序規範;獎勵制度-財務性獎勵、非財務性獎勵;領導型態-轉換型領導、交易型領導、規範型領導;工作績效-任務績效、脈絡績效。

本文利用相關及層級迴歸方法進行分析,結果顯示組織氣候、獎勵制度及領導型態皆對工作績效有顯著正向相關及影響,而各構面影響工作績效最深的因素分別為組織認同、非財務性獎勵及規範型領導。然本研究發現,海運承攬運送業員工的組織認同感略嫌不足,組織程序規範之細膩度亦待提升;員工對財務及非財務性獎勵制度感到差強人意;工作績效中規中矩,但不會勇於嘗試挑戰性的任務。本研究認為,海運承攬運送業應強化組織的核心價值觀,藉此確立成員對組織的認同感,提升工作意願,並盡可能豐富非財務性獎勵制度的內容,從精神層面激勵員工。此外,在以規範為主軸的領導方式下,輔以更多的關懷、啟發,並以成員之需求滿足來交換其工作之付出,有助於組織成員達成更卓越之績效表現。
The members of an enterprise have to complete their tasks assigned by the director and raise their job performance so that the work team and whole organization could make a profit. In order to manage and control job performance efficiently, the organization should find out the causes of making worse job performance and try to improve the situation.

This study discussed the influence on job performance by internal reasons: organization climate, reward systems, and leadership styles. A total 200 questionnaires were sent to the workers of Taiwanese ocean freight forwarder industry by random sampling. 122 responses were received, and 95 were found to be valid for a usable response rate of 47.5%.

After integrating the content of literature reviews, this study designed few research factors as follows: organization climate included interpersonal relationship, organization identity, stuctures and standards; reward systems included financial reward and non-financial reward; leadership styles included transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and normative leadership; job performance included task performance and contextual performance.

By using correlation and hierarchy regression analysis, the study results showed that organization climate, reward systems, and leadership styles separately had significant positive correlation with job performance, and also had an influence on it. The most significant factors of influing job performance were organization identity, non-financial reward, and normative leadership. However, the study findinds showed that the degree of organization identity of the workers had a little insufficient, and the precision of the stuctures and standards also had a room for improvement. Besides, workers felt merely adequate on financial reward and non-financial reward, and they had average job performance but no desire to try challenging tasks.

This study suggested ocean freight forwarder companies should establish their core value, thus, members could strengthen their organization identity and raise their work inclination. Second, enrich the content of non-financial reward system to encourage members spiritually. Finally, on the basis of normative leadership, assist with more concern and enlightenment, and exchange members’ need for their efforts, thus, that could help members to achieve more excellent performance.
目 錄

謝辭 i
摘 要 ii
Abstract iii
目 錄 v
表 目 錄 viii
圖 目 錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究流程 4
1.4 章節架構 5
第二章 文獻探討 6
2.1 組織氣候相關文獻探討 6
2.1.1 組織氣候概述 6
2.1.2 組織氣候之重要性 7
2.1.3 組織氣候發展趨勢 8
2.1.4 組織氣候構面 9
2.2 獎勵制度相關文獻探討 12
2.2.1 獎勵制度概述 12
2.2.2 獎勵制度之類型 13
2.2.3 獎勵制度發展趨勢 16
2.2.4 獎勵制度構面 20
2.3 領導型態相關文獻探討 21
2.3.1 領導概述 21
2.3.2 領導型態理論之演進 23
2.3.3 新近領導型態理論 29
2.3.4 領導型態構面 33
2.4 工作績效相關文獻探討 33
2.4.1 工作績效概述 33
2.4.2 影響工作績效之因素 34
2.4.3 工作績效評估方式 36
2.4.4 工作績效構面 38
2.5 組織氣候與工作績效關係之相關文獻探討 40
2.6 獎勵制度與工作績效關係之相關文獻探討 42
2.7 領導型態與工作績效關係之相關文獻探討 45
第三章 研究設計與方法 47
3.1 研究架構 47
3.2 研究變項之定義與衡量 48
3.2.1 組織氣候之定義與衡量 48
3.2.2 獎勵制度之定義與衡量 49
3.2.3 領導型態之定義與衡量 49
3.2.4 工作績效之定義與衡量 50
3.3 研究假說 51
3.4 研究設計與內容 52
3.5 抽樣對象與方法 56
3.6 資料分析方法 58
第四章 研究結果 60
4.1 樣本資料結構分析 60
4.2 敘述性統計分析 63
4.2.1 組織氣候敘述性統計分析 63
4.2.2 獎勵制度敘述性統計分析 65
4.2.3 領導型態敘述性統計分析 67
4.2.4 工作績效敘述性統計分析 70
4.3 信度及效度分析 72
4.3.1 信度分析 72
4.3.2 效度分析 73
4.4 驗證結果與討論 73
4.4.1 組織氣候與工作績效關係之探討 74
4.4.2 獎勵制度與工作績效關係之探討 78
4.4.3 領導型態與工作績效關係之探討 81
4.4.4 組織氣候、獎勵制度、領導型態與工作績效關係之綜合比較 86
第五章 結論與建議 88
5.1 結論 88
5.1.1 敘述性統計分析結果 88
5.1.2 研究假說驗證結果 91
5.2 建議 94
5.2.1 對業界之建議 94
5.2.2 對未來研究之建議 96
參考文獻 97
附錄 問卷調查表 110





















表 目 錄
表2.1組織氣候相關構面彙整表 9
表2.2常見薪酬給付方式之比較 14
表2.3整體獎勵制度 18
表2.4獎勵制度相關構面彙整表 20
表2.5領導者與管理者之差異 22
表2.6重要特徵理論 23
表2.7轉換型領導與交易型領導之比較 31
表2.8工作績效影響因素 35
表3.1 組織氣候問卷構面及題項 53
表3.2 獎勵制度問卷構面及題項 54
表3.3 領導型態問卷構面及題項 55
表3.4 工作績效問卷構面及題項 56
表3.5問卷回收概況表 57
表4.1問卷樣本資料結構分析表 62
表4.2組織氣候量表之敘述性統計 65
表4.3獎勵制度量表之敘述性統計 67
表4.4領導型態量表之敘述性統計 69
表4.5工作績效量表之敘述性統計 71
表4.6 調整後之構面信度 73
表4.7 組織氣候與工作績效之相關係數表 74
表4.8 組織氣候對工作績效之迴歸分析表 75
表4.9人際關係、組織認同及程序規範對任務績效之迴歸分析表 77
表4.10人際關係、組織認同及程序規範對脈絡績效之迴歸分析表 77
表4.11獎勵制度與工作績效之相關係數表 78
表4.12獎勵制度對工作績效之迴歸分析表 79
表4.13財務性獎勵及非財務性獎勵對任務績效之迴歸分析表 80
表4.14財務性獎勵及非財務性獎勵對脈絡績效之迴歸分析表 81
表4.15領導型態與工作績效之相關係數表 82
表4.16領導型態對工作績效之迴歸分析表 82
表4.17轉換型領導、交易型領導及規範型領導對任務績效之迴歸分析表 84
表4.18轉換型領導、交易型領導及規範型領導對脈絡績效之迴歸分析表 85
表4.19組織氣候、獎勵制度與領導型態對工作績效之多元迴歸分析表 86
表4.20組織認同、非財務性獎勵與規範型領導對工作績效之多元迴歸分析表 86
表4.21研究假說檢定結果總覽 87
圖 目 錄
圖1-1研究流程 4
圖2-1 Blake & Mouton管理方格理論 26
圖2-2 House & Mitchell (1974)之路徑—目標理論 27
圖2-3 Fiedler情境模式 27
圖2-4 Hersey & Blanchard之情境領導 28
圖2-5 360度回饋法概念圖 36
圖3-1研究架構 47
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