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研究生:楊易洲
研究生(外文):Yi-Chou Yang
論文名稱:澎湖海域冷水入侵前後水文環境與沿岸漁業變動關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):The fluctuation of coastal fisheries and hydrographic features before and after the cold water intrusion event around Penghu Islands
指導教授:李明安李明安引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-An Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:環境生物與漁業科學學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:海洋表面水溫大陸沿岸流反聖嬰漁業衝擊冷水入侵
外文關鍵詞:Sea surface temperatureChina Coastal CurrentLa NiñaFishery impactsCold water intrusion
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本研究收集1996至2011年冬天衛星遙測海洋表面水溫、風速資料及澎湖海域沿岸漁業資料,以究明大陸沿岸水入侵澎湖水域及其對沿岸漁業的可能影響。結果顯示1996、2008年及2011年冬季均有冷水向南入侵到達澎湖水域之現象;比較澎湖水域週邊水域海洋表面水溫與風速關係則顯示聖嬰期間表面水溫較反聖嬰期間之水溫為高,而強風吹拂天數少且風速較弱,故此時不會發生冷水入侵現象,不過,反聖嬰年期間雲彰隆起北側水域月別平均水溫高於歷年平均表水溫3℃以上,次月如發生連續吹彿超過11天強風,則可能會發生冷水入侵事件。2008年與2011年連續30天與27天強勁的東北季風促使大陸沿岸水入侵至澎湖水域以及雲彰隆起水域,分別造成較歷年平均表水溫低11.6℃及7.4℃之現象。
此一冷水入侵現象亦對沿岸生態造成衝擊,以2008年觀之,其與歷年之第一季漁獲量與組成比對發現,一支釣、雜魚延繩釣與刺網漁業以漁獲定棲型魚類為主,漁獲量減少約45至80%,而定置網漁業以漁獲洄游性魚類為主,漁獲量較歷年平均值高約280%,亦即不同類型之漁獲種類會依其生態習性呈現出冷水入侵之正向與逆向的效應。至於2011年之冷水入侵事件,經現場與數值模擬可知,冷水入侵係由西北方向往南方向部分入侵至澎湖水域,故並未對沿岸漁業造成明顯的衝擊。

From the long-term (1996-2011) observations on wintertime sea surface temperature (SST) fields of satellite-derived data, wind speed and coastal fishery production around Penghu, the exceptional cold water intrusion into the southern Taiwan Strait (TS) were noted in the La Nina winter, 2008 and 2011. Comparing the SST and wind speed during El Niño/La Niña events, we found that SST was warmer in the El Niño winters than in the La Niña winters, while wind speed was more intensive in the La Niña winters than in the El Niño winters. In the La Nina winter of 2008 and 2011, the strong and continuous northeasterly wind caused by a La Niña event drove the cold Mainland China Costal Current more southward allowing it to penetrate into the southern TS north of the Chang-Yuen Ridge, and a portion of this current intruded eastward to south of the Penghu Islands. These two events resulted in a SST decline of 11.6 and 7.4℃, respectively. The former also significantly damaged marine life, causing the death of more than 73 tons of fishes at Penghu Islands, but not for the latter.
Comparing variations of the first quarterly catches and species compositions in 2008 with long-term averages from 1996 to 2011, we found about 45-80% decreases in the catches of pole and lines boots, misc. fish long line, and gill net fisheries, which was dominated by non-migratory species and more than long-term averages 280% increase in the set net fishery, which was mainly composed of migratory species. In other words, the exceptional cold water instrusion impact on the benthic/resident fishes, but not for pelagic fishes of coastal fishery.

目 錄

摘要 I
Abstract II
目 錄 IV
表 目 錄 VI
圖 目 錄 VIII
壹、前言 1
1.1 澎湖海域海洋環境與水文概況 1
1.2 澎湖「漁業寒害」及「冷水入侵事件」 2
1.3 衛星遙測的特性與應用 4
1.4 研究動機與目的 5
貳、材料與方法 6
2.1衛星遙測系統與海洋表面水溫影像資料 6
2.2 現場實測資料 7
2.2.1 澎湖浮標海溫測站 7
2.2.2 澎湖氣象站風速資料 7
2.2.3 現場CTD溫鹽深度儀 8
2.3 海洋聖嬰指數(Oceanic Niño Index, ONI) 8
2.4 漁獲資料蒐集與分析 9
2.4.1 澎湖沿岸漁業種類別月別漁業生產量 9
2.4.2 標本戶沿岸漁業日別漁獲統計問卷 9
參、結果 11
3.1 臺灣海峽冬季長期海洋表面水溫特性 11
3.2 海表溫、風速以及海洋聖嬰指數之變化 12
3.3 異常冷水入侵對沿岸漁業之衝擊 13
3.4 漁獲種類組成之變化 14
肆、討論 16
4.1 ENSO現象與水溫變動之關係 16
4.2 反聖嬰年間水溫差異 17
4.3 冷水入侵對魚類之衝擊 19
4.4 冷水入侵對沿岸漁業之影響 22
4.5 20℃等溫線距澎湖本島之距離與持續強風累積天數變化 23
伍、結論 25
參考文獻 27

表 目 錄

Table 1 The dead fish removed by the EPB in different villages of Penghu islands. 32
Table 2 Warm (red) and cold (blue) episodes based on a threshold of +/- 0.5℃ for the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) SST anomalies in the Niño 3.4 region during the period of January 1996 to March 2011. 33
Table 3 Monthly lasting days for wind speed > 6 m s-1 days in February (except for January 2011) of El Niño and La Niña years. 34
Table 4 The average quarterly (January-March) fish catch (metric ton) of four major coastal fisheries in Peng-Hu Islands for the long-term average of 1996-2011 (excluding 2008) and the La Niña years (1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2008 and 2011). 35
Table 5 Questionnaire data for species composition of the pole and lines, misc. fish long line, gillnet, and set net fisheries from January to March during 2006 to 2010. The species marked by asterisk are migratory species, and the rests are non-migratory species. 36
Table 6 Statistical t-test of the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of the first four dominant species in Feb. 2008 and the long-term average. 38
Table 7 Dead fish species and number in the coastal water of Wangan Village during the period of cold water intrusion 2011. 39
Table 8 Dead fish species in the coastal water of Wangan Village during the period of cold water intrusion 2008(Cited from Su et al., 2008 in Chinese). 40
Table 9 The number of fish species comparison around penghu islands between 1992~1993 and 2008(Cited from Su et al., 2008 in Chinese). 41
Table 10 Statistical t-test of the fish species and number around Penghu islands in Feb. 2008(Cited from Su et al., 2008 in Chinese). 42
Table 11 The list of dead fishes around Penghu islands during Feb. 2008 and Feb. 2011(Cited from Penghu marine biology research center, fisheries research institute, C. O. A., 2011 dead list not publish). 47

圖 目 錄

Figure 1. Map of Taiwan Strait and Penghu Islands with bathymetric contours (in meters) and schematic view of the current circulation (modified from Jan et al. 2002). 48
Figure 2. (a-d) Extraordinary fish deaths due to the unusual cold-water intrusion into the waters around the Penghu Islands in February 2008; (e) the people of Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) for removing bags of dead fish by truck. All pictures were reproduced from Anon (2008). 49
Figure 3. Distribution of dead fish on the coast around the Penghu Islands during the cold sea surface temperature (SST) event in February 2008. Black bold numbers indicate the weight (in tons) with the geographic locations of dead fish recorded by the Environmental Protection Bureau of Penghu County. 50
Figure 4. The component of HRPT remote sensing system. 51
Figure 5. Flowchart for deriving Satellite SST data. 52
Figure 6. Long-term monthly SST averages of 1996-2010 and its difference to 2008 for January (a, b), February (c, d), and March (e, f). 53
Figure 7. Time series of the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) from 1996 to 2011. ( La Niña years:1996、1999-2001、2008 and 2011,El Nino years : 1998、2003、2005、2007 and 2010). 54
Figure 8. Time series of the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI, black line), sea surface temperature (SST, gray line), and wind speed (dotted line) in January (1) and February (2) of 1996~2011. The years with an ONI above the shaded area indicate El Niño years; on the other hand, years with the ONI below the shaded area indicate La Niña years. The rest which fall in the shadowed area are normal years. The red line indicate the level of wind speed (6m/s). 55
Figure 9. Time series of the inter-seasonal variation of wind speed (black contour), SST derived by AVHRR (black dots), NGSST (grey dots) ,TRMM (pink dots) and AMSR-E (hollow dots) during the period of 1996 to 2011. 56
Figure 10. Relationship between satellite-derived SST of AVHRR and wind speed during the period of from 1996 to 2011. 57
Figure 11. Monthly sea surface temperature (SST) for February of El Niño (upper panels) and La Niña years (lower panels). Large and bold numbers indicate the number of days with wind speeds of > 6 m s-1. 58
Figure 12. The time series of total productions during the period of January to March from 1996 to 2011 for four fisheries. 59
Figure 13. Monthly catch variations of four major types of coastal fisheries. Open bars, long-term average; solid bars, February 2008. Thin lines indicate the range of monthly catches. 60
Figure 14. Weekly CPUE of skipjack tuna (a, b), hairtail fish (c, d), rabbitfish (e, f) and yellowfin horse mackerel (g, h) dominated in the set-net fishery (triangles) with satellite-derived SST (circles) from January to March, 2006~2010 (left panels) and 2008 (right panels). 61
Figure 15. The monthly mean sst difference maps to 15-year average for (a) January, (b) February and (c) March 1996, respectively. 62
Figure 16. The monthly mean sst difference maps to 15-year average for (a) December 2010, (b) January, (c) February, and (d) March 2011, respectively. 63
Figure 17. The wind direction for taiwan strait before and after the cold water intrusion event between 2008 and 2011 year. 64
Figure 18. The Penghu weather station wind speed and direction from Jan. to Feb. during 2008 and 2011 year. 65
Figure 19 Time series of CTD temperature variations at 5m depth of Gupo, Cib and Chimei in Penghu during the period of Dec. 1, 2010 to Feb. 28, 2011. 66
Figure 20 Times series of temperature variations in the coastal waters of 5 different villages around Penghu during the cold water intrusion event, 2008(Cited from Su et al., 2008 in Chinese). 67
Figure 21 Time series of sea surface temperature and wind speed variation during the period of Jan. 1 to Feb. 28, 2007~2011. 68
Figure 22 Time series of sea surface temperature during the cold water intrusion periods, 2008 and 2011. The black line indicate the critical thermal minimum (16.3℃) for reef fish (Mora and Opsina 2002). 69
Figure 23 The satellite-derived SST images and current with water temperature at depth of 20m simulated by hycom model and wind speed before and after the cold water intrusion event. Use model to simulate and satellite images. 70
Figure 24 The 8 families of fish losses after the cold water intrusion event around penghu islands(Cited from Su et al., 2008 in Chinese). 71
Figure 25 The number of regional fish species comparison around penghu islands between 1993 and 2008~2009(Cited from Su et al., 2008 in Chinese). 72
Figure 26 The distance of 20℃ isotherm referring to PHI and the wind speed from 1996 to 2011. 73
Figure 27 The movements of distance of 20℃ isotherm referring to PHI and the wind speed. 74


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