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研究生:游瑞菁
研究生(外文):Jui-ching Yu
論文名稱:遊戲介入自閉症兒童社會參照成效之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Play Intervention on Social Referencing for Children with Autism
指導教授:楊宗仁楊宗仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsung-Ren Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北教育大學
系所名稱:特殊教育學系碩士班
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:社會參照自閉症遊戲
外文關鍵詞:social referencingautismplay
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遊戲介入自閉症兒童社會參照成效之研究
本研究旨在探討遊戲介入學齡前自閉症兒童社會參照表現之成效。研究對象為三名年齡為6歲0月、4歲7月及3歲8月大的幼稚園特教班自閉症兒童。研究方法採單一受試跨行為多探試研究設計,自變項為社會參照遊戲,依變項為動作參照、表情參照及眼神參照表現通過之百分比。本研究之主要發現如下:
1.遊戲結合提示與增強策略,對學齡前自閉症兒童的動作參照、表情參照及眼神參照有立即的學習成效。亦即經介入後,三位受試者皆能展現良好的動作參照、表情參照及眼神參照的行為。
2.三位受試者在社會參照表現的學習成效能於維持期展現良好的保留成效。
3.關於本研究介入對學齡前自閉症兒童在日常生活中的社會參照表現,家長及老師皆 給予肯定的回饋。
A Study of Play Intervention on Social Referencing for Children with Autism

This study investigated the efficacy of play intervention on social referencing for children with autism. Three preschool children with autism participated in this study. A multiple probes design across behaviors of single-subject experimental design was implemented. The independent variable was social referencing games, and the the dependent variables were the percentage of social referencing performance. The consequences of the study were as follows:
1) social referencing intervention increased the percentage of gesture referencing, emotional referencing and gaze referencing behavior of the three participants.
2) the manintance of the intervention were examined and all participants referenced the experimenter frequently when needed.
3) Social validity examined by interviewing with and collecting questionnaires from parents and teachers. All the parents and teachers of the participants had positive feedback on the study.
目 錄
謝誌 I
摘 要 II
目 錄 IV
表 次 VI
圖 次 VI
附 錄 次 VIII
第一章 緒論1
第一節 研究背景與動機1
第二節 研究目的與待答問題 5
第三節 名詞釋義 5
第二章 文獻探討 8
第一節 探討社會參照的定義 8
第二節 兒童社會參照能力的發展13
第三節 遊戲活動介入自閉症兒童30
第三章 研究方法 42
第一節 研究程序 42
第二節 研究對象 48
第三節 研究設計 51
第四節 遊戲活動設計58
第五節 研究工具 68
第六節 資料處理與分析70
第四章 結果與討論 75
第一節 目視分析 75
第二節 社會效度分析93
第三節 綜合討論 101
第五章 結論與建議 111
第一節 結論 111
第二節 研究限制 113
第三節 建議 114
參考文獻 117
中文文獻 117
英文文獻 118

表 次
表3-1 三位受試者之基本資料48
表3-2 專家學者諮詢名單 69
表 3-3 觀察者間一致性 71
表 4-1 小兔階段內資料分析 79
表 4-2 小兔階段間資料分析 80
表 4-3 小幼階段內資料分析 85
表 4-4 小幼階段間資料分析 86
表 4-5 小瑞階段內資料分析 91
表 4-6 小瑞階段間資料分析 92
表4-7 介入前、後社會參照檢核表變化情形 93
表 4-8 三位受試者在動作參照階段進步情形 102
表 4-9 三位受試者在表情參照階段進步情形 103
表 4-10 三位受試者在眼神參照階段進步情形 105
圖 次
圖 3-1 研究流程圖 42
圖 3-2 介入情境圖 53
圖 3-3 跨行為多探試研究設計54
圖 3-4 研究架構圖 55
圖3-5 遊戲介入流程59
圖 3-6 目標行為一:動作參照介入流程圖65
圖 3-7 目標行為二:表情參照介入流程圖66
圖 3-8 目標行為三:眼神參照介入流程圖67
圖 4-1 小兔社會參照表現百分比曲線 78
圖 4-2 小幼社會參照表現百分比曲線 84
圖 4-3 小瑞社會參照表現百分比曲線 90
圖 4-4 小兔社會參照檢核表介入前、後進步曲線 96
圖 4-5 小幼社會參照檢核表介入前、後進步曲線 98
圖 4-6 小瑞社會參照檢核表介入前、後進步曲線 100
圖 4-7 三位受試之動作參照曲線圖比較 103
圖 4-8 三位受試之表情參照曲線圖比較 104
圖 4-9 三位受試之眼神參照曲線圖比較 106

附 錄 次
附錄一 家長同意書 123
附錄二 研究對象初篩檢核表 124
附錄三 社會參照表現觀察表 125
附錄四 社會參照表現檢核表 126
附錄五 增強物調查表 129
附錄六 遊戲活動器材 130
附錄七 教學檢核表 132
附錄八 研究日誌 133
附錄九 家長回饋訪談大綱 134
附錄十 教師回饋訪談大綱 136
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